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A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghanistan's Endless War
Bartered Brides
Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Inside Bin Laden
Taliban
The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan

                                     Mullah Amir Khan Mottaqi, the Taliban’s
acting minister of culture and information, stated Kabul’s position:
As required, the Islamic Emirate [of Afghanistan] has fulfilled its respon-
sibility in relation to Osama bin Laden.
	Inside Bin Laden

London: Amnesty International 357 tutz, J. B. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Finally, this bibliography is mainly prepared with the social scientist in mind. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
XII, 334p; X, 352p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
H 263~ I 264 3198 Person, H., 1939, The hero of Delhi’: a life of John 3199 Punjab Record Office, 1942, Sir William Macnaughton, a 3200 Rawlinson, G., 1898, A memoir of Major—General Sir 3201 Rechtia, S.K., 1955, La vie de Lord Roberts, 3202 Roberts, F. 5., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1970, p.1—32. 267 268 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 3251 Castagne, J., 1932, Notes sur i’Afghanistan: poètes 3252 Centlivres, P., 1976, L’histoire récente de l’Afghan— 3253 Ackermann, K., 1965, Stille Revolution in Afghanistan, 3254 Berg, H.W.von, and Bonn, G., 1978, Afghanistan — 3255 Cervin, V., 1952, Problems in the integration of the 3256 Charpentier, C.J., 1979, One year after the Saur — 3257 Christensen, J., 1926, The new Afghanistan, Moslem 3258 Croze, J.B.de, 1947, Afghanistan today, Journal of the 3259 Cumming—Bruce, N., 1978, Lack of clear direction feeds 3260 Dawud, S.M. and Eisenhower, D.D., 1958, Afghanistan, 3261 Deming, A., 1978, Kabul’s bloody coup, Newsweek, 91, 3262 Deming, A. and Came B., 1978, After Kabul’s coup 3263 Dharia, M., 1977, Call for review of Kabul Declaration afghans. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
States Agency for International Development, 1967, Recommended practices for improved wheat production, Kabul, Ministry of Agriculture and USAID, 1967, 2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, USOM, 1962, 2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
525 526 6416 Muhyddin, G.H., n.d., Suggested program for one 6417 Nakata, S., 1965, Mission (June 1963 — Dec 1964) 6418 Nelson, E.M., 1961, Extension demonstration, Kabul, 6419 Nelson, E.M., 1962, Memorandum, July 25, 1962 (Re 6420 Nelson, E.M., 1963, Proposals for an Afghanistan 6421 Nelson, E.M., 1963, End of tour report, Nov. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, p.7—i8. 561 562 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 6853 Boxer, E.H.S., 1900, One thousand Pushtu idioms and 6854 Breshna, A.G., 1970, Haji Mirwais Khan, an historical 6855 Coon, C.S., 1951—52, Caravan, the story of the Middle 6856 Dames, M.L., 1907, Popular poetry of the Baloches, 6857 Deny, J., n.d., Légendes Musulmanes relatives aux 6858 Dianous, H—J. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1981,- Afghanistan - one 7209 Nayar, K., 1980, Report on Afghanistan, 7210 Neal, F.W., 1980, Afghanistan — A created crisis, 7211 7212 NewaU, R.S., 1981, International responses to the 7213 Newman, J.M., 1980, Soviet strategy in Asia, 1977— 7214 Noller, J.F., 1980, Soviet intervention in Afghanistan 7215 Oliver, R., 1980, Afghanistan: Ia revolution par~le ~ç - 7216 Oliver, R., 1980—81, Afghanistan: La guerre des - 7217 Pachter, H., 1980, After Afghanistan — Round Three, Afghanistan, Aussen Politik, 31/3, 1980, p.260—282. - and the 26th party conferences of the Communist party of the Soviet Union. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
The sudden death of the top person of the new dynasty did not create chaos, although a number of pro-Amanullah, constitutionalist, and anti-British radical Afghans known as the “Young Afghans” had carried out terroristic attacks against its members for some time (one had killed the eldest brother of the late king). Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Pre- L mier Daoud had set as one of his principal tasks the settlement of the Pashtunistan issue. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
One such interference led to the downfall in October 1965 of the first government, headed by Premier Mohammad Yusuf, an ominous beginning. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Prisoners of the previous regime were released, and no one could be imprisoned before being tried as law required. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Though suppressed, the uprising disillusioned Daoud about his comradeship with the communists and his policies in general. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Before Amin became the head of state, the Khalqi government had spent more than one bil- lion afghanis (approximately $20 million) to repair the palace and make it a suitable seat for his predecessor, Nur Mohammad Taraki. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
The scene of the major operations was on the ground. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
The rocket attack was the external sign of the operations. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Being influ- ential with the army, they had turned against Amin when, in September of the same year, a split in the leadership occurred that led to their expul- sion. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
At the time of the attack Amin was conscious but groggy. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
One version is that Amin said the attackers might be the Ikhwanis, that is, the Muslim fundamentalists who are the irreconcilable enemies of the communists. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Sarwari and Gulab- zoy have been quoted as saying that before they entered the palace Amin was already dead, killed either by soldiers under their command or by his own hand.9 Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Since he was its first president, and since the incumbent, Asadullah Amin, nephew and son-in-law of President Amin, was in Moscow at the time, Sarwari fulfilled his mis- sion. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Abdul Sattar, commander of the Qargha Division, at first was unwilling to submit. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
For Amin, this theory had practical implications. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
In this connection a story was told that is ap- parently unbelievable. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Amin’s assertiveness appeared in more than one form. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
The Soviet response is not known. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
At the same time Amin began to remove pro-Soviet officials from sensitive positions and recruited Western-educated Afghans to higher positions. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
By “military aid” Amin meant military weapons. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
First, “cooperation in the military field” is a vague phrase that may or may not be taken to mean the dispatch of troops by one con- tracting party to the assistance of another. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
The treaty reads in part, “In the interests of strengthening the defense capacity of the high contracting parties, they shall continue to develop cooperation in the military field on the basis of appropriate agreements concluded between them.” Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Also, in ordinary language the phrase “armed interference from the outside” means interference by one country in the internal affairs of another—in the present case, in the internal affairs of Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
The Afghans had yet to learn the saying about the Russians: they think one thing, say something else, and do yet another. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
One reason for this lack of sympathy was the linguistic and social integration that the society had undergone with improvements in the system of transportation, particularly after the opening of the Salang tunnel in 1965, when the northern and south- ern regions were brought closer. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Besides, the exploiters were not only Pashtun officials but all officials, since the bu- reaucracy—particularly after the spread of modern free education—was open to all ethnic groups. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
The Parchamis described themselves as revolu- tionaries opposed to the cult of individualism and in favor of alliance not only with workers and peasants but also with national patriotic forces. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
The Parcham faction became a partner in the new republic. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
In one of the politburo meetings he put forward this suggestion. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
ready he had complained in vain to Taraki that “since no one seemed to accept his authority as the nation’s second in command” he wished to resign and “devote himself to development of modifications of the PDPA’s strategy and tactics to suit the present condition?’2’ Amin’s re- sponse was prompt. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Indeed, Karmal had no choice. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Some claimed that Karma! Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
KARMAL AS A RULER Karmal’s immediate problems were within the party~ He was the chosen man of the Kremlin, and no one within the party could openly oppose him. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
According to one of these stories, he entered Afghanistan “through revolutionary pathways” and along.with Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
On 2.2. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982
Edward Girardet has based AFGFL4NISTAN.~ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Curiously, tribesmen on both sides of the 1893 Durand Line, the arbitrary boundary drawn by British colonial administrator Sir Mortimer Durand which divides Afghanistan and present-day Pakistan, today still harbour a sense of fond esteem for the Englishman. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the diffused moonlight, one can distinguish the silhouetted saw- toothed peaks of the mountains, the irrigated wheat fields and the willow and walnut trees which line the narrow track as it tapers into the distance like a long white ribbon. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
No one speaks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As the day wears on, the sun beats down with growing intensitY. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Huge, sinister ravens croak hoarsely from its craggy parapets, and just overhead, a lone eagle grace- fully soars on the rising and plunging air currents. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Perhaps most poignant of all is Afghanistan’s dramatic refugee exodus, the largest in the world. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Trucks, buses and cars would often depart in convoy accompanied by armoured vehicles; but ambushes still occurred. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It is not meant to be a scholarly thesis. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Another drawback is that any attempt to gain a credible impression of what is happening in one particular region means an often physically gruelling journey ‘inside’, lasting at least three or four weeks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A bombardment, government infiltration of a resistance group or the death of a commander can transform the situation of a particular zone in a matter of days or weeks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Bearing this in mind, I have tried to put together a picture, one among many, of the Afghan conflict based on my own reporting, the reporting of other journalists, testimony from the French doctors, and interviews with diplomats, relief agency representatives, Afghan government defectors, resistance sources and refugees: I have also made liberal use of thousands of newspaper cuttings and other documents. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Victims of what I consider to be a brutal and colonialist form of repression by the Soviets, the Afghan people have all my sympathy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As a journalist and fellow human being who has lived, travelled and shared common experiences with the Afghan resistance, it would be dis. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Th Soviet Invasion In one case, Soviet advisers told soldiers guarding the strategically vital Kabul radio station with twenty tanks that these were to be replaced by newer models Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Atone base, the Soviets duped the Afghan commanders into carry- ing out inventories of ‘faulty’ ammunition, which meant taking out all the shells, while at Pul.e..Charkh Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Ony a few minor incidents were reported, with sections of at least one Afghan army battalion and two brigades defecting with light weapons to the rebels Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Curiously, as late as 26 December, President Amin showed no indi- cation of recognising what the Soviets were up to. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During an elabor- ately planned banquet, Amin was drugged by his Russian cooks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
If the testimony of Major Vladimir Kuzichkin, an alleged KGB defector, is to be believed the Soviets had no intention of taking the Khalqi presi- dent alive. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Here it split in two, with one part of the force swinging towards Faizabad in Badakshafl province, where the guerrillas controlled much of the countryside. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By eight o’clock, half an hour before the curfew, the town was empty. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
No one had actually seen the invaders, but fantastic rumours of Coniinunst executions, rape, looting and other atrocities had spread. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Under Taraki, the communists had changed the national flag to one more like that of a Soviet Central Asian republic than of a supposedly independent, non.aligned Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On ransport plane after another droned in from the north, while just outside the airport, tanks, BMD and BMP armoured vehicles of the 66th Motorised Division moved into position Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Reports of stern fighting in the streets of Jalalabad, formerly one of Afghanistan’s most important Buddhist sanctuaries before it was ravaged by the Hephtalite Huns at the end of the fifth century, proved false when Western correspondents found the bazaars teeming with merchants, farmers, mountain tribesmen, nomads and travellers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Only Afghan askari carrying Ak-47 Kalashnikova could be seen on duty at bridges and crossroads, if, as one British reporter noted, that is the correct turn of phrase to describe dozing on a chair in the sun. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, because of the harsh winter coitditionS, resistance was less intense than during the previous summer months. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of these included Gen- eral Alexei Yepishev, political commissar of the Red Army and a significant figure behind the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, who recommended a substantial increase in military aid and advisers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although officially headed by Taraki, a 62~year~0ld fa- therly figure described by one Western diplomat as ‘the respectable element in the Kabul regime’s the Khalqi admiflstratbon had become steadily more barbarous under the influence of Amin, who took over the premiershiP in March 1979. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Herat uprising dramatically signalled a fresh iflfUSiOfl of Mos- cow~sponso1~d military hardware. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As one senior American diplomat noted: ‘Amin had Brezhnev’s build, but with Tito’s mind and ambitions’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Such actions, coupled with the danger that the government might fall to the Islamic rebels, only speeded up preparations to get rid of him. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Mujahed activity was now running strongly in twenty-two provinces and the Soviets could scarcely disguise their contempt for the ineptitude of the Afghan army. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As far as can be determined, the Politburo was in two minds as to how best to deal with the Afghan problem. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The annexation of Central Asia by the Bolsheviks in the early 1920s effec- tively demonstrated that the new Russia had no intention of altering this policy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Most critical of all, in one fell swoop, the Soviets eliminated Afghan- istan’s traditional buffer role between the USSR and what was once British India. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On the one hand, Pakistan suddenly found itself under pressure on two fronts: Soviet troops to the West, Indians to the East. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
LastlY, Afganistan's not inconsiderable natural resources may have contributed towards encouraging a direct takeover. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Since the 'Saur' revolu- tion, Moscow’s exploitation of Afghanistan’s resources has amounted to nothing less than ecnomic pillage; with the invasion, the Soviets secured a completely free hand. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In general, each ground division consists of three infantry regiments, one tank and one artillery regiment, while the 105th is comprised of six paratroop regiments as well as an artillery one. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Within months, the Soviets had brought in the equivalent of seven motorised rifle divisions plus the 105th Airborne — a total of some 85,000 troops. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Kunar refugees in Pakistan later made the fIrst reference to Soviet use of chemicals and toxins in Afghanistan by describing ‘gases’ which made one cry or laugh hystericallY or which painfully irritated the skin. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘it burned the body badly’, explained one man at a camp in the Bajaur Tribal Agency just across the frontier. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It has made use of Afghanistan as a ‘live’ testing ground, the results of which (notably helicopter gunship skills) have already made themselves apparent among its forces in Eastern Europe. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As far as we could tell, they made no effort to go beyond the airbase perimeter or to ambush the supply route, one of the most important in the country, that was passing right under their noses. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Furthermore, while American bases in Vietnam were normally lit up at night by dozens of parachute flares, only the occa- sional red or white one would arch up into the sky, glow brightly for twenty seconds and then fizzle out causing a’ temporary blindness which seemed worse than remaining in total darkness. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One possible reason for this reluctance to send out patrols was the likelihood of heavy casualties such as occurred in Indochina. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In one incident in July, 1983, Soviet troops and tanks succeeded at night in ambushing a major resistance convoy, including a small group of French doctors and Western journalists, in exactly the spot where Dowell and I had passed without difficulty a year earlier. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In July 1980, no fewer than 60 villageS were destroyed during a two-week operation south of Kabul. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Provoking conditions that would force the population Nevertheless, one striking drawback, still remains: the inability of Unable systematicallY to root out and destroy guerrilla groups exodus to continue so as to deny local support to the resistance there- fore remained an essential element of this policy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One current method is deliberately to lull areas into a false sense of 41 42 The Soviet Strategy security, and then to attack. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the late autumn of 1980, the Kabul regime announced a series of jointoviet-Afghan ground and air ‘mano- euvres’ in several northern provinces.oviet-Afghan ground and air ‘mano- euvres’ in several northern provinces Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While less protected Mi-8s were being brought down by guerrilla fire, even sprays of Kalashnikov bullets, the Hinds could fly with relative impunitY- Only by the third year of occupation, did one begin to see occasional evidence of Mi-24s being knocked out by the mujahideen. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During one nasty confrontation not far from Shindand airbase in June, Staale Gundhur, a young Norwegian freelance cameraman, was killed. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Two Afghans, a guerrilla and a farmer, were apparently also captured, beheaded and then burned. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At least one truck loaded with soldiers was blown up by a mine, while guerrillas destroyed half a dozen armoured vehicles using RPG-7 rocket launchers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In one minor but revealing incident, Dupaigne’s bus overtook a Russian truck along the Salang Highway. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Similar complaints have been voiced by Ethiopians, Angolans and Egyptians who, at one time or another, have dealt with Soviet advisers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The former Afghan army major, a defector to the resistance in Nangrahar province during the early days of communist rule, was evidently one of those high-spirited tribal chieftains who tolerated peace but thrived on war. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Owing allegiance to the Hezb-i-Islami (Youths Khales faction), one of the half dozen Peshawar-based resistance organ- isations, he was in command of 70 men. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Now and again, one of his lieutenants would venture up to him. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The chief, his hands planted firmly on his knees, would listen gravely before bellowing forth yet another command. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One guerrilla affectionately polished a single grenade, carelessly unscrewing the detonator, cleaning it and then putting it back. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Attacking the Russians was obviously considered a big lark and no one wanted to miss the fun. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Their weapons ready, the men first gathered at dusk for prayer in the garden before sitting down for dinner, a simple but sufficient spread of nan, rice pilau with ~ S1~ ~‘, ~ ~~~$eti~ ~ I The Guerrilla War mutton and vegetable gormah. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Through the trees on the other side of the river, now a mere stream toying its way through the stony riverbed, one could trace their progress by their shouts of ‘Allah o Akbar’ (God is Great) and the relays of barking dogs. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Separately, they are known as the ‘fundamentalists’ and the ‘moderates’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
turned for support, numerous independent and minor parties, some of them specialising in urban guerrilla warfare, others in relief operations both inside and outside the country, sprang up before and after the invasion. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The third organisation, the Harakat-e islami, which commands considerable support in the Kandahar and Mazari-Sharif regions and parts of the Hazarajat, acts as an alternative to the Shura and the Khomeinists. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Only one fighter in ten could boast a proper weapon; an Enfield .303 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One French photographer visiting northern Afghanistan in late 1982 witnessed the takeover of the main mosque in Mazari-Sharif where • ~ti Despite strict government security, foreign observers touring with the mujahideen used the building’s loudspeaker system to broadcast to the local population. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, they can still do little to halt the security forces from taking temporary control of their The Guerrilla War villages and valleys. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Government supply trucks can only travel in convoy, sandwiched between armoured vehicles at either end while helicopters patrol inces- santly overhead. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But even such precautions cannot protect them from attack. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
in certain areas, they have deliberately maintained fortified outposts (manned by Afghan troops or militia, perhaps with one or two Soviet advisers) well away from the towns and in locations of no military importance whatsoever. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This strategy has begun to falter, however, as partisan fronts concentrate their efforts on strategically important targets such as air bases, am- munition depots and urban installations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At the same time, the regime has shown itself unable to protect its supporters who have come under pressure. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘But it was still traumatic’, he said. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘One can well imagine the effect when men, women and children have to flee to safety under cover of darkness. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But the method of distribution remains a faulty one. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Most have undergone only superficial military training, in view of government efforts to send them to the ‘front’ as soon as possible. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In one incident Pushtun, tribesmen tried to shell a military outpost with mortars. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As with similar (non-Pushtun) politically-run groups, they have greater freedom to operate over large areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, there are other Pushtun commanders who have achieved national repute. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Heavy guns from destroyed heli- copters, tanks and armoured personnel carriers are immediately dis- mantled and carried back. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Helicopter rocket pods have been transformed into rocket launchers, while, in one case, guerrillas stripped down a four-barrel ZPU-4 gun to turn it into four separate weapons. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At one hidden mujahed base in the Panjshair, I was shown a rocket pod which normally holds 32 missiles. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Even though we control almost all the countryside, we must show them and their followers that they are not secure even in the capital.’ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
atmo- sphere in Kabul has become one of nervousness and fear among party members’, declared Haji Safert Mir, a former Tourist Office guide now working with the Panjshair resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The killers would then disappear into the bazaars or side streets on the backs of motorcycles or in stolen yellow taxis. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At the same time, special hit squads regularly assassinated govern- ment officials or well-known personalities collaborating with the Russians. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of them, the Group-e Mujadeddin-e-azad (Group of Independent Mujahi. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Because of the tightening of security, however, such urban guerrilla The Resistance Fronts organisations have been finding it more difficult to operate. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to one British journalist who accompanied him on an attack on a military barracks near PuI-e-Charkhi, Rafiq was engaged in four different types of guerrilla warfare. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Towards, the end of November, 1983, guerrillas launched a night attack on the Kabul Polytechnic, destroying at least one tank and causing several Soviet casualties. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Profile of a Guerrilla Front During the first three years of occupation, certainly the most assertive of all the guerrilla fronts to come to the attention of outside observers was the strategic Panjshair Valley. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Seventy miles long and 7,000 feet high, the Pan- jshair (circa 90,000 — 100,000 inhabitants in 1980) is a garden valley of mud and stone villages surrounded by terraced wheat fields, vineyards, fruit orchards and thick mulberry groves. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
All in their teens and twenties, many moutariks, with long hair, remind one of the weathered Cuban guerrillas of old Life magazine photographs. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Kabul residents, who secretly followed events in the Panjshair with enthusiasm, jokingly referred to the Panjshair as one of the world’s three superpowers after the United States and the Soviet Union. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For a week preceding the offensive, Soviet aircraft, some of them flying sorties from bases inside the USSR, pounded one village after another with bombs and rockets. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The rapid occupation of the Panjshair suggested a well-performed textbook operation. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Next to them, in well-ordered lines, giant self-propelled howitzers pointed menacingly in our direction. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Afghans, however, were not the only ones to defect. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Over a single one-hour period, I counted no less than 60 heli- copters passing overhead, the majority of them Mi-24s and Mi-8 assault craft. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By establishing a truce with Massoud, the Soviets were hoping to achieve at least two objectives. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the reasons why the Russians did not consider it pertinent to establish a party in Kabul, or, as had been planned, a forward propaganda base for Indian nationalists, was to avoid invoking the wrath of the British. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The spiritual heir of the ‘Young Afghans,’ it followed nostalgically in the footsteps of King Amanullah by attracting educated, mainly young Pushtun progressives. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the first poiitical-intellectual movements to appear after the The Russians were quick to encourage such sentiments. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When Daoud, who wanted to ensure his country’s continued non-alignment, refused to join the Baghdad Pact (later the Central Treaty Organisation — CENTO) with Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Britain and the United States, the Americans opted for the Pakistanis (also a member of the South-East Asia Treaty Organisation — SEATO) to whom they Soviet Influence in Afghanistan regularly supplied weapons and other forms of support. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Moscow was absorbing roughly 40 per cent of Afghanistan’s exports. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the reasons behind this was the fact that Afghanistan’s traditional tribal, ethnic and religious leaders, less than a third of whom could read and write, had recognised the advantages of sitting in parliament and therefore participated in the polls with vigour. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Rift Within the Party Formally starting off as one party, the PDPA did not split publicly into separate Khalq and Parcham factions until 1967. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One government followed another, and the King refused to devolve the necessary con- stitutional powers which might have calmed the situation. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By edging closer to the Shah, he managed to secure a $1 billion aid offer only one year after the coup; the Shah, who was seeking to create a pan-Islamic Union of non-Arab nations stretching from Turkey to Pakistan soon raised it to $2 billion, more than all of Afghanistan’s foreign assistance over the previous two decades. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The renewed relationship was a pre- carious and temporary one. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Moscow also promised to provide more than $1 billion worth of economic aid over the next five years. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the first to go (to Iran) was Dr Najib, or Najibullah. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It was Friday 20 April 1979, almost one year after the launching of the Saur Revolution.A Afghanistan: The Soviet War
slow-moving column of government tanks and armoured personnel carriers rumbled up the eroded dirt road toward the small mud and stone town in Afghanistan’s eastern Kunar province. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The townspeople quietly watched the approaching force. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘The government soldiers were very annoyed about the mujahed at- tacks’, said Khalil Ullah, a teacher and one of the male survivors. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nabi turned away anyway and started to hurry toward the mosque. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Behind them stood the Afghan soldiers with their rifles cocked; several of the Soviet advisers including the senior officer placed themselves to the rear. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Suddenly, a military helicopter emerged from beyond the river and hovered over the field, throwing up dust and blowing the men’s hair in their faces. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A senior Soviet adviser, a dark blond, green-eyed Slav, who was known to some of the inhabitants from previous visits to the town, The Communist Overlay conversed rapidly by field radio with the helicopter. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Kerala was also one of the first clear indications that Soviet military and political advisers were involved in such practices designed to prop up the Khalqi dictatorship. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
No one can ever know how many Afghans have died in bombard- ments, military assaults, executions, imprisonment and other forms of repression since the communist takeover in 1978. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The figure of several hundred thousand victims appears to be a reasonable estimate although some sources maintain that as many as one million people have suc- cumbed to the repression. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
What they were in fact doing was attacking traditional village spokesmen. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Who- ever contributes one of these elements theoretically receives one-fifth of the resulting crop. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A steady stream of followers entered the hut to consult with their chief. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
An aristocratic, finely featured man in his mid-fifties with a mag- nificently groomed beared, he listened quietly to their problems one by one, dispensing advice with the air of a Solomon. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One farmer wanted to know whether it was better for him to send his family to Pakistan- Another wanted permission to go to Dulbandin across the border to buy supplies. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Kunar witnessed its first anti-communist revolt in March 1979. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One Western development worker, taken for a Russian because of his blond hair and blue eyes, was almost hacked to death; only the opportune intervention of an Afghan friend in the crowd saved his life. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Instead, both leaders regarded repression as the only means to crack down on dissent. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By one o’clock, the insurgents, now armed with captured tanks and heavy weapons, sought to leave the fort’s precincts and join up with the population outside. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the three months of A.min’s rule, security crumbled even further. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Magic Bus Company in Amsterdam, one of the last tour operators on the overland ‘hippy’ route to India via Afghanistan, was attacked in the southern part of the country; a Swiss and a Canadian were shot dead and an Australian seriously injured as bullets fired by unseen gunmen The guerrillas were becoming less selective in their attacks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In one incident, a vehicle of the 119 120 The Communist Overlay from the surrounding rocks ripped through the windows. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The international community in the Afghan capital was pulling out or reducing its diplomatic and development operations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘I’m clean’, one pilot announced with a shrug, ‘I can leave anytime’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
We just want to get the hell out of here’, said one co-ordinator. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘We often used to see them in the corridors’, said one former political inmate, a univer- sity professor released during the Babrak amnesty. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
His comprehensive report referred ex- plicitly to atrocities that occurred both before, during and immediately after the invasion - One of those interviewed was Abdullah Osman, a former professor from the Kabul medical faculty, who was arrested in November 1979 during the Amin regime and released in the Babrak amnesty. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
He spoke of regular executions of prisoners at Pul-e-Charkhi. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to testimony, a list was always put up on the wall of those to be taken away for execution. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Prisoners were also murdered by being thrown into the prison cess pools. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As with many other totalitarian regimes, the in- ternment or intimidation of citizens by the secret service is only one aspect of the regime’s contrivance to crush internal opposition. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As Amnesty International pointed out in its November, 1984 report on human rights violations, war condi- tions and the Afghan governments’ continued denial of access to in- ternational humanitarian organisations and most of the world press have hampered the collection of information and the verification of these allegations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Torture and Defiance The threat of the knock at the door or the street sweep remains a constant concern for Afghans living in the Soviet-occupied zones. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One victim, Farida Ahmadi, a fourth year medical student from Kabul, was arrested for distributing anti-Soviet tracts and then released after several months of often brutal interrogation. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Towards the end, she explained, when the women could not break her, male torturers including a Russian were brought in. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Later that year, the Padkhwab-e-Shana massacre, also in Logar pro. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to both the witnesses and the commission findings, A cistern truck, probably containing petrol, was brought in and a hose inserted into one of the irrigation system openings. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘When they were sure that no one was alive in the canal, they all an applauding and then left the village’, said Sayed Mortaza, the local mullah.an applauding and then left the village’, said Sayed Mortaza, the local mullah Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At a press conference in Decem- ber 1982 in Paris, visiting Foreign Ministry officials from Kabul insisted that such reports were totally unfounded even when they were con- fronted by Western journalists, including myself, who had witnessed government operations against civilians. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As for the ‘so-called KHAD’, one Information Ministry official (who, as it later turned out, had inter- rogated a captured French reporter in 1981 for the KHAD) tried to convince two French journalists filming in Kabul at the turn of the year 1983/84 that the existence of such an organisation was a figment of the imagination. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As one mujahed commander complained: ‘in some areas, KHAD agents have rendered mujahed groups completely useless by getting them to fight among themselves. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Faced with growing casualties, defections, political distrust and poor morale, the army and all other security organisations were to be brought under strict party control. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
More often than The Communist Overlay not, however, the relationship iS one of declared neutrality or a coll- aboration of convenience rather than committed political alignment. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
to prevent government approaches to the tribes from coming to anything. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Either way, the resistance has benefitted. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By the end of the year, despite increased conscription efforts, it had plummeted to a mere 25,000. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
They all complained of being press ganged off the streets and into the army, where they received between one and two months basic training before being sent to the front. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Another drawback is the poor training of recruits and the lack of qualified officers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Afghan leadership visits the USSR and other Warsaw Pact The Sovietisation of Afghanistan countries regularly, often staying away for long periods at a time. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the first such bodies was the Afghan-Soviet Friendship Society. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘The Russians are probably just as informed, if not more, as the old British Central Asia and frontier hands who knew every Afghan characteristic right down to the last detail’, said one Western regional specialist. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In one case in Kabul, a young boy and his mother were stopped at a roadblock by militiamen in search of con- 141 142 The Sovietisation of Afghanistan scripts. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
he other convinced an officer that he was under fourteen.other convinced an officer that he was under fourteen Afghanistan: The Soviet War
ice-in-charge took his documents and tore them up in front of him and then took him by force to a nearby military enrolment office.-in-charge took his documents and tore them up in front of him and then took him by force to a nearby military enrolment office Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to most informed sources, regular instruction in the senior classes no longer exists. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to the student, some of their number finally agreed to go to one such fictitious college at Charikar, just north of the capital. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The remaining non-communist Europeans, who avoid discussing politics in class, necessarily restrain their association with Afghans. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One former student- teacher said: There was little to learn in these courses. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At one point, the Kremlin tried with UNESCO acquiescence to swamp one of its adult education programmes by sending 18 Soviet instructors to fill the salaried posts of six teachers designated by the Paris agency. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Aluned Kasim Zariffa, an Afghan student mechanic, was arrested in Moscow by the KGB four months after the invasion and never seen again. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As one senior Paris-based Soviet diplomat, later expelled by the French government for spying, told me: ‘It is necessary to create a 147 148 The Sovietisation of Afghanistan properly indoctrinated young generation to lead a progressive, new Afghanistan.’ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the main organisations involved is the KHAD-directed ‘Waltan Palanzai’, an educational estab- lishment designed to give both war orphans and the children of party officials a firm grounding in Marxism-Leninism. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Come and let me rise. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But this also came under the axe when the Soviets ordered the film to be substituted by a Russian one. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At one gathering in December 1983 outside the US embassy which was elaborately ‘guarded’ by visored riot police, shouting party mili- tants carried uniformly painted signs (all carefully collected at the end of the demonstration) with anti-American slogans condemning Washin- ton’s ‘imperialist occupation’ of Grenada. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘The Americans are at home, and we are here’, was the equivocal answer of one man. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘On the whole, if you relied on the government press’, 151 152 The Sovietisation of Afghanistan said one student, ‘you would never know what was going on’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘They only told us what they thought we needed to know’, said one senior engineer, who joined the resistance at the end of 1981. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By the time of the 1978 communist takeover, the Soviets had amassed vast amounts of excellent geological information about Afghan mineral resources. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
If the Soviet Union’s one-sided exploitation of the irrigation of water supplies belonging to the two nations is anything to go by, a fair distri. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Natural gas exploitation in Afghanistan is certainly one of the most striking examples of economic misappropriation by the Kremlin. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At the start, Moscow paid less than one fifth of the world commercial price, taking advantage of Afghanistan’s logistical inability to export it else- where. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Originally, 20 per cent of Afghanistan’s natural gas production from 1974 onwards was destined to be used in Afghan fertiliser and thermal The Sovietisation of Afghanistan plants in the north; the rest was pumped through to the Soviet Union. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
billion, less than a quarter of what the accords had predicted. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In Sep- tember that year, Prime Minister Sultan Ali Keshtmand announced ‘economic success’ in surpassing the 1980 production of 1.2 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghanistan is one of the few countries in the world without a railway system, resulting from the fact that it was never colonised. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Over the same period, per capita income dropped from $114.60 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With agriculture, the situation is no different. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A contingent of some one hundred men accompanied by forty heavily loaded packhorses, the guerrillas had chosen to cross a wide section of the river where the current seemed least treacherous. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It was still strong enough to throw the animals plunging and thrashing into the flow, while the men, water up to their chests, could only traverse in 162 ‘1 am unhappy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Practically every man had lost at least one relative in the war and no doubt wondered whether he would find his loved ones safe, his home intact. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The mere fact that as many as five million Afghans, between a quarter and a third of the population, have been wrenched from their homelands and obliged to seek refuge abroad by the end of 1984 is one of the most tragic manifestations of this terror. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Even in war people must continue living’, noted one resistance commander from Kabul, ‘If the mujahideen 165 166 The Afghan Struggle can offer nothing, there is no doubt that the communists will do every- thing to fill the gap if they know it will break us. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Three months before the Soviet invasion, Peshawar exuded the atmosphere of a den of spies. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
To meet them, one had to make discreet telephone calls and then slip off for inter- views, pointedly not looking at the police as one left. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At that time, the Afghan political exiles had their party headquarters tucked away in the narrow sidestreets of the bazaars. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The sudden surge of world interest, soon to be followed by a perpetual stream of relief officials, diplomats and foreign digni- taries touring the refugee camps, saved the Khyber Intercontinental Hotel from bankruptcy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
osely connected with the Muslim Hekmatyar is reverently referred to as 'Engineer' by his followers, as are many Afghans with any form of technical back- ground. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
He is regarded as ruthless, uncom- promising and devious, or as one foreign observer noted ‘dictatorship material at its worst’, and is often accused of trying blish his own - hegemony the Afghan resistanc . Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Bitter and often bloody clashes have erupted between Hezb and Jamiat followers, the first of which occurred in December 1978 in Parachinar and re- sulted in the deaths of fourteen Jamiatis. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Mujadeddi is a modest man who strikes one as sensitive and deeply concerned about the plight of his people. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although an ad hoc operation w en compared to the more experienced liberation movements elsewhere in the world, it did succeed in boosting the party’s renown. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One communiqué referred to Babrak Karmal Babrak as ‘Karghal’, a play on words meaning ‘thief at work’ in Farsi. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One respected Afghan university professor told Western journalists that he had seen the bodies of several of his students brought back. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘No one goes to classes any more except that small group of students favourable to the Karmal government’, he added. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the chief organisers of the April 1980 demonstrations was the SAMA urban resistance front. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On the second day, the high school pupils marched again to the university. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
out. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘I was picked up by some Parchami and put into a jeep’, recalled one former pupil from the Lycée Istiqlal. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to the former Istiqial pupil, when they all shouted: ‘Liberty!’ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But the great majority, even if not actual members of the resistance, display little if any sympathy for the regime. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In one case cited by Olivier Roy, a French Afghan studies specialist who has visited resistance-controlled Afghanistan on a number of occasions since the invasion, mujahed efforts to assassinate a known collaborator in the western province of Ghor were frustrated by local ‘gawm’ loyalties. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When a resistance group tried to kill him, his ‘gawm’ made it known that his death in combat would not be considered an offence, but that his execution on his (home) territory would, on the other hand, provoke a duty of vengeance leading to one of those vendettas which the resistance is trying to avoid at all costs. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Despite the constant upheavals of war, it has its own schools (twenty-eight, taught by one hundred teachers in the main valley and side-valleys), hospital, prison, administrative institutions and representatives in Peshawar to oversee relations with Jamiat and to ensure the co-ordination of supply links. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Even before the Soviet invasion, certain groups set up control points along the main roads to collect transport tolls or simply confiscate goods from the backs of suspected government-owned trucks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Party members have absconded with group funds; one of them known to this writer is now living in the United States. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As part of the continuing stife between the various resistance fronts, armed mujahideen crossing the territory of a rival faction are sometimes forced to hand over their guns, ammunition and money. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Furthermore, the mujahideen have elaborated a simple but effective news-cum-postal service involving the carrying by hand of written dispatches from one part of the country to another. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Any group on operations usually has one or two in its entourage. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It is not uncommon for outsiders to be probingly questioned by village leaders or mujahideen about international affairs. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For over three hours, the chief and his lieutenants patiently explained their position. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One radio station lost three of its Afghan technicians when two were killed and one captured during Soviet attacks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the most popular sections on the RFK station has been its ‘letter box’, a fifteen-minute question and answer session with letters from listeners in the capital, the guerrilla-held areas and the refugee camps. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When a French television news programme featured RFK in one of its reports, the Soviet embassy in Paris lodged a formal protest warning that relations between France and the USSR could suffer. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One argument often put forward by the West for not granting the Afghans more material support has been this lack of unity. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Loya Jirghas, Alliances and Splits The first concrete attempts at overall unity came during the first few months of the occupation. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In contrast to the political cleavages in Peshawar, it is not unusual to encounter funda- mentalist and moderate affiliated groups fighting alongside each other. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Our only enemy is the Soviets’, said one Hazara commander. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
December 1980, they carried out further heavy attacks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘We are here to seek help’, Mohammad Hussein Nasseri, one of the commanders, said as he waited patiently with some of his men in the compound of one of the Peshawar political organisations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Not surprisingly, little help came from Pesha- war. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
full-time soldiers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Panjshair had an emergency telephone line connected to a hidden mountain retreat, but it was used only on an occasional basis. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
the Afghan Shiites in general. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Their ability to fight gained them considerable, and sometimes grudging, admiration. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For a long time, the Shura’s middle-of-the road leaders were able to play one faction off against the other. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But in the summer of 1982, the radically Islamic elements allied themselves with the pro-Iranian Nasr in a takeover bid against Beheshti. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Terror-stricken by Soviet aerial bombardments, the machine-gunning of farmers in their fields or the dropping of anti-personnel mines and boobytraps along trails, they travelled in small groups, families or entire villages. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
million one-year assistance programme, to cover a total of 185,000 refugees until Sep- tember 1980. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On the eve of the Soviet invasion, the refugee population in Pakistan had grown to over 300,000. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the beginning, the Islamabad authorities were determined that the Afghan presence in Pakistan should remain a temporary one. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In their stead have emerged sprawling suburbs and settlements of ‘katchas’, dried mud and stone dwellings interspersed with bazaar stalls, storage depots, mosques, schools, health centres, workshops and even gardens behind compound walls. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As one of the largest relief operations since the end of World War II, the Afghan refugee situation in Pakistan appears to be among the best managed. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Considering their numbers, the Afghans have managed to live in rela- tive harmony with their Pakistani hosts. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Incidents of violence have tended to be few and isolated, usually local resentment at relief assist- ance for the refugees or reaction over grazing and water rights. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At one stage, police had to be sent in to close numerous small shops set up by enterprising Afghans which were putting the Pakistanis out of business. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This was still 10,000 feet lower than they were accustomed to. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But as transporta- tion to the interior is costly, dangerous and time-consuming, direct financial assistance is in many cases the most appropriate way of pro- curing foodstuffs for civilian populations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One Paris group, the International Bureau for Afghanistan, launched a pilot livestock project in Kunar province in the summer of 1984 with EEC backing, while the Swedish Committee for Afghani- stan, which regularly sends its own observers to gauge requirements, has established some twenty health clinics and dispensaries in different provinces. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Others, which do not consider it prudent to send relief personnel, notably Americans, into Afghanistan because of the problems that might arise if one were to be captured, have chosen instead to provide assistance direct to the mu- jahed fronts or to agencies already working inside. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
slak, supplies are lost or stolen and some groups regularly demand payment for housing or armed guards.k, supplies are lost or stolen and some groups regularly demand payment for housing or armed guards Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On numerous occasions, doctors have been obliged to travel for days on end without protection. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Afghans could learn a few lessons from such organisations as the Tigre Relief Society in Ethiopia or UNITA in Angola, who have taken detailed stock of their humanitarian requirements in guerrilla-held areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With the Afghans forced to transport most of their seriously wounded to Pakistan, the Soviets operated on the premise that an injured person causes more disruption than one killed. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It can take days, if not weeks, for them to reach medical care, and gangrene, blood loss and shock all exact a ruthless toll. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At any one time, there are twenty to thirty doctors and nurses staying between three and eight months in different regions — some operating on occasion within thirty miles of Kabul, others as far north as Badakshan or Balkh bordering on the Soviet Union. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By the end of 1980, most of the 1,600 doctors registered in Afghanistan before the Saur Revolution had fled the country, mainly to West Germany, France and North America to ‘continue their studies’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Seen as a whole, this deplorable dearth has meant only one Afghan doctor for every 300,000 inhabitants in the resistance-held areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One of the first teams to work in Afghanistan consisted of two doctors, a man and a woman, who travelled to Nuristan in the summer of 1980. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One nurse, furthermore, who was a vegetarian, campaigned to introduce wild spinach to the sparse local diet. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One must also not judge everything by Western standards. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Once one understands this, there are ways of getting round anything. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Many men or women just come to the hospital to be reassured’, said one doctor. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Its motor muffled by the mountains, a helicopter gunship suddenly rose up from behind a ridge and bore down directly on the MSF hospital at Jaghori in the Hazarajat. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Shortly after midday on 5 November three helicopters descended to attack the valley’s main health centre. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘We feel that it is up to world public opinion to pressure the Russians into stopping such atrocities’, said one organ- isation spokesman. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As de Bretagne recounted: As the Soviets advanced, we moved from one village to another, people carrying the medication and patients behind us. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It lasted for three quarters of an hour with one bomb dropping near me killing one of our injured. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
I was dictated what I should say . Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For one thing, barely more than forty countries have ratified the 1977 Protocols, which 223 c~. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But the Soviet-Afghan precedent has lent the possibility of a more humanitarian approach to the fate of prisoners in areas of conflict where one side lacks the facilities or desire to keep captives alive. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The freeing of a group of Czech men, women and children kidnapped by UNITA rebels in Angola in the spring of 1983 is but one example. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
And indeed, the issue fin- ally came to the fore in the summer of 1981, almost eighteen months after the Soviet invasion, with the capture of Mikhail Semyonovich Gorchniski, a 34-year-old Ukrainian fighter pilot from Kiev whose MIG was shot down over Nangrahar province by Hezb-i-Islami (Khales faction) forces. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Instead, they contacted the ICRC in Peshawar proposing to exchange the hapless geologist for 50 Afghan prisoners, one of whom was Khales’ own son. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This posed a serious dilemma for the Soviets. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
petual pool of hostages for exchange purposes. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the end, the Soviets adopted the attitude, ‘You don’t bargain with terrorists’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While on a visit to Moscow in October 1981, ICRC vice- president Richard Pestalozzi sought to re-open the prisoner issue, but 227 228 Refugees, Doctors and Prisoners the Kremlin stolidly replied that no Soviet troops were fighting in Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At the desert base, the reporters interviewed two recently captured Soviets, Alexander Petrovitch Sidielniko, a 20-year-old Ukrainian tank captain and Valery Yurkevich Kissilov, a 19-year-old conscript and former technical college student. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The final impetus came with the visit of a group of foreign journalists to the Hezb-i.Islami Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Swiss government was to provide internment facilities with Moscow paying all costs. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In August, I met three — an Estonian, a Ukrainian and a Russian — of about a Refugees, Doctors and Prisoners dozen deserters in the Panjshair Valley. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘How can we call upon Soviet soldiers to desert if they know that they run the risk of getting killed or never getting out?’ said one expatriate Russian. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The offensives did not represent a dramatic change in overall Red Army strategy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
PERSPECTIVES ‘A nation is dying. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some defence analysts question the Kremlin’s ability to expand this commitment. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Many of these are mere boys and girls who are sent abroad for short periods, usually three to six months; one reason for such brief sojourns is that those who stay longer are less influenced by Marxist-Leninist thinking because of the intense resentment and outright racism they experience in the USSR. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
All that Moscow is offering is a stark take-it-or-leave alternative’, noted one West European diplomat in Pakistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘In many places, the Soviets have dropped all pretence of trying to win over the people with a hearts-and-minds programme. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Western Interest in the War The Soviet occupation of Afghanistan is far from being a negligible or isolated affair but it is undoubtedly one of the most under-reported strategic wars today. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But legal condonation of the occupation continues to evade Moscow’s grasp. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Among the many questions now being raised is what the implemen- tation of such a massive aid programme will mean/for the resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
yet almost everyone is vulnerable to attack or other forms of Soviet pressure. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For Western democracies, putting all one’s eggs into the basket of a military dictatorship poses certain risks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
There is also room for the participation at the international level of former King Mohammed Zahir Shah. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to Ausra (Dawn), a Lithuanian ‘Zamizdat’ (underground newsletter), some mothers who succeeded in prising open the coffins found only a soldier’s cap and some sand. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Lines at generation who remember what war is all about. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At the same time, few are enamoured with the idea of risking their necks to ‘save’ Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
If there is any questioning, it is usually by members of the older variations of one theme: how much longer is the fighting going to last? The responses are generally unambiguous. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The armies of socialism march in only It is this aspect of time which is perhaps the greatest threat to the resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Rhetorically asking ‘Why are our boys from Ryazan, Khabarovsk and Uzbekistan carrying out their military service in the environs of Kabul?’, Verstakov examined the ‘uneasy days’ and the internationalist and patriotic duty of the Soviet soldier and admitted that life in Afghanistan was hard. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Future: More International Focus Writing as a journalist, I have no doubt that the war in Afghanistan is one which deserves far more international attention. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Ideally’, noted one West European diplomat, ‘they would like to get on with their war without the outside world knowing’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Ultimately, however, a peaceful solu- tion to the conflict must be a diplomatic one. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the meantime, it is still too soon to determine whether this formerly non-aligned and inde- pendent nation will fall as yet another victim of Soviet expansionism, or whether the resilience of its proud and obstinate inhabitants will one day prove too strong for the Soviets to break. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
00-06070 1 3. Afghanistan's Endless War
I probably should not have been surprised, then, that so many people thought I was an agent of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Afghanistan's Endless War
One evening in August I found myself walking with several foreign journalists after curfew, trying to get back to my dwelling in the Wazir Akbar Khan section of Kabul from the UN com- pound, where I had had dinner. Afghanistan's Endless War
These factors are Afghanistan’s ethnic-linguistic cleav- ages, its social structures, its religious ideo1o~y, its long and devastating conflict, its geopolitical position, sand its limited economic develop- ment. Afghanistan's Endless War
This chapter gives special attention to the ide- ological struggle within Afghanistan that has given rise to the present Taliban movement there. Afghanistan's Endless War
To all of those named above I offer my heartfelt thanks and my assurances that any errors that remain in this work are mine alone. Afghanistan's Endless War
Certainly Afghanistan today is one of the poorest and most troubled countries in the world. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan War has been one of the AFGHANISTAN IN THE POST—COLD WAR WORLD deadliest and most persistent conflicts of the second half of the twen- tieth century. Afghanistan's Endless War
That such an impoverished and war-torn country should have such an important role to play in its neighbors’ futures is not unusual, nor is the sad reality that there has been little effort to end its long war or rebuild its shattered infrastructure. Afghanistan's Endless War
The end of the Cold War has altered the environment in which the state exists, presenting different states with a range of both challenges and opportunities. Afghanistan's Endless War
On the one hand, it released the middle and regional powers in the international system from the constraints imposed by a bipolar world. Afghanistan's Endless War
Especially critical is the sudden absence of an organized power system in international politics as the major powers turn inward to reorient resources once committed to the con- tinüation of the Cold War and as the second-order powers of Europe concern themselves with furth~,r integration of the European Union. Afghanistan's Endless War
First, it is an extremely weak state, almost the archetype of one, made all the weaker by two full decades of highly destructive war. Afghanistan's Endless War
Second, Afghan- istan is the axle on which several regions swivel, one of which, Central Asia, is composed of newly emergent states, relatively weak themselves, that regional powers wish to influence. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan provides us an excellent case with which to explore this weak state syndrome that is such a threat to the international order in the new millennium. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan also has only one major road, the “Ring Road” that begins in the northwest at Torghundi and runs south through Herat to Kandahar. Afghanistan's Endless War
With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, Afghanistan finds its geostrategic position still important, but for dif- ferent reasons. Afghanistan's Endless War
History vividly recalls Alexander’s Bactrian campaigns and his fabled marriage to Roxanne in his quest for “One World,” but he was preceded in Central Asia by Darius the Great and the Achaemenids.~ Afghanistan's Endless War
Underlying all else is the desire for independent decision making exhibited repeatedly by the Afghan and Central Asian tribes throughout history. Afghanistan's Endless War
This was possible because Afghanistan, like much of the rest of Central Asia and northern India, was a mishmash of independent khanates and tiny city-states with distinct tribal or ethnic power bases.’8 Afghanistan's Endless War
The combination of nineteenth- century foreign encroachment and simultaneous internal anarchy created a state structure without the concomitant development of an Afghan nation.~° Afghanistan's Endless War
with winning control of the Central Asian khanates to the north of Afghanistan, whereas British attention was focused on annexing and pacifying the myriad princely states of India. Afghanistan's Endless War
When he came to power, Abdur Rahman controlled only Kabul and its surrounding areas, but by almost unbroken fighting he achieved at least indirect control over almost all of present-day Afghanistan by the time of his death in 19Ø1•46 Not only did he defeat rival Durranis, Ghilzai, and other Pushtuns (Shinwaris, Mangal-Zarmats, Safis), but Abdur Rahman also conquered the Uzbek, Turkmen, and Tajik regions north of Kabul, the central Hazarajat, and eastern Nuristan (Kafiristan). Afghanistan's Endless War
He viewed the process as putting “in order all those hundreds of petty chiefs, plunderers, robbers, and cutthroats.... Afghanistan's Endless War
Although he refused to ratify the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, which defined the Asian spheres of influence of these two powers, their tacit agreement to consider the convention valid established the prin- ciple of future Afghan neutrality. Afghanistan's Endless War
Throughout the Great Game, one constant was the willingness of the Afghan tribesmen to fight (primarily Pushtuns against the British and Turkic peoples against the Russians), not only against foreign invaders and neighbors but among themselves as well. Afghanistan's Endless War
The entire century in Afghanistan was a mosaic of warfare, with different conflicts so overlapping that it is almost impossible to tell where one began or ended. Afghanistan's Endless War
One important trait of the Afghans has been their flexibility in adapting to new military technology and tactics. Afghanistan's Endless War
The USSR began its quest for supremacy in Afghanistan by the patient use of diplomacy. Afghanistan's Endless War
Soviet diplomacy and military assistance were also undertaken with the intention of drawing Afghanistan closer to the USSR. Afghanistan's Endless War
had been clearly designed to bring Afghanistan under Soviet hegemony. Afghanistan's Endless War
The country’s turbulent history had 3/Modern War in Afghanistan Destruction of a State 54 fostered the development of traditional and circumscribed patterns of violence that performed specific roles in society; there was no modern tradition for a war of great magnitude.2 Afghanistan's Endless War
STAGE ONE: FROM COUP D’ETAT TO SOVIET INVASION (1978—1979) Three major events occurred during the first stage of the Afghan War. Afghanistan's Endless War
Their traditional pattern of local rebellion to express displeasure with government began after the fall harvest. Afghanistan's Endless War
It was quickly followed by new policies regarding land reform, credit reform, marriages, and mandatory education for both sexes. Afghanistan's Endless War
More than one hun- dred Soviets reportedly were hunted down and killed in savage violence that claimed three thousand to five thousand lives.~ Afghanistan's Endless War
This atrocity became one of the best known in a war replete with atrocities, and it marked a clear deviation from the stylized tribal violence common less than a year earlier. Afghanistan's Endless War
Stage one of the Afghan War was complete. Afghanistan's Endless War
By the spring of 1980 the Soviets had more than one hundred thousand troops in Afghanistan, and throughout the year they engaged in heavy fighting in all parts of the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
His chief rival, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, leader of one Pushtun- dominated Hezb-i-Islami party, rejected this government. Afghanistan's Endless War
Because Massoud’s Shura-i-Nazar (Council of the North), in conjunction with Dostam’s militia, initially controlled most of Kabul, Hekmatyar’s forces attacked the city numerous times fr~m their eases south of the city in Charasyab. Afghanistan's Endless War
Much attention in Afghanistan was directed toward its northern border with Tajikistan, which had been crossed at that time by morTajik refugees fleeing the civil war in their homeland in an eerie reprise to the Afghan exodus fifteen years earlier.Tajik refugees fleeing the civil war in their homeland in an eerie reprise to the Afghan exodus fifteen years earlier Afghanistan's Endless War
By March 1994 nearly one thousand people had died in the fighting since the beginning of the year, and more than one hun- dred thousand others had been made homeless. Afghanistan's Endless War
By March 1995 the Taliban controlled about one-third of Afghan- istan and were on the outskirts of Kabul. Afghanistan's Endless War
After the failure of these negotiations, the Taliban launched a massive attack north of Kabul that pushed Mas- soud’s forces back into the Panjshir Valley and out of Kunduz. Afghanistan's Endless War
The year 2000 began in Afghanistan with two airplane hijackings, one from India to Kandahar and one from Kabul to London. Afghanistan's Endless War
But more important developments occurred during the year that were character- istic of the general trends of stage eight. Afghanistan's Endless War
The gradual gains made by the Taliban during the fighting of 1999—2000 saw them finally take control of most of the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
One of the three, the Tajiks of Shura-i-Nazar, led by Massoud, are down to fifteen thousand fighters but still are hanging on in Badakhshan and the strategic Panjshir Valley, key to the Salang Tunnel, which provides Kabul and southern Afghanistan access to northern Afghanistan during MODERN WAR IN AFGHANISTAN 85 86 MODERN WAR IN AFGHANISTAN the long winter months. Afghanistan's Endless War
One faction, led by Ustad Akbari, defected to the Taliban in November 1998. Afghanistan's Endless War
Duration in Months 21 39 36 34 38 30 47 28— 88 MODERN WAR IN AFGHANISTAN completed stages of the war averaged 35.0 Afghanistan's Endless War
At one point or another since 1978, virtually everything in Afghanistan has been a target. Afghanistan's Endless War
The horrific and widespread destruction wrought by twentieth- century weaponry transformed the Afghan battlefield forever—the sec- ond major change in the country’s political and socioeconomic insti- tutions. Afghanistan's Endless War
In particular, Pakistan has now developed one of the world’s most sig- nificant domestic drug problems, even as pressure from the Pakistani government on narcotics manufacturers caused them to move most of the poppy fields and heroin labs into Afghanistan in the early 199os, out of the reach of organizations like the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) and the UN Drug Control Program (UNDCP). Afghanistan's Endless War
This goal certainly fit with its previous support for mujahideen parties operating from bases in Pakistani territory, but supporting the Taliban constituted a major change in Pakistan’s patron- client Afghanistan policy—away from its traditional client (Hekmatyar) and toward a new one (the Taliban) that shared the same Islamist ideol- ogy but came from a more acceptable tribal background (more Durrani rather than solely Ghilzai Pushtun) and was encumbered with less polit- ical baggage than Hekmatyar. Afghanistan's Endless War
0 can no longer be seen in monolithic terms. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Taliban present themselves as a move- ment motivated by Islam, desiring to unify and purify Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
As time passed, Pakistan’s involvement with the Taliban, which came from various sectors of the Pakistani government and society, became so comprehensive that it began to drive Pakistan’s policy toward Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Taliban combat operations have revealed a tactical sophistication generally lacking among the mujahideen forces. Afghanistan's Endless War
The JUl and even more radical Islamist organizations (such as the Lashkar-e-Toiba, Hizbul Mujahideen, Harkatul Mujahideen, and Tehrik-e-Jehad) provide recruits for the Taliban in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
It is clear that the Taliban are the most important force in Afghan- istan today, and almost certainly they will continue to be a major player in Afghanistan’s future in the short term (one to two years) and medium term (three to five years). Afghanistan's Endless War
Why the Taliban will be a critical factor in Afghanistan’s future requires deeper analysis, but one key rea- son is that they represent the first significant Pushtun-led government in Kabul since the fall of the communist regime in 1992 (not counting Sibghatullah Mojaddidi’s brief rule in 1992). Afghanistan's Endless War
IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 11~ ii6 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY The Taliban government is headed by a Supreme Shura of thirty to forty members,8~ which is itself headed by Mullah MohammadOmar Akhund, Amir ul-Moemineen (Commander of the Faithful), a title con- sidered by his followers to extend to all Muslims worldwide. Afghanistan's Endless War
These poli- cies include forcing men into mosques to attend Friday prayers, requir- ing men to grow untrimmed beards as signs of piety, requiring men to trim and/or shave their heads and body hair, and otherwise insisting that men conform to the norms of southern, Kandahari Pushtun tribal society. Afghanistan's Endless War
There is no project in place to rebuild Afghanistan’s degraded roads. Afghanistan's Endless War
The last area of Taliban policy that I examine concerns criminal jus- tice. Afghanistan's Endless War
First, the foundation of regional relations seems to be moving away from geopol- itics and toward geoeconomics (despite the continuing India-Pakistan rivalry, intensified through nuclear tests on both sides in May—June 1998 and the Kargil Crisis in 1999), which may make the projected gas pipeline and transit trade from Central Asia through western Afghan- istan key. Afghanistan's Endless War
Popular culture, how- ever, is often one of the first casualties of war as well, either sacrificed to the exigencies of war in the interest of life-and-death national struggle or transformed in various ways, often not benign, by the war itself. Afghanistan's Endless War
I have focused in this chapter on the changes produced in Afghanistan by its long war. Afghanistan's Endless War
Those that do exist tend to be affiliated with one or another political faction and are published sporadically. Afghanistan's Endless War
g did blossom during the early days of the war, hwever—the shabnamah (night let- ters), which were antigovernment leaflets distributed clandestinely at night.wever—the shabnamah (night let- ters), which were antigovernment leaflets distributed clandestinely at night Afghanistan's Endless War
In January 1993 the Kabul Museum was damaged in fighting, and over the next two years more than 90 percent of its priceless collection was looted by mujahideen from various factions and dispersed among illegal art and artifact buyers throughout the world. Afghanistan's Endless War
The blue glass makers of Herat are now down to one surviving elderly master craftsman.142 Afghanistan's Endless War
Kazakhstan, the richest and most developed of the former Soviet Central Asian republics, has a significant and diversified industrial base, produces more than 20 percent of the coal throughout the former USSR, and has one of the five largest oil fields in the world (Tengiz).5 Afghanistan's Endless War
THE CHANGING REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT 13~ 140 THE CHANGING REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT Numerous outside actors have been involved in Afghanistan during the last two decades of the twentieth century, in three major ways. Afghanistan's Endless War
In- fluential actors of the late 197OS are not necessarily important in Afghan- istan today (indeed, the most important actor of that time, the Soviet Union, no longer exists). Afghanistan's Endless War
This border, with more than two hun- dred passes and crossing points, has long been one of the most perme- able in the world, and weapons flowed into Afghanistan from five to ten major depots located from Chitral to Baluchistan.~’ Afghanistan's Endless War
Difficulty in supplying potable water was cited most frequently,62 but people also mentioned overgrazing by the more than three million livestock brought by the refugees, deforestation for firewood, undercutting of local labor markets while prices were simul- taneously driven up, and increased involvement in heroin smuggling and criminal activity—all of which combined to strain relations with the Pakistani host population.63 Afghanistan's Endless War
Compelling evidence indicates the importance of outside actors to Afghanistan since 1978. Afghanistan's Endless War
Five issues are most critical to the changing way in which Afghan- istan’s centrality is crucial. Afghanistan's Endless War
There are now estimated to be eighty thousand to one hundred thou- sand Pakistani Taliban, who are viewed by the JUl and similar organi- zations as the foot soldiers in a crusade to change Pakistan forever.86 Afghanistan's Endless War
Fourth, just as permeable borders make possible the easy flow of people and economic goods throughout the region, they also make possible the spillover of conflict from one country to another, as from Afghanistan into Pakistan during the mid-198os and from Tajikistan into Afghanistan and Uzbekistan in the early 1990S. Afghanistan's Endless War
The independence of the Central Asian states, with their rich oil and gas fields, and the increased interest of Pakistan and Iran in Afghanistan partially revived American concern. Afghanistan's Endless War
Now Saudi Arabia has become a backer of the Taliban, one of only three countries (along with Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates) to recognize the Taliban government.95 Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan spent much of the twentieth century as one of the poorest and least significant nations in the world, oniy to regain its nineteenth-century prominence as a Cold War battleground in the 1980s. Afghanistan's Endless War
Sadly, that reemergence has not been positive, and many people 6/ The Future of Afghanistan 167 T he current situation in Afghanistan not only is one of the great tragedies of our day, made all the more poignant by the world’s 168 THE FUTURE OF AFGHANISTAN have now come to view Afghanistan as a land of drug traffickers, ter- rorists, and bizarre religious fundamentalists. Afghanistan's Endless War
For that to occur, a legitimate government must be reestablished. Afghanistan's Endless War
After more than two decades of war, it is difficult to predict any positive future for Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
A more hopeful model, based on the example of Abdur Rahman Khan at the end of the nineteenth century, might be that one strong- man or group will emerge from the current struggle for power in Afghanistan to reunite the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
Nonetheless, a note of caution is warranted. Afghanistan's Endless War
This variable also has two dimensions: economic-social development and resource problems. Afghanistan's Endless War
One of the seven major mujahideen parties based in Peshawar during the 198os, this was one of three “moderate” parties and was headed by Maulavi Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi. Afghanistan's Endless War
One of the seven major mujahideen parties based in Peshawar during the 1980s, this was one of four “fundamentalist” parties and was headed by Engineer Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. Afghanistan's Endless War
Hekmatyar’s Hezb-i-Islami was driven from the battlefield by the Taliban ifl 1995 and 1996, although some Hekmatyar commanders fight on in northern Afghanistan, reportedly opportunistically switching sides for money. Afghanistan's Endless War
Many of the Taliban leaders had affiliations with this party. Afghanistan's Endless War
20. Afghanistan's Endless War
62. Afghanistan's Endless War
He initiated his successful conquest of India from Kabul. Afghanistan's Endless War
Babur. Afghanistan's Endless War
In the Muslim Middle East, there is an additional problem for the investigator. Bartered Brides
Central concepts concerning gender, kin- ship and affinity, and inequality and equality are examined, while the key values of honour and shame and responsibility are investigated through breach cases which reveal both the structure of competition and conflict for the control of political and economic resources and the role of the individual in the processes of social change. Bartered Brides
Ironically, such discussions have an anthropological interest even though they concern processes which have been made irrelevant by the terrible war which has overtaken the Maduzai and their countrymen. Bartered Brides
One thread of the book is the relation between the increasing political and economic competition in the region, the political manipulation of marriage, and changing constructions of Durrani identity. Bartered Brides
One of the most salient indicators of the relative economic and political standing of a household is the marriages its n~embers make. Bartered Brides
Abbreviations and symbols Abbreviations Pa. Bartered Brides
Late in 1970 we travelled overland to Kabul and soon acquired permits to begin a one-month survey in Afghan Turkistan. Bartered Brides
Our object was to visit sections of the Ishaqzai~ who were politically and numerically the dominant Durrani tribe in Jouzjan and Faryab provinces, with a view to finding one group with whom it would be convenient (for us, for them and for the authorities) to settle. Bartered Brides
How- ever, even in the best of times circumstances change, and we could all imagine situations in which it would be prudent for the Maduzal to forget our visits. Bartered Brides
During the first ten days of our stay with the Maduzai, Hajji Abdullah, the lead- ing man of Section III of Lineage A (seep. Bartered Brides
Both of us relied heavily on our closest friends: both men and women of our host’s own large household and the household of his brothers Agha Mohammad and Gui Mohammad, and those of his father’s brothers, Sultan and Akhtar Mohammad; the Sinjit village ‘headwoman’ Kishmir and one of her nephews of Section II of Lineage C; Jumadar, a prominent man of the faction of Lineage C opposed to our host; the members of Anar GuI ‘s household, permanent clients of Lineage C; in Chinar village my closest contacts were Hajji Nanawor, the leading woman of the village, and women close to her household, while RLT gained much information from her son and his close cousins, and from the eldest son of the leading man of Lineage D. Bartered Brides
The picture of the Maduzai I draw here is, of course, a composite one; my ambition is to present marriage from as many perspectives as possible. Bartered Brides
However, as we shall see, patrilineal descent was only one of several idioms which the Maduzai used to discuss social relations. Bartered Brides
These alternative idioms — particularly those which referred to relations based on bilateral kinship, on the one hand, and to political action sets on the other — were of no less practical importance in Maduzai social life, but they were less consciously articulated as principles of social organization; rather, they were implicit in speech and action. Bartered Brides
As outsiders remote from Maduzai struggles to control local resources, we were harmless and indeed became resources ourselves: our time and attention became one measure of the interest or importance of someone’s views. Bartered Brides
Our intimate association with Hajji Ibrahim’s household automati- cally created an identity for us and suggested the sympathies and insights we would have into the affairs of the subtribe, which the members of other house- holds had an interest in either confirming or disputing according to their own relationship with Hajji Ibrahim. Bartered Brides
Rather I have often drawn on several sources to summarize opinions and experiences, while treating particular viewpoints in my exegesis. Bartered Brides
We have some one-hundred hours of tape recordings; RLT is editing these rich materials into a more intimate portrait of the Maduzai than the one I present here. Bartered Brides
However, where men and women expressed different points of view, these are identified as such, while the non-verbal discourses of subordinate men and women are treated explicitly in the analysis. Bartered Brides
The problem is essentially one of translation, but it is impossible to ignore the fact that numerous cultures do include categories that translate easily into English terms once favoured as analytical concepts. Bartered Brides
Unlike some parts of the world (cf. Bartered Brides
One weakness in this literature has been the tendency to reify the indigenous notions which are translated as ‘honour’ and ‘shame’, rather than to treat them as idioms which articulate an ideology of control. Bartered Brides
As Pitt-Rivers has shown (1977: 1—17), this ideology is so structured that the outsider can distinguish two quite opposed modes of thought which meet and are merged in the actors’ notions of prestige or honour. Bartered Brides
In the other mode, altruism and generosity are central and honour is constructed in a religious sense, where relations are based on an ideal of equality, seen ultimately as equality before God. Bartered Brides
Here a notion of responsibility is of particular importance. Bartered Brides
Following the Leach(1957)/Fallers (1957)/Lewis(1962) hypothesis concern- ing the determinants of marriage stability, one expects marriage ties in societies conforming to model A to be unstable, since agnatic ties of men and women are comparable in strength. Bartered Brides
One way of approaching the complexities of this configuration is via the systematic elucidation of the underlying principles of the institution: the criteria on which classifications of marriage forms are based, the meaning of marriage payments in the exchange system as a whole, the ways in which persons and things are conceptualized in such exchanges, and the ambi- guities and contradictions inherent in these principles — that is, the areas open to manipulation and political negotiation. Bartered Brides
Various anthropol- ogists have come to see that the ‘system’ must be viewed as a complex one: patterns of marriage choice are only partly determined by preferences and ideals, while the consequences of choice are best explained in processual terms, through the analysis of political and economic strategies (cf. Bartered Brides
For instance, I suspect that certain kinds of important questions are simply not asked if one focuses on individual nego- tiation and interpretation and if historical change is treated, often implicitly, as simply the cumulative effect of individual decisions. Bartered Brides
And, if such a strategy can lead to a deeper understanding of any one society, it makes equal sense to attempt comparisons; not because they have some ‘objective’ value, but because they are a tool for asking further questions about an institution such as marriage and the range of meanings and actions it has cross- culturally. Bartered Brides
This is particularly evident in one of the most conspicuous paradoxes in many studies of marriage in the Muslim Middle East: the almost incidental or marginalethnographic treatment of women in spite of the great ideological significance of J gender and the importance of the control of women as resources in such systems. Bartered Brides
The alternative perspective is one which allows for the expression of the interests of individual women and men where these diverge from those which define key values and social identities. Bartered Brides
Meeker’s discussion of namus, a term which is widely used in the northern tier of the Middle East to refer to women’s ‘shame’, and men’s honour as it relates to women, provides a neat summary of the central issues. Bartered Brides
In N. Tapper (forthcoming b) I discuss the associations between, on the one hand, the incidence and character of the muted, ‘subversive’ discourses of spirit possession and illicit liaisons and, on the other, the variety of structural elements implicit in the dominant ideologies of control which RLT and I have discussed in terms of models A and B. This more wide-ranging inquiry suggests that such variations be understood in terms of ‘alternative ideologies’ and their relation to social change. Bartered Brides
My method is not Comparative perspectives on marriage 23 1k 24 Contexts new: it is an anthropological commonplace to suggest that there is an intrinsic relation between, on the one hand, the conceptual framework and meanings understood and managed by actors, and, on the other, aspects of social structure documented by statistical and other methods by the anthropologist as outsider; and that both be examined in the light of detailed ethnography of some historical depth. Bartered Brides
Then large numbers of nomads began arriving from the west and southwest, some of them straight from Kandahar, and ousted the Arab and Turkmen pastoralists from the local grazing lands. Bartered Brides
The situation is one of population saturation in the region, given the Regionalbackground— the Durrani of Saripul 29 30 Contexts Table 1. Bartered Brides
Main ethnic groups in the region ranked according to Durrani precepts Durrani label ‘Afghan’ ‘Parsiwan’ 3. Bartered Brides
Now the wide valleys immediately north and south of Saripul are fully culti- vated; moreover, dry-farming of the steppe and mountain slopes has spread rapidly at the expense of pasture, although in many places this new farming strategy is a very risky enterprise. Bartered Brides
f the Ishaqzai tribe are represented, one of them by four Regionalbackground— he Durrani of Saripul 31 32 Contexts lineal descent within the tribal division (tayfa) whose name the subtribe bears, but each subtribe has two kinds of secondary members: (a) members of the core descent group who happen to reside elsewhere, more or less temporarily (e.g Bartered Brides
Other branches of the family live on and supervise their estates, scattered throughout the region; some more or less close to the town and valley, but one each in Sangcharak, Shibarghan, and Ismaydan in the mountains. Bartered Brides
During the following decades, however, local authorities turned a blind eye to Pashtun oppression, in conformity with what was essentially a tacit central government policy of political and cultural discrimination against non-Pashtuns. Bartered Brides
Typically one of the Khans would seize property (land or flocks) belonging to an Uzbek peasant (sometimes a village leader); the latter would complain to the government, but might then suffer violence — often murder — by agents of the Khan, whose complicity could not be proven. Bartered Brides
Though religious distinctions are not a major feature of relations between different Sunni ethnic groups, certain cultural differences are given a religious flavour in the attitudes of one group towards another. Bartered Brides
Durrani ethnic identity and their ideals of status equality depend on claims to religious privilege and pure descent. Bartered Brides
If they are to be understood adequately, one crucial aspect of the ambiguity of the indigenous terms must be mentioned. Bartered Brides
The complexity of indigenous usage is suggested in the following examples. Bartered Brides
More often the term qaum (from the Arabic, meaning people, nation, tribe, group, family, sect) is used for human groupings of all kinds. Bartered Brides
Though all three terms have descent connotations, each one primarily denotes otherorganiz- ational principles. Bartered Brides
Only in matters of extreme importance which call into question the ethnic identity of a specifically related group of agnates (an aulad, or ‘the households of one father (p/ar)’), are they likely to mobilize into apolitically effective group (wolus). Bartered Brides
For a man who has been wounded, at least one woman must be given. Bartered Brides
There are still occasions when agnates may help one of their number, and crises when tribal loyalties, if forcefully invoked by leaders, can unite large groups in order to collect cash contributions for a common cause such as com- pensation or litigation (see Case 2). Bartered Brides
The rights and duties involved in agnatic kinship of itself are nowadays few and rarely invoked in practice. Bartered Brides
On the one hand, agnates have less need to unite nowadays — increased govern- ment intervention has reduced the possibility of interethnic warfare, the conse- quent demands for qaum solidarity, and the need for migrating nomads to move together in large, lineage-based groups. Bartered Brides
As one Maduzai man put it, Once ties of affinity (kheshi) are made, they cannot be severed; I can never say ‘I am finished with my affine’. Bartered Brides
If we have one hundred fights or one hundred killings, then for one month or one year we will be unhappy with one another, but in the end we will be rec- onciled, because of our friendship (dosti). Bartered Brides
Like agnatic ties outside the household and ties to affines, those with one’s mamakhe/ are optative to the extent that they imply no specific rights and duties, nor do they necessarily define the character of social Patriliny, gender and endogamy 49 50 relationships, though they are all distinguished from relations with strangers by ideals of fellowship, affection and cooperation. Bartered Brides
Like the term qaum-o-khish for relatives, the term khpalwan, ‘one’s own people’, has a broad range of possible applications but refers, essentially, to an ego-centred group. Bartered Brides
Durrani consider that general norms of friendship and support should apply auto- matically within this range of people. Bartered Brides
While temporary and small-scale dependence on kin of one’s effective network is part of the on-going social system and debts thus incurred will be reciprocated in kind, people may clearly distinguish between agnates and affines within this network. Bartered Brides
One may ‘do qaumi’ and act kindly and generously, acknowledging the moral bonds and economic and political responsibilities of common descent. Bartered Brides
For example, one may ask for a lower bride- price from qaumi, or collect money for, or donate land to, impoverished qaumi. Bartered Brides
is that all its members should stand together in confrontations with outsiders. Bartered Brides
One of the striking features of Durrani social organization is the strong ideal of the independence and self-sufficiency of households and the very real degree of competition between them. Bartered Brides
If they are this way, people will laugh and say, ‘After all, the mother was not Dur- rani; one vein is fallen.’ Bartered Brides
However, one story about inter-ethnic marriage was of a rather different Drder and had the character of a brief origin myth. Bartered Brides
3.2 Bartered Brides
In spite of the higher status of the Figure 1 An origin myth 59Patriliny, gender and endogamy 60 Social groups and marriage Sayyids, it is one of them, Mandin, who initiates contact with ‘the Ishaqzai’ and it is her name which is commemorated in the Durrani tribal lists. Bartered Brides
In mythic fashion the story seems to attempt a resolution of these various issues. Bartered Brides
That is, each marriage is embedded in the particular social, and especially marital, histories of the households concerned. Bartered Brides
People said that by the summer of 1972 he had got through two brideprices (two lacs of Afghanis) and that he had sold all his sheep and mortgaged his land. Bartered Brides
People laugh at them and say, ‘Look at that daughter of Toryaley, she ran off with an Hazara.’ Bartered Brides
An Afghan [Durranij is lost on account of her; she should have taken an Afghan husband, was the Afghan bad? Didn’t the Afghans have enough wealth? If she is an Afghan she should have taken an Afghan. Bartered Brides
In fact a youth from one of the poorest households of the subtribe did marry one of Toryaley’s remaining five daughters in the spring of 1972.1 Bartered Brides
Discussions of the case often ended with the wry observation that Sipahi not only spoke fluent Pashtu, but he even looked just like a Durrani and could be mis- taken for one by anyone who did not know better. Bartered Brides
The irony of Sipahi’s fluency in Pashtu and his Pashtun appearance was one of the only areas of ambiguity in the case of Kaftar’s elopement. Bartered Brides
More- over, though ‘Uzbeks’ too prefer to marry endogamously, they do not have the same strongly sanctioned ban on the inter-ethnic marriage of women as do Durrani. Bartered Brides
‘We are Durrani, one people between whom women are exchanged.’ Bartered Brides
Later, around 1900, one of Taju Khan’s affines, Seyf Akhundzada of the Nazarzai branch of the Ishaqzai tribe, settled in the Saripul Social groups and marriage households Chinar (A) (Tutizai) 49 0 15 1 0 10 16 2 78 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 104 (D) II Sinjit 0 0 0 0 0 63 7 5 1 1 2 11 1 6 86 Naju 13 0 5 3 10 26 6 64 Sarwar KheI 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 Lodin 7 0 0 0 1 1 0 9 Other Totals 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 77 15 70 15 24 56 15 272 area. Bartered Brides
The present-day Ishaqzai Khans of Saripul are his descendants. Bartered Brides
To effect this end, Afzal Khan arranged two pairs of exchange marriages between the two groups, who thus ‘through affinity became qaum’. Bartered Brides
These were reissued by Amir Amanullah’s government in 1926—1927 and remain the basis of Maduzai landholding today. Bartered Brides
In essence, members of the qaum became landed proprietors while all others of the wolus became, to a greater or lesser degree, their clients (hamsaya). Bartered Brides
The brothers Zahir and Qadir of Lineage A fought with the young Rishmin of Lineage C (see Figure 3). Bartered Brides
By the time they had arrived, Jallat Khan, one of the leading Ishaqzai Khans of Saripul, was already there. Bartered Brides
Soleyman, angry that they had received only one woman in compensation for Sherali’s death, insisted to the Maduzai leader, now Hajji Janshah, that they be given a second woman. Bartered Brides
Sultan then spoke to some of his agnates and among other things promised one of his sisters in marriage to Patih Mohammad, a strong and determined young man, if he would kill Sherali’s murderer, Zahir. Bartered Brides
Some time later, Patih Mohammad and three cousins, Rangin, Ghulam and Samad, set off at night for a wedding party given for one of Zahir’s brothers. Bartered Brides
Eight marriages were arranged between the two groups: in theory, one woman was given for each man wounded and two for each man killed, though in fact the following women were given (see Figure 3): Lineage A (Qadir and Merdil wounded; Kohandil killed) received: Rabiya, brother’s daughter of Sherali, for Qadir; a daughter of Soleyman for Hajji Janshab; a brother’s daughter of Patih Mohammad for Purdil and a woman of Lineage D for Merdil, sons of Hajji Janshah. Bartered Brides
As has been mentioned, the first two women were married the very night of Sherali’s killing, but though one bride, Sadozi, was taken straightaway to live with her new husband, the other, Rabiya, was felt to be too young to move into her husband’s household. Bartered Brides
After the further pair of killings in the valley, six more women were given in compensation. Bartered Brides
Sherali ‘s sons were young at his death: his eldest son was still a boy when he married Sadozi; The Maduzai subiribe 77 78 Social groups and marriage the second son was only five or six years old, while the third son was not yet born. Bartered Brides
The last girl to be married was the only one given in compensation for Mullah Shahid’s death. Bartered Brides
Everyone we spoke to stated that there was no precedent for violence at all, and that Soleyman’s initial wish to avoid any retaliation after his son’s beating was honourable; in any case, at that stage other members of Lineage C were unlikely to wish to become involved. Bartered Brides
But when it was learned that they had no intention of making any further compensation because of Lineage C’s imputed Parsiwan status, this slur united all the members of Lineage C and provoked agnates distant from the original dispute to further violence. Bartered Brides
Only one section of the lineage did not become directly implicated in the feud: the descendants of Dilawar’s fourth son, who came rather later than the others and were by this time settled in Naju as close neighbours of Lineage C in Sinjit. Bartered Brides
The people of Lineage C say that the men of Lineage A then retreated to Chinar but later were persuaded to come to the mosque in Sinjit where they ate and prayed together. Bartered Brides
The hostility between the two groups is never far from the surface. Bartered Brides
I (sic — 2,640 jeribs); 2,640 jeribs divided into 5 shares, of which 3 (1 ,S84jeribs) went to Lineage A. direct involvement in the day-to-day affairs of Lineage A. Among other things, these households form a separate religious congregation, using the mosque constructed by one of the Section’s leading men. Bartered Brides
III 88j. Bartered Brides
One further house- hold has traditionally lived at the head of the Maduzai settlements where the track through them joins the main road to Saripul. Bartered Brides
The dispute continued until finally a tribal jirga assembly was convened by one of the Ishaqzai Khans and the issue was settled: Soleyman gave Teymur more land, and aset of exchange marriages was arranged between their children (seep. Bartered Brides
Samad was strong and apparently oppressed even his own followers, while Darwiza lacked the strength of personality necessary to confront the local lshaqzai Khans and government officials, and in 1955 the youthful Ibrahim, the FFBS of Soleyman, won the appointment for himself and has remained the Sinjit headman ever since. Bartered Brides
The major split in Lineage C is more marked than that in Lineage A, largely I think because it has lacked the strong, continuous domination which the Khan’s family has exercised over Lineage A. At the same time, there has been continuing pressure on Lineage C to remain united in the face of threats from Lineage A; in effect Section III, which lies between the two factions both genealogically and spatially, has played a media- tory role between them, not least because of its marriages with both groups. Bartered Brides
Five other households of Lineage D are settled in Sinjit with Lineage C who sometimes say of them that they have been neighbours so long that they have become like qaum, though their status is more that of client members of the Sinjit wolus. Bartered Brides
Finally, three impoverished households of Lineage D live in Naju hamlet, while two others whose circumstances were even more desperate followed a well-established precedent and left the Saripul area in 197 1—1972. Bartered Brides
The land acquired by Lineage D in the original division was (unlike that of the other groups) formally distributed among the households and separate deeds issued. Bartered Brides
In this respect there is a continuum of such households, from those which have lived with the Maduzai for thirty years or more, have affinal ties with one or more of the four Maduzai core-lineages and are treated for many purposes as qaum, to households which! Bartered Brides
Of the seven such households we observed The Maduzai subtribe 87 88 in 197 1—1972 (not included in the census), four had affinal links with the sub- tribe, though only two of these were with one of the core-lineages. Bartered Brides
More is expected of the wealthier households of the wolus, whether kin or non-kin, and they, in return, will receive proportionately more help for their own affairs. Bartered Brides
are the Maduzai collateals, who do not claim close common descent with the four core-lineages but may offer pedigrees plausibly tracing a common ancestor for themselves and Dilawar, the founder of Lineage A. Most of these collaterals were associated with the original Maduzai migration to the north; the rest seem to have arrived in the area later, but before the Saripul Maduzai’s contacts with their southern kin became as inter- mittent as they are today.als, who do not claim close common descent with the four core-lineages but may offer pedigrees plausibly tracing a common ancestor for themselves and Dilawar, the founder of Lineage A. Most of these collaterals were associated with the original Maduzai migration to the north; the rest seem to have arrived in the area later, but before the Saripul Maduzai’s contacts with their southern kin became as inter- mittent as they are today Bartered Brides
could discover no households of the subtribe at the time of the census. Bartered Brides
Table 6 shows the tribal or ethnic identity of the tribe, while Table 7 shows their affinal connections lineages. Bartered Brides
It is per- petuated in their relative equality, in terms of manpower and wealth, and their mutual dependence for protection from the depredations of the lshaqzai Khans and other tribal groups in the region. Bartered Brides
As one of the sons of Hajji Ibrahim said: Those people of Upper Sinjit are not good people; they say all sorts of things. Bartered Brides
We gave one of my sisters there and how much we regretted it. Bartered Brides
They have not given a single one, norhave they taken any from them. Bartered Brides
But the people of Chinar, one of the Khan’s group, give women to us and take women from US. Bartered Brides
Section I Hajji x Hajji Ibrahim Sultan Upper Sinjit Sarwar XSection IV of Lineage C 93 94 Social groups and mari-iage Table 8. Bartered Brides
At the same time, a third of all marriages are with Durrani outside the four Maduzai core lineages. Bartered Brides
Four political importance have taken place between them and the Khan’s own hold, though only one, involving the Khan’s daughter, is still extant. Bartered Brides
Lineage B’s relationship with the Khan is one of political but not clientage and, to redress the balance in their relationship with whole, they seem to have sought marriages Khan faction 11 0 Durkhan faction 6 29 The Maduzai subiribe Lineages B C 0 0 2 4 2 4 1 1 4 5 5 6 caused or are likely to others of his faction have settlement. Bartered Brides
Women’s marriages 1950 Their long-standing connection with Lineage A has apparently precluded their close association with Lineages C and D, though the Tutizai justify their reluc- tance to become involved with the latter bown independent Teymur faction 11 8 0 0 2 18 39b and authoritative Durrani pedigree, scorning the dubious background of the Totals 44 13 6 0 4 42 109 others Women’s marriages 1972 Lineage C Totals 38 19 4 0 6 27 94 The long-standing antipathy towards intermarriage between the two Lineage C factions was mentioned earlier Bartered Brides
The major oppositions are between the two larger Maduzai lineages and between the factions within them. Bartered Brides
The Maduzai household is ideally independent and self-sufficient: a residen- tial, property-owning unit characterized by internal unity among all its members. Bartered Brides
The allocation of resources for the marriages of household members is one of the most common precipitating causes of household division. Bartered Brides
In practice, they have the status of legal minors. Bartered Brides
People sometimes say that a good wife increases the reputation of her husband alone, a bad one affects the reputation of her own agnates as well. Bartered Brides
Household production and reproduction 10 / 108 Paternaljoint households Large paternal joint households represent the ideal form and each man hopes in due course to head such a unit: the more descendants over whom he has direct I authority, the greater his reputation and influence. Bartered Brides
The typical developmental j Poiu- Popu- Popu- Popu- Per Popu- Per cycle is as follows: a paternaljoint household, at the death ofthe father, becomes ~ No lation No lation No lation No lation No cent lation cent a fraternal joint household if there are two or more married sons; half-brothers Household type usually separate soon after their father’s death, while full-brothers may stay together until their sons grow up; before these sons are married, the household is Simple 44 304 iO 65 46 280 5 33 105 59 682 53 partitioned to form further incipient paternal joint households. Bartered Brides
Widows follow their favourite son at the partition of a fraternal joint household. Bartered Brides
Few households joined the remaining animals in the spring pastures, and none went to the mountains. Bartered Brides
A Maduzai landowner wishing to cultivate his valley land opts for one of a number of possible arrangements, depending on his inputs of land, labour, water, seed, oxen and implements. Bartered Brides
Security and the economies of size which are possible with joint ownership are clearly recognized and appreciated. Bartered Brides
The Maduzai make a distinction between agricultural and residential land. Bartered Brides
There is in fact a clear correlation of household wealth, size and type: but it is striking that Quartiles I and II have roughly similar average holdings per person of valley land, while Quartile I households are distinguished by their much larger average flock; in flock sizes, on the other hand, Quartile II differs little from Quartile III, which has a much lower average land holding. Bartered Brides
This Household production and reproduction 117 I l~ Table 17. Bartered Brides
Neither age, marital status nor even gender are necessarily criteria used to deter- mine household headship, and there are no formal rules about who in a household should hold the position. Bartered Brides
Indeed the pattern of women’s leadership was rather more varied than that of the overall headship: for example, in seven of the ten paternal joint households in Lineage C, the father was the head, but in only four of these seven was his only wife herself the female leader, while in one other paternal joint household the father’s senior wife was the recognized headwoman, though her co-wife’s eldest son was the male household head. Bartered Brides
Nonetheless, it is women, rather than men, who put the highest premium on affection within a marriage. Bartered Brides
For example, long absence of the husband, for whatever reasons, would not necessarily be con- sidered grounds for divorce. Bartered Brides
As one woman said, Daughters are saddening; they are separated from their parents and the hearts of their mothers and fathers bum for them, particularly if their husbands are poor or if they have Household production ana reproauction I z.i 124 Social groups and marriage co-wives or their wombs are not always full. Bartered Brides
For example, one childless man married a widow whose children by a former marriage he was able to treat as his own, while another man, having no sons of his own, married his one daughter uxorilocally to form an unorthodox paternal joint household; I also strongly suspect that men who fear they are sterile encourage their wives to become pregnant through an adulterous liaison. Bartered Brides
Moreover, father and son are expected to help each other throughout their lives, even if the son has separated from the father’s household. Bartered Brides
Relations between siblings are ideally supportive. Bartered Brides
This indeed is usually the case between sisters who, regardless of the circumstances in which they find themselves after marriage, are likely to remain close and loyal to one another throughout their lives. Bartered Brides
Quarrels between brothers are regarded both as endemic and as a travesty of social norms; as a leading man remarked about one such long-running dispute: ‘There is Afghanistan for you. Bartered Brides
One woman, however, admitted as a general principle that when a woman’s husband is away (e.g. Bartered Brides
If a woman’s parents die and she has no brothers, the estate will go to her father’s brothers or even more distant agnates who must maintain her until she is married. Bartered Brides
In a few exceptional recent cases, women, usually encouraged by their hus- bands, have tried to claim their share of the patrimony, but the strong, unanimous reaction of other men, including the leaders of the subtribe, prevented this from happening. Bartered Brides
The developmental cycle of the household The Maduzai recognize the inexorable movement of the developmental cycle of the household, and whatever the exact circumstances, the foundation of a new household is marked ritually. Bartered Brides
We don’t count houses in terms of hearths, but everyone knows how many hearths a house has, and if they are separate. Bartered Brides
On the other hand, a household head has the right to expel household members at will, though it happens rarely, and usually only after grave provocation such as gambling with household property. Bartered Brides
Maduzai social life is characterized by a lack of specific rules relating to inter- personal behaviour. Bartered Brides
In fact, each of these modes comprises three forms, distinguished indigenously in the one case but only analytically in the other. Bartered Brides
A brideprice is customarily seen as the equivalent of one hundred sheep. Bartered Brides
One man calculated (with some exaggeration) that for fifteen years a daughter eats fifty sir of wheat at 50 Afs. Bartered Brides
Two sayings the Maduzai repeat with some frequency both make this point; they say, ‘No one ever becomes rich when his daughters grow up’ because ‘Brideprice is a mountain of straw for the wind to blow away.’ Bartered Brides
When Maduzai discuss brideprice, they do so using a generic term (waiwar), but they always recognize that a contract may be one of two kinds, the ‘chopped- up’ (kotara) or the ‘named’ (mosamma) — here they use the term mahr for the brideprice, though in other contexts this term is used in its legally proper sense for the dower. Bartered Brides
In one instance, a leading man of Lineage C was determined to marry the daughter of his rival from Lineage A, though the latter demanded an unpre- cedentedly high kotara brideprice for her. Bartered Brides
The wedding was held whenever the agreed sum was paid. Bartered Brides
This is one way in which the bride’s guardian may aid a favoured groom, though in a few cases such an arrangement was a direct consequence of the bride’s side having sought (even to the extent of offering the woman in marriage) and gained affines who were markedly their economic and political superiors; this is a device used by reasonably wealthy households to attach themselves to a power- ful patron (cf. Bartered Brides
Finally, it does sometimes happen that an impoverished young man in effect does bride service. Bartered Brides
Usually both parties, while stating publicly at the engagement ceremony that the brideprice is mosamma, nonetheless agree privately to a specific, and often low, brideprice. Bartered Brides
Two of these were within Lineage C and each exacerbated the conflict between the parties involved (see p. 270; N. Tapper 1979: 433ff.; Bartered Brides
Thus a married man who has been suddenly widowed, but has an unmarried female relative in his household, often favours such a marriage, though if he is also unable through poverty to consider the possibility of a bride- price marriage, people will remark that he has been forced to arrange an exchange. Bartered Brides
Normally both girls are engaged on the same day, though at two separate tar ceremonies, one at the home of each bride. Bartered Brides
There are no important differences in the sequence of marriage rites between direct exchange and brideprice marriages. Bartered Brides
If, however, the brides vary widely in age, as sometimes happens, the wedding of the older bride may be held many years before the younger one reaches puberty, so long as the former’s father-in-law pays a sar (literally, head) for her, though this payment may be omitted if the households involved are close, or if the purpose of the exchange is to confirm a friendship. Bartered Brides
In the case of exchange marriages, the sar restores the equality of the two families even though one of the marriages is completed, as it were, prematurely. Bartered Brides
Normally the sar is arranged before and mentioned during the engagement ceremony, though it may be fixed later on an ad hoc basis to reflect some change in the circum- stances of one of the families. Bartered Brides
In theory, then, exchange marriages represent a direct exchange of equal value: if, however, one man marries earlier than the other, the time factor intro- duces an imbalance which is redressed by means of the sar payment. Bartered Brides
As marriage has become increasingly the focus of political and economic competition, changes have been introduced which reduce the impact of chance factors (like the death of one of the brides in an exchange marriage) on the circumstances of the families involved. Bartered Brides
We became one people (qaum) and they [Lineage A] brought us [Lineage C] north. Bartered Brides
One informant flatly stated that the real identity of the ‘Sayyids’ was always known to Sultan and the other Maduzai, but that they were prepared to ignore it for reasons of economic expediency. Bartered Brides
Indeed, the rites, ceremonies and prestations of marriages of any form may be manipulated in many ways such that each one is open to a variety of conflicting interpretations. Bartered Brides
Such cases present intriguing puzzles for the ethnographer: for example, how does one make sense of conflicting claims about a marriage which may have been arranged either as compensation for a minor injury or as an exchange of ‘reconciliation’? I know several cases (see chapter 11) in which the principals themselves believed from the beginning that a marriage belonged to two quite different forms — one side treating it as a long overdue completion of an exchange, the other as a marriage for brideprice. Bartered Brides
But considerations of these kinds are of a different order from those in which the choice of the marriage form itself is used publicly to clarify political relations both between the parties to the marriage and between them and others. Bartered Brides
The most important change is the present insistence that every marriage be initiated by a formal engagement ceremony at which as many respected men as possible are assembled to witness the terms of the agreement. Bartered Brides
Most cases in which children are engaged well before puberty are exchanges in which one couple is markedly younger than the other. Bartered Brides
In such cases age is disregarded and causes no adverse comment. Bartered Brides
Thus a children, he must find a replacement quickly daughter in an exchange marriage which The dilemma faced by one Lineage C in which the engagement of a young girl may Case 4: Habibullah In 1970, to avoid rapacious Government unjustly, that he had been involved in a concern the Maduzai directly), Habibullah and the sole breadwinner of a small mother, two sons and a six-year-old daughter. Bartered Brides
Rituals of marriage 9 5 4 3 13 8 6 0 25 0 0 6 6 0 31 increase the male labour force he but, as one man said, ‘People will to press a man into accepting your is young, for, as the Maduzai note, and may be forced to give a young be sought by her father. Bartered Brides
Once the boy’s guardian fixes on a particular girl he knows to be suitable and available, he will organize a del- egation (maraka) of both men and women, senior people who are close to the household, to approach the girl’s guardian. Bartered Brides
One man called it ‘God’s blessing’ and said that, even if it were possible to pay all the bndeprice at once, payments would be prolonged so that the pleasures of bazi would not be missed. Bartered Brides
Few men manage to visit their homes during the two-year period )f military service, and shepherds or agricultural labourers may be obliged by their jobs to be away for long stretches during the year; if the girl should find herself pregnant after her fiancé’s departure, a nikah by proxy ensures that she need not have her child in her father’s house. Bartered Brides
However, the groom’s side may spend as much as they like and some wealthy households may spend one lac (100,000 Afghanis) or more (cf. Bartered Brides
Each night as the wedding approaches, young women will gather at the groom’s home for singing and dancing. Bartered Brides
Meanwhile men and women of the groom’s party are gathered by invitation for the procession to the bride’s house. Bartered Brides
After a meal provided by the groom’s guardian, represen- tatives (wakil) are chosen from among the few individuals present: the groom’s guardian and and someone for the bride. Bartered Brides
It is usual for the Islamic nikah to be ‘tied’ at the groom’s house on the evening of the wedding day. Bartered Brides
After the engagement, the couple are known as man and wife, but their relationship as individuals does not alter substantially; if, however, the pair have been well known to each other since childhood, they will now be expected to display ‘shame’ in each other’s presence. Bartered Brides
The two simple elements which constitute the final Phase VI — the sofra, a direct reciprocal exchange of cooked food — confirm that any differences have been resolved and an equivalence has been established between the two groups of affines. Bartered Brides
Each stage in the marriage procedure provides at least one, and sometimes several, occasions when one side must offer hospitality (meimastia) to the other, or when an exchange of food is expected. Bartered Brides
Mutton or lamb cooked in clarified butter and served with rice is the most prestigious meal one can offer; it is also the most expensive. Bartered Brides
The Maduzai usually evaluate wedding festivities in one of four ways. Bartered Brides
They may be ‘without drum’ (bi-dul) ‘with drum alone’ (yeka dul) but no shawm, or with a pair of musicians playing ‘drum and shawn’ (dul au sorna) in attendance. Bartered Brides
Two hats and two pairs of shoes Various items of jewellery, including one hat ornament, one nose ornament, a pair of bracelets, a keychain and several rings A mirror (b) Clothing for the groom: One suit of clothes (shirt and pantaloons), including a waistcoat, hat, turban cloth and a pair of shoes A razor and mirror (c) Household items made by women: Four of each: woven kelims; felts (two black and two grey); dining cloths Three of each: large storage bags; skins for water; camel ropes Two of each: complete sets of bedding, including mattresses, blankets and bolsters; woven saddle-bags; small bags; horse nose-bags One of each: camel head-dress and complete set of camel-trappings, including bells; set of horse-trappings and decorations; sheep milking- rope; set of weaving tools; goat-skin butter-churn (d) Household items purchased in the bazaar or elsewhere: One Koran Rituals of marriage 177 178 Ideologies of equality and inequality The economic relation between brideprice and trousseau varies. Bartered Brides
There is no doubt that the Maduzai are well aware of the discrepancy between Durrani custom and Islamic law concerning female inheritance. Bartered Brides
I would suggest that the willingness and skill with which this work is undertaken is explained by the fact that work on a trousseau offers Durrani women one of the few ways in which they can express their shared iden- tity over their position in marriage, and generally vis-à-vis men. Bartered Brides
At one level, the Maduzai maintain that the choice of a spouse, as with every- thing else in life, is a question of fate (qismat): ‘Whatever is written, that is your destiny (iakdir).’ Bartered Brides
I 182 Ideologies of equality and inequality Demography and choice In practice, one of the ways in which the range of possible suitors is limited is by the chance factor of the sex ratio in sibling groups of a household. Bartered Brides
In less extreme circumstances, a surplus of daughters still predisposes a house- hold to certain marriage strategies rather than others. Bartered Brides
I have already mentioned the notional unity of agnates who were once members of a single household; they helped to amass brideprices for each other, one of the very few sources of corporate identity and shared if residual rights, though these are far too weak to counter the competitive isolation of each separate household. Bartered Brides
In effect, the situation is treated as one of widow inheritance, though two of the attendant complications of the latter form are normally avoided if the nikah has not been performed. Bartered Brides
First, if the girl is re-engaged to one of the dead man’s agnates who lives in another household, his erstwhile guardian will ask no sar payment for the girl, but will expect to be reimbursed for the amount he has already given in brideprice, though this may be subject to phate negotiations between them. Bartered Brides
Some people considered that the groom or his guardian could expect the return of the full amount, provided he had not gone to bazi and started sexual relations with his bride; only half being returned if bazi had begun. Bartered Brides
By the same token, the dead woman’s trousseau belongs entirely to her husband. Bartered Brides
A widow is inherited by her husband’s agnates. Bartered Brides
As one man put it, ‘the Koran sanctions two unpleasant customs: widow inherit- ance and sororate’. Bartered Brides
One man who refused to marry a brother’s widow for this reason elaborated on his repugnance by suggesting that ‘a sister stands in the place of a mother’. Bartered Brides
Men vaguely acknowledge that it is better if a widow does not remarry, and there is in fact a certain repugnance for the idea of marrying a brother’s widow. Bartered Brides
In spite of these sentiments, most widows will remarry if they have not reached menopause, while elderly widows who remain unmarried will live with one of their sons, or occasionally a daughter, or, if they are childless, in the household of one of their husband’s close agnates. Bartered Brides
I knew of only one case in which a woman lived with her own agnates: the woman was very old, crippled and childless, and her dead husband’s agnates had left the Saripul area. Bartered Brides
Young widows may attempt to assert their right to remain unmarried by approaching one of their husband’s agnates or a senior woman among the hus- band’s group, taking the man’s shawl or the woman’s veil and saying,~ I take your garment and I will go wherever you go, but I will not take a husband.’ Bartered Brides
She is admired, perhaps by men even more than by other women, but the model she presents is one which few women would emulate. Bartered Brides
256; N. Tapper 1979: 87), it is almost always the case that if a widow has no sons, or having them nevertheless wants to remarry, then her in-laws will decide among themselves who should take her. Bartered Brides
Thirty-seven of the 161 living Maduzai women who married within the four core-lineages (see Table 20, p. 191), have buried one or more husbands, and 21 of those 37 widows remain unmarried. Bartered Brides
Twenty-one of the 249 marriages of Maduzai men extant in 1972 were with widows. Bartered Brides
In all but two of these 21, the widow was married to one of her late husband’s agnates: 10 men inherited a brother’s widow, 6 the widow of a father’s brother, while in the other 3 cases a more distant agnate took the woman. Bartered Brides
Thus, I learned of a number of cases in which a widow entered into a second marriage with one of her late husband’s brothers after having continued to live in the household unmarried for some time: in one instance, the couple were said to have fallen in love suddenly over eight years after the first man’s death, and only then did they marry. Bartered Brides
The Maduzai view sympathetically second marriages made in the hope of gaining male heirs, and it is notable that in all 3 such cases the senior wife retained her husband’s affection even after the second marriage had taken place. Bartered Brides
If the household is a joint one, where there are as yet unmarried but marriageable youths, the prospect of household resources being squandered on a plural marriage is likely to cause much hostility. Bartered Brides
However, if the man chooses to exchange one of his own daughters for a wife, his agnates are unlikely to be able to offer the same opposition. Bartered Brides
Whatever the feelings of men of the household towards the second marriage of one of their number, the women are likely to be firmly opposed to it. Bartered Brides
A mother’s great sorrow is to see her daughter marry such a man, and fathers too will often refuse such suitors for their daughters, however attractive their pro- posal may be in other respects. Bartered Brides
Though the Maduzai themselves were apparently not aware of it, there has been a substantial decline in the rate of polygyny in recent years. Bartered Brides
is appreciably higher than the percentage of women’s marriages terminated by the death of the husband (4 1/180 = 22.7%). Bartered Brides
Explicit assessments of beauty, and the associated, though generally implicit, sexual connotations, are part of the rhetoric of romance and are couched in literary clichés drawn ultimately from the literary tradition which includes A Thousand and One Nights. Bartered Brides
However, as one man explained, physical attractiveness is only one of the qualities of a desirable bride: Where there is a good girl, she has good colour and appearance and is pretty; she is well- mannered and thoughtful. Bartered Brides
Attractiveness can also be understood by its opposite: no one wants a bride who is old (i.e. Bartered Brides
some years past puberty); who is ugly or sickly or slow-witted; or who has a reputation for being loose, bad or dirty (mundar) or impure in a religious sense (haram). Bartered Brides
we give them five pence cheaper. Bartered Brides
Women 64 8 2 — — 74 86 74:86 = 1.16 Bartered Brides
194 Ideologies of equality and inequality ‘Closeness’ in a relationship in fact works both ways. Bartered Brides
As one man remarked of his son-in-law, he is from the village of our people — our own (khpalwan), qaum, a brother’s son — and if tomorrow my daughter has nothing and cries, or has some misfortune, then I can leave something for her and help her. Bartered Brides
But agnatic kinsmen are not bound to help each other. Bartered Brides
The Maduzai express no preference for marriage specifically with their first agnatic cousins: such marriages arejust one kind of ‘close’ marriage. Bartered Brides
Matrilateral kins- men and even members of different tribal divisions may feel that they are close. Bartered Brides
Finally, sheer geographic distance does not necessarily coincide with social distance. Bartered Brides
Indeed some of the marriages in which the parties are resident 75 km from each other are those between unrelated wealthy men who see themselves as political or economic allies. Bartered Brides
Often where a marriage involves parties socially distant from each other, one of the households lacks strong kin ties elsewhere and for economic or political motives seeks to attach itself to some established household, though sometimes of course two poor and isolated households may, in the absence of more promising connec- tions, arrange a marriage between themselves. Bartered Brides
Such people may be expected to yield a cheap bride, but as great social distance often coincides with the poverty of the strangers, it is often difficult to disentangle the main reasons fora low brideprice. Bartered Brides
Clearly, where the woman’s guardian does initiate the proposal, the accepted status distinction between wife-givers and wife-takers is accentuated, and a man who makes such an offer thus often accepts the status of permanent client to his affines. Bartered Brides
Of the three factors, the one most often mentioned by the Maduzai is the rela- tive wealth of the families involved. Bartered Brides
And if an ugly girl has a rich father, people don’t worry so much about her looks and take her. Bartered Brides
However bad she is, she will be sold expensively. Bartered Brides
People may try to use marriage as a means of attaching themselves to the wealthy and powerful, while no one wants to take a woman from a poor house- hold, whether the poverty is due to some sudden and unavoidable circumstance or is chronic and due, for example, to the shiftless character of the household head himself. Bartered Brides
Thus, as one man said, speaking of the amounts of Durrani brideprices in the region, All other Durrani women in the valley are cheaper than those of the Maduzai villages; in the western steppe, before all their sheep died in the winter of 1972, [Durrani] women were more expensive than here; but now no one will marry them. Bartered Brides
On the one hand, they are liable to give their own women cheaply: wealthier Maduzai insist that the marriage policies of the poor are dictated solely by hunger and that they give their daughters only to affines who will in some mea- sure support them. Bartered Brides
It does seem to be the case, as was asserted by several knowledgeable men and women, that most women have only one declared suitor, the man whom they Marriage choice 197 198 eventually marry. Bartered Brides
I was told that most men are pleased to accept any reason- able proposal for their ward, and early engagements, which protect the girl’s reputation anguardian, are strongly favoured.guardian, are strongly favoured Bartered Brides
In other cases, quiet reconnaissance by women, and the suitor’s own sense of the appropriateness of a proposal, seem to minimize the chances of an embarrassing refusal. Bartered Brides
First, we can examine the kotara brideprice unions to see how far brideprices correspond with wealth and social distance. Bartered Brides
The average brideprice paid by house- 8 71,875 7 73,571 15 72,667 holds of Quartile IV is four to five times their expected annual income; for 5 45,000 3 41,667 8 43,750 Quartile III, it is two to three times expected income; for Quartile II it is one and Groom from I ably does not exceed annual income. Bartered Brides
Only three marriages bridged the factions — and these are not hard to explain, for they are all examples of the way households involved in a financial crisis, and thus at least temporarily poor and desperate, are likely to be forced to marry their daughters ‘far’. Bartered Brides
The background of agnation in the seven exceptional cases suggests that close- ness can override wealth differences between potential affines. Bartered Brides
One of the main terms Durrani use is dzan, whose meaning is ‘self’, but also both ‘body’ and ‘soul’. Bartered Brides
She ytan can be controlled by aki and religious purity. Bartered Brides
The she ytan’s object is devilry: to cause quarrels and divert thought and emotions from the path of hakk (the right and just) to nahakk (wrong) and from rawa (permitted) to 1 he power of shame 21)9 210 Case stuaies ana structural implications narawa (forbidden). Bartered Brides
However, Durrani can draw on the more complex elements of the Galenic system to suggest that what is important is the achievement of some kind of personal equilibrium between rational responsibility and emotion. Bartered Brides
These emotions are thus recognized and given an intrinsic value, and women as well as men can achieve the ideal equilibrium state. Bartered Brides
At one level, the idioms in which this relation is expressed emphasize the differ- ences between men and women; on another level they are treated similarly, as both possessing honour whose bodily locus is the same. Bartered Brides
Though unhappy wives do readily discuss problems of all kinds with afew close supporters, usually their own mother and sisters and one or two personal friends, even such discussions are not accepted as legitimate outlets for women’s feelings and women often say that an intelligent wife should never express her dissatis- faction with her husband because this reveals disharmony and renders the house- hold vulnerable to the machinations of outsiders. Bartered Brides
A weak man may suffer continual verbal abuse from his wife. Bartered Brides
One of his informants explained the discrepancy between the lack of divorce and the tribesmen’s conviction that adultery was common: We know that a man (nar) guards his woman so that she cannot commit adultery, or he kills the adulterers. Bartered Brides
I know of only one case of divorce after the nikah among the Maduzai, and in its circumstances and timing it seems to be the exception which proves the general rule (Case 9— Shekar, p. 233). Bartered Brides
One such man, apparently sound in mind and body, was the only survivor of an impoverished household and was socially weak and vulnerable, but he refused to accept unquestioningly the undignified role of labourer. Bartered Brides
Other men, who appeared to resent their social position and even to reject the system, were also known as ‘insane’. Bartered Brides
Personal biographies of women suggest that one in three married women in the community of the seventy households of Lineage C — the Maduzai whom we knew best — could expect to experience jinn-possession at some time during their lives. Bartered Brides
One exceptional case is of particular note and suggests clearly that ‘authentic’ possession hides social rebellion. Bartered Brides
The power of shame 217 218 Case studies and structural implications CaseS: Shin’s ‘insanity’ Shin was a member of the large household of Hajji Ibrahim, the Sinjit headman, whose members we knew intimately. Bartered Brides
One of Shin’s brothers-in-law, who hoped also to separate from Hajji Ibrahim and join his eldest brother’s new household, was sympathetic to Shiri’s argu- ments and reported her to have said, ‘My father-in-law has too many guests and I get tired of serving them. Bartered Brides
I want to look after my own children and my own husband—for us six or ten pieces of bread are enough foraday, why should I work so hard?’ Shin and her family did separate from Hajji Ibrahim’s household but then Shin herself tragically died, and the household was reabsorbed into the large paternal joint household. Bartered Brides
Thus, a common pattern is one where a woman, having decided that the men of the household to which she belongs are inadequate providers or defenders of household resources and honour, attempts to escape the household via a romantic liaison. Bartered Brides
Rather, illicit liaisons seem to occur when the household within which a woman lives is weak in the first place. Bartered Brides
Thus at least two women in Lineage Chad been involved in such cases between 1967—1972 (see Laijan’s daughter (Case 8, p. 228; N. Tapper 1979: 419). Bartered Brides
Particularly, the custom of bazi itself can provide a cover for an engaged girl’s extra-marital affairs: on the one hand, the husband may come secretly to bazi before the formal ‘foot-loosening’ ceremony has been performed, and on the other, there are no tests of virginity at the time of that ceremony itself, so any pregnancy during the engagement can easily be attributed to the husband, regard- less of his actual involvement. Bartered Brides
‘Call- ing out’ is the one recognized means a woman has of rejecting her status as a pawn in the system of marriage and exercising the power implicit in her valuation for the purposes of marriage. Bartered Brides
Given the extent to which the formal ideology of gender is male-dominated, the institution of ‘calling out’ may seem something of a puzzle, until one realizes how the institution tacitly affords the strongest and most powerful men of the community the opportunity to act as romantic heroes, to take often a second or subsequent wife at little cost to themselves and to display their power to intrude on and manipulate the marriage policies of other households (see N. Tapper 1979:87,421). Bartered Brides
For example, one local man was said to have murdered his daughter when she refused to agree to an engagement he had planned for her and sought to ‘call out’ for another youth: her father killed her before the lover could react (assuming he had intended to do so). Bartered Brides
Indeed, as one of the wealthier men in the community commented when the girl’s father pleaded with him to help recover her, ‘it will cost more than 50,000 Afghanis in time and trouble [and bribes] to get her back. Bartered Brides
The second case is one we have already met: Kaftar, the girl from a wealthy household who forsook her Durrani identity and eloped with Sipayi, the Hazara youth (seep. Bartered Brides
However, if one tries to consider the elopement from what might have been Kaftar’s point of view, it may indeed be the case that her father was the cause of her disloyalty to her household and decision to run away. Bartered Brides
In the third and fourth cases, given below, the relation between hypogámous marriage and Durrani identity is more complex and ambiguous. Bartered Brides
Four years before, one of Laijan’s sons had been engaged to the daughter of one of the ‘Sayyid’ households attached to the subtribe (seep. Bartered Brides
Then two years ago Zarur, one of Laijan’s unengaged daughters, was dis- covered to be having an affair with a close cousin, as a result of which, to every- one’s shame, the girl was married hypogamously. Bartered Brides
Zarur and her unmarried second cousin (FFBDS), were discovered at a secret tryst by her younger brother, who promptly told their parents. Bartered Brides
The eleven households of Laljan’s closest agnates offered him little support. Bartered Brides
The crisis was eventually resolved by Kishmir herself. Bartered Brides
One morning in the summer of 1971 Majlun announced that the previous night two of Laijan’s Sons had come to steal wheat from his harvest pile. Bartered Brides
He said that he had fought with the boys and that one of them had knocked out his tooth. Bartered Brides
The loss of a tooth is a serious business, and the Maduzai say that a man has the right to one woman in compensation. Bartered Brides
Laijan’s threat was taken seriously, and at this point, fearing an escalation of the crisis and government intervention, the leading men among Laljan’s agnates began to insist that Laljan marry the girl to Majlun. Bartered Brides
It was well known that Koreysh was very unhappy about the marriage. Bartered Brides
After Zarur’s marriage, which confirmed the disunity of the household and revealed how little support Laljan could expect from his close agnates, the house- hold was oppressed still further and another of Laljan’s daughters was then ‘stolen’ in marriage. Bartered Brides
However, other married women find relief from personal misery through illicit sexual liaisons. Bartered Brides
The degree of autonomy which married women in weak households may have is illustrated, first, by the case of Shekar and her daughter, Zeytun, who was the fourth Maduzai woman to be married hypogamously; and secondly, by the account of the ‘brothel’ in one of the Maduzai villages. Bartered Brides
Only a man desperate for a wife would have considered marrying this dis- reputable widow. Bartered Brides
But such was the situation of the elderly Khoshdil, who was widowed about a year after Shekar. Bartered Brides
No one wishes to give their daughter to a man who is so poor (he owns no land or animals and works as a day labourer for members of the sub- tribe) and who has ‘no qaum’, that is, no close supportive agnates. Bartered Brides
After they had been married a few years, the Kandahari ‘s lame daughter died. Bartered Brides
This happens in the other villages too, but it is not so open that everybody knows about it. Bartered Brides
Mamadzi’s father-in-law is a pathetic, weak man. Bartered Brides
Only in the most unusual and rare cases may such a woman risk all and escape the household through a romantic liaison. Bartered Brides
The likelihood of such an infringement of their rights depends very much on their strength or weak- ness. Bartered Brides
We have seen how the control of marriages and of the sexual behaviour of members of a household may be usurped by others. Bartered Brides
The marriages made by Adam’s house of Soleyman’s house, while Payz increase. Bartered Brides
Adam, the eldest brother, was a but piety. Bartered Brides
Parsiwans, and all married before the Kandahar (see p. 70). Bartered Brides
Two of Adam’s daughters were married in Kandahar. Bartered Brides
Adam’s eldest son Sultan was also married in Kandahar, where he took a woman from Lineage A as part of one of the exchanges which united Lineages A and C. Adam’s second son Dost Mohammad (3) also married in Kandahar, a girl from another Ishaqzai subtribe which is today a near neighbour of the Maduzai in Saripul. Bartered Brides
People say that it was as if he had paid seven lacs (700,000 Afs.) Bartered Brides
today. Bartered Brides
Nurjan refused to accept only a few hundred Afghanis, so Sultan broke the engagement and told him that he must find the girl another husband, but not from the qaum. Bartered Brides
This dispute has not been forgotten: Section I made no further marriages with Nurjan’s descendants for over twenty-five years, until Samad, Nurjan’s son and now leading man of the group, was able to force Sultan into agreeing to marry one of his own daughters to Samad’s son. Bartered Brides
She was eventually married to a Durrani living more than 80 km away. Bartered Brides
1924) proved difficult: Teymur was again given land, and a second pair of exchange marriages was arranged, this time between Adam’s third son Sherali (4) and his half-sister Karar (12), and another son (Darwiza) and daughter of Teymur. Bartered Brides
Karar’s marriage to Darwiza, who is now one of the leaders of Section IV, has been a successful one, and she closely identifies with her marital home. Bartered Brides
In the past her own closest agnates have been treated as neutral and separate from her husband and his agnates who compose the other faction of the lineage. Bartered Brides
Visiting continued with Karar in spite of the state of relations between the factions, and Karar was able to arrange the marriage of one of her daughters to one of Soley- man’s sons. Bartered Brides
Half of the land was given by Soleyman’s son, the other half by Ibrahim, who was determined that Darwiza should not be allowed to break the engagement with his exorbitant demands. Bartered Brides
The most recent outbreak between the factions of Lineage C erupted in the spring of 1972 when, during a quarrel over sheep, Darwiza fired a pistol at Ibrahim’s son. Bartered Brides
A few years later Dost Mohammad (3) also separated, leaving the third brother Sherali (4) in charge of Adam’s own household. Bartered Brides
Some time after the Maduzai began to winter in their valley lands, one of the Ishaqzai Khans saw Adam’s daughters playing outside the camp. Bartered Brides
Sherali’s two eldest sons received wives, the third was born after Sherali’s death. Bartered Brides
was paid for her and in return she was provided with a large trousseau. Bartered Brides
Nanawor grew into a very desirable young woman and many men (including one of the Ishaqzai Khans) wanted to marry her. Bartered Brides
Although Patih Mohammad killed another man instead, he nonetheless began to press Sultan for Nanawor. Bartered Brides
The marriage has been a success but the bride has never forgotten that she was married into the enemy camp, and she frequently uses the abusive term ‘Torabi’ to refer to her affines when they are out of hearing. Bartered Brides
Nanawor made the first of these two marriages out of friendship, and a bride- price of 40,000 Afs., Bartered Brides
a relatively small sum at the time (1955), was fixed for the girl because the mothers were sisters and because the girl was not particularly attractive. Bartered Brides
Anar Gul, now head of the household, was only young and as yet unmarried himself, and it was Ibrahim who wound up the affairs of the Sayyid household and brought Hawa’s caravan back to Saripul. Bartered Brides
Right after her death in 1941 he took a further wife, an unattractive girl, but one who he hoped would prove fertile, from another Ishaqzai subtribe, several house- holds of which were at that time Maduzai clients. Bartered Brides
Affinal ties through her proved unimportant, for her agnates grew further impoverished and moved away. Bartered Brides
Sultan took the opportunity to do himself a service: he engaged one of Joleyman’s sons, Shirin, to a daughter of his (Sultan’s) friend, a wealthy man of another Ishaqzai subtribe from Maymana. Bartered Brides
However, there were continuing confrontations between him and his nephew Sultan, and Hajji Soleyman continued to be active in section affairs, as well as maintaining his reputation for lavish hospitality, until his death in 1961. Bartered Brides
Ibrahim simply refused. Bartered Brides
Eventually another jirga was called, and the elders said that Ibrahim was right, ‘the marriage would never have good taste’ if he were forced to give his daughter away free. Bartered Brides
A few years after the original scandal occurred, another marriage was made which I think was related to it: in 1949, Sultan married Ibrahim’s eldest sister (28) to one of Seyf Jan’s sons for a small brideprice. Bartered Brides
Ibrahim never liked Sadozi, the woman he had married the night his father had been killed in the feud, and he sought a second wife. Bartered Brides
Even if, as is likely, he had intended to waive part of the brideprice, he was now obliged to demand it in full. Bartered Brides
I ne marriages ojnajji ~‘taam s aescenaants 2D9 zou case sruaies ana strucuirai :mpucwwns Soon afterwards Mullah Daud’s son accidentally killed a Parsiwan servant, and Mullah Daud incurred huge expenses in his consequent dealing with the Ishaqzai Khans and the government. Bartered Brides
His uncles (10) and (11), both now married and with children, formed one new household; another was formed by his half-brothers (26) and (27), while Ibrahim and his family stayed with his mother and one unmarried sister in ‘Adam’s house’. Bartered Brides
to the men of Section IV. Bartered Brides
The dispute began with a question of inheritance (see Figure 17). Bartered Brides
As head of the household, Mohammad Amir had the right to dispose of Spin, Darey’s widow, as he chose, and he gave her to his own eldest son, Sakhi Dad. Bartered Brides
Again the case was a complicated one in which Hajji Sultan inter- fered in the affairs of another household of close agnates, that of his brother’s sons Agha Mohammad and Gul Mohammad (26 and 27), and increased his agnates’ hostility towards him (see Figure 18). Bartered Brides
This was shocking to the Uzbeks, who met Ibrahim and a companion on one of their visits and threatened their lives, severely beating the companion and forcing Ibrahim to marry the widow, to whom he had ‘given a bad name’. Bartered Brides
Sultan gave a daughter(16) to Ibrahim’s first son by his second wife, Molayem. Bartered Brides
Ibrahim was accustomed to visiting and acting as scribe for one of the Ishaqzai Khans. Bartered Brides
A few years ago he managed to purloin some deeds from the latter and 1 lie marriages of flajji Adam’s descendants ‘269 thus to transfer a large amount of his land in the Hazarajat to the Maduzai Khan, who with the support of the Maduzai wolus could probably defend this land against both the lshaqzai Khans and the Hazaras. Bartered Brides
Early in 1971 at the age of 48, Ibrahim relinquished the post of headman and went on the pilgrimage to Mecca. Bartered Brides
The two houses are now said to be reconciled, though it is doubtful whether this will last. Bartered Brides
In spite of his attempt to withdraw from active village politics after his pilgrimage to Mecca, Hajji Ibrahim is unlikely to do this for many years. Bartered Brides
Nowadays people say that Sultan was a frightened man of whom every wolf took advantage. Bartered Brides
But, they say, when Ibrahim grew up and became known by the government officials, no one could take advantage of him. Bartered Brides
It is likely that neither of the brides’ guardians ever imagined that the respect- ive brideprices could be agreed to, let alone paid, but they were, and in each case wealth was converted to prestige by the groom and his family, and defined the groom as one of the leaders of both lineage and section. Bartered Brides
prices have risen fairly smoothly and in line with national and international supply and demand, brideprices have been influenced by sudden radical changes in standards. Bartered Brides
In my account, the historical perspective has been one of ‘social change’. Bartered Brides
Land and valuables are also treated in a special way. Bartered Brides
The meaning is highly ambigu- ous, but essentially the honour goes to the killers who have ‘taken’ a man and ‘given’ only two women. Bartered Brides
The fact that each household must control vurrani marriage — conciusions ~oi ZöLf ease swaies ana srrucrurai impiicanons items from each sphere means that it must inevitably become involved in con- versions from one sphere to another. Bartered Brides
In fact no one but the socially or physically destitute convert their resources downward without a cogent explanation of their motives, and an account of their expectations and various gains. Bartered Brides
Male labour was the key to this expansion and as the wealth controlled by the head increased, the surpluses produced by each constituent element were pooled in his hands, and the whole unit benefited by efficiency in pro- portion. Bartered Brides
As sons grew up, the household was able to expand both its livestock and land- holding. Bartered Brides
They are still a source of prestige... Bartered Brides
Since the advent of the Maduzai to Turkistan, the Maduzai have experienced a change from a relatively egalitarian society based on an abundance of land to one in which social rank is increasingly determined by inherited wealth in land. Bartered Brides
Many of the anthropologists who have worked most recently in Afghanistan have contributed to one or more of the following edited volumes, which together provide the best entrée to the literature on the country: see the Danish journal Folk (Vol. Bartered Brides
One or more lineages form the core of the local political groups which I term ‘subtribes’. Bartered Brides
On the canal from which the original Maduzai lands are watered, one hour in each cycle of 18 days goes to every 11 jeribs of land. Bartered Brides
References ‘299 Index Abdullah, Hajji, 5,80,83,96,254 Abdul Manan, Hajji, 84,86,262,264 abortion, 164,223,234,272 Adam, Hajji, 74,84, 241—4, 246, 250—2,254 adultery, 17,125,127,214,221 affinal relationships, 11, 126—7, 147, 157 affinal ties (kheshi), 49—51,53,57, 153, 160, 171,251,277—8 core-lineages and client households, 87—90 between lineage factions, 83,97 affines, 47, 56, 94—5, 168,171,188,197—8,202 non-Durrani, 54,57,230—I affinity, 46—7,51, 195 Afghanistan, 4,26,28—9.38—9,65, Bartered Brides
In this instance, particularly, the amount of basic library search, secondary research and, indeed, some prelim- inary writing on the manuscript has been of immense value to both the editor and author. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
M.J.H. 1 ABDALI. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
It has trained Afghans in mechanical, electrical, and civil engineering since the mid-1950s. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
GHILZAI DYNASTY (post-high school) technical training school built with the assistance of the United States. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
In a few years he consolidated the warring tribes within Afghanistan and formed one of the largest Muslim Empires in the second half of the 18th century. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
MU DAYA RIVER (ANCIENT OXUS) Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A Turkman town in the province of Jozjan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
During its journey it is joined by the Tarnak River 17 miles southwest of Qandahar. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Capital of Kunar Province. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The The most important handicrafts are the ARYAN see HISTORY--Indo-Aryans ARYANA see HISTORY--Indo-Aryans ASADABAD. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
-I -DUNYA. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The chalcolithic pattern discovered in Afghanistan is one where a semisendentary situation is pre- dominant. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
One of the five major tenets of Islam. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The newspaper of DAQIQI see HISTORY- -Islamic Period DAR UL AMAN. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
DAIWA DAILY, THE (THE LAMP). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
One team member goes over to the other team’s side and is chased back by an opposing team member who tries to whip him. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
cycles of 50/60 are common throughout Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
About 600, 000 agriculturalist Farsiwans This is a herding-farming group located About 870, 000 in number, they live in the EXTENDED FAMILY. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
They are merchants or traders. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Reportedly the second largest glacier FIROZ KOH MOUNTAINS see GEOGRAPHY FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The flora (vegetation) of Afghanistan is as FEBETCHENKO. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Its width is one -fourth of the width of the flag. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Like many dimensions of the Afghan cul - FOOD. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
41 Febetchenko FOLK MUSIC. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Also a particular art style which combines both Buddhic and popular art styles is characteristic of this region. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
45 Gandhara Geography of Afghanistan can best be divided into the f ollow- ing major zones: Central Highlands : Afghanistan’s mountainous core, the Central Highlands, is part of the great Alpine- Himalayan mountain range. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
An archaeological site located five miles south HADITH. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
EJADDA. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Located in the southwestern part of the country, Helmand province is an agri- cultural area with wheat, cotton, and barley as the main crops. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A huge irrigation and hydroelectric project on the Helmand and Arghandab Rivers. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The project under the supervision The Hari Rud and its tributaries disappear It eventually enters Turkmenistan, a Soviet Hasan Maimandi53 Helmand River HELMAND RIVER. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
It was begun in the early 1950’s and is in the last phases of its completion. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Herat (Province)55 Hinayana (Buddhism) 56 HINAYANA (BUDDHISM). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
It was about 2, 000 B. C. when a group of Aryans for the first time took to a seden- tary life, building cities and towns, and setting up a government and so on. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Indo-Aryans. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The important philosopher was Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) who revived Aristotelian science in the Orient. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The drainage network of Afghanistan IBN-SINA (980-1037). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Technically, any person who will lead a collec - INDUSTRY see ECONOMY INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS see ARIANA AFGHAN ISLAH. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
An English daily newspaper published KABUL UNIVERSITY. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
This river rises in the Unai pass in KABUL RIVER VALLEY. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The catchment area in the Kabul is ap- 68 I KABUL RIVER. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
An archaeological site located about KHERQA. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A cloak allegedly worn by Prophet Moham - KHILAPHATE. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
KHAYR KHANA. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
one of the preferred gems throughout Central and Southwest Asia. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
It is the capital of Helmand Province. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
MASJIDE JAME or FRIDAY MOSQUE. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The MULLAH NASRUDDIN. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The Mua’zin are respected members of their com- munities throughout Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
They are also influential in educa- tion and politics. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
One of the main staples of the Afghan diet. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Tula: Surnai : bore at the out end. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
is celebrated as the New Year in Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
3, 500 to 7, 500 years before historical times. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Despite the obstacles of climate and topog- raphy, efforts are being made to develop the re- sources of the Nimroze Province. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Ranked 22nd in size among the the Pamir Rver at Qala Panja form this river which is one of the headstreams of the Amu Darya River Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
During its course it is joined by the Ghoband River and 30 miles east of Kabul they join the Kabul River Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Afghan societies is in the hands of one or more males. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION AND INTERNAL ADMINIS- mountainous regions in the country, and its valleys attract tourists and commercial interests. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The most important decisions are made by the eldest male members of an Afghan family. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Parwan is also well known for its mulberries and a variety of other fruits. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
An Afghan monetary unit equal to one one - PULE ALAM. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
These animals are raised princi- QARYAH. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The major tributary of the Amu Darya QUR’AN. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Qishlaq103 Qunduz River 104 QUNDUZ RIVER. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
On July 17, 1973 A. D., RIG VEDA. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The Repub - lican Government of Afghanistan particularly en- courages visits to Afghanistan by scholars and others interested in the natural beauty of the country, and/or in carrying out responsible, pro- fessional, and scholastic research and study of the Afghan society and culture. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Samovar111 Sare Daura 112 SARE DAURA. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
They are found all over Afghanistan, and are usually held in esteem in the communities in which they reside. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The Seistan Basin opens up into the Seistan Desert and Seistan Lake. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
see AMULET TAHARIDS see HISTORY--Islamic eriod TAJIK see ETHNIC GROUPS TAJIKI see LANGUAGES TKUAR (PROVINCE) Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
See also CHENGIS KHAN. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Its altitude on the Afghanistan side of the border is 16,150 feet. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Klrghiz herdsmen make two 280- mile round trips across this land during the winter from Mulic Ali, their home camp, to Khandad where they purchase necessary supplies. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
One of the five tenets of Islam requiring all ZAMEEN DAR. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
If there is one important message that this book conveys, it is that a campaign’ by radical, militant Islam threatens our way of life. Inside Bin Laden
He is not an evil “Lone Ranger” but rather a principal player in a tangled and sinister web of terrorism-sponsoring states, intelli- gence chieftains, and master terrorists. Inside Bin Laden
From all the territories of Islam there should arise a group of people reinforced with faith, well equipped with means and methods; and then let them set out to attack the usurpers, ha- rassing them incessantly until their abode is one of everlasting torment. Inside Bin Laden
And the Islamist intel- lectuals—popularly called “fundamentalists”—,could not transform their al- luring theories into practical solutions. Inside Bin Laden
The Muslim world has found itself at a historical crossroads. Inside Bin Laden
But this struggle, violent and ugly as it may be, does not resolve the central issue confronting the Islamists. Inside Bin Laden
They are convinced that it is only the West, as was so clearly demonstrated during the Gulf War, that saves and sustains subservient Muslim regimes while punishing those that stand up to the West. Inside Bin Laden
Director Tenet stated, “First, there is not the slightest doubt that Osama bin Laden, his worldwide allies, and his sympathizers are planning further attacks against us. Inside Bin Laden
This one is no different. Inside Bin Laden
XIX A Note on Sources and Methods I’VE BEEN STUDYING terrorism and subversion, particularly throughout the Hub of Islam, for more than a quarter of a century now. Inside Bin Laden
The omission of precise source notes is the least one can do. Inside Bin Laden
Instead he freely elected to abandon the life of affluence and commit himself to waging a jihad under extremely harsh conditions. Inside Bin Laden
To understand these Islamist leaders—particularly Osama bin Laden— one needs to understand their break with their past, their motivation, the fire in their veins, and the depth of their hatred of the United States and what it stands for. Inside Bin Laden
At the time his father, Muhammad bin Laden, was a small-time builder and contractor who had arrived from Yemen in search of employment. Inside Bin Laden
The oil boom of the 1970S changed Muhammad bin Laden’s fortunes. Inside Bin Laden
Osama was destined to follow in his father’s footsteps. Inside Bin Laden
In 1975 Egyptian writer and engineer Wail Uthman, one of the early influential ideologues of the most militant branch of the Is- lamist movement, published The Party of God in Struggle with the Party of Satan. Inside Bin Laden
Osama bin Laden was one of the first Arabs to go to Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion. Inside Bin Laden
“I was enraged and went there at once,” he said to an Arab journalist. Inside Bin Laden
Osama bin Laden was studying at the university at the time, and there is evidence that he attended one of Azzam’s lectures. Inside Bin Laden
In 1979, with the declaration of the Afghan jihad, Azzam left the uni- versity and went to practice what he had been preaching, becoming one of the first Arabs to join the Afghan jihad. Inside Bin Laden
In this context bin Laden was in- tegrated into the Islamist international system and became one of Azzam’s closest disciples. Inside Bin Laden
President Sadat agreed to help the fledgling Afghan resistance with weapons. Inside Bin Laden
13 14 . Inside Bin Laden
In the early 198os it hadn’t taken long for Egyptian and other Arab Islamist groups to begin using Peshawar as a center for their headquarters in exile. Inside Bin Laden
As a result of their growing coopera- tion, they established an “international jihad organization” using Pakistan and Afghanistan as their springboard for operations back home. Inside Bin Laden
Mujahideen who served with bin Laden described him as fearless and oblivious to danger. Inside Bin Laden
Most important in this respect was Azzam’s influence over the American volunteers in Pe- shawar. Inside Bin Laden
“Sheikh AbdAllah knew when and where he had to implement his political and reli- gious beliefs,” explained Hammoody. Inside Bin Laden
In early December 1985 Ayatollah !brahim Inside Bin Laden
Widely consid- ered one of the most effective strategic covert operations conducted by the Soviet Union, this “crash” also drastically changed the world of interna- tional Islamist terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
One of the closest was Osama bin Laden. Inside Bin Laden
On the one hand, he con- demned Iraq for invading Kuwait and urged its eviction by force. Inside Bin Laden
“When we buy American goods, we are accomplices in the murder of Palestinians,” he argued in one recorded speech. Inside Bin Laden
He had risen to that position in the aftermath of the June 30, 1989, military coup that brought General Omar al- Bashir to power. Inside Bin Laden
But the ensuing transformation of Sudan from a Libyan-Iraqi ally into an Iranian fiefdom was not simply a change in hegemony. Inside Bin Laden
Turabi stressed in his address that the PlO’s objective “is to work out a global action plan in order to challenge and defy the tyrannical West, because Allah can no longer remain in our world, in the face of the absolute materialistic power.” Inside Bin Laden
Most important were the preparations made for long-term terrorist operations in Western Europe, starting in summer 1991. Inside Bin Laden
As zealous and committed as they were, the Sunni Islamists had no real knowledge of such crucial aspects of interna- tional terrorism as organizing clandestine work, building secure cells, fight- ing the state’s security forces, organizing operations, building sophisticated bombs, or organizing assassinations. Inside Bin Laden
In late 1991 he established a supreme council for the PlO and the 1MB in Khartoum. Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden adopted a twin-track approach. Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden claimed he put as much as $~o million toward the bank’s capital, although it is not known whose money that was. Inside Bin Laden
But the large-volume money transfers and laundering required a more extensive solution. Inside Bin Laden
By the mid-199os, relying on family connections and benefactors from his days in Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden completed the organization of a comprehensive and in essence detection-proof financial system in support of the high-quality terrorist networks his closest friend, Ayman al-Zawahiri, was organizing in Europe. Inside Bin Laden
But this was only the beginning. Inside Bin Laden
One of the most thorough studies of Islamist charities was conducted in Croatia in fall 1993. Inside Bin Laden
One of the first principal issues to have surfaced in the early strategic negotiations with the Iranians was the poor shape, if not virtual nonexistence, of the Sudanese strategic infrastructure—roads, bridges, airports, military facilities, and the CRISIS AND REBIRTH 45 46 . Inside Bin Laden
Meanwhile the ISI’s vast and highly experienced terrorist support infra- structure, tempered by years of assistance to such regional armed struggles as those of the Afghans, Kashmiris, and Sikhs, was expanding its opera- tions to include support for and sponsorship of global Islamist terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
Although they operated as individuals and in very small groups, they actually constituted a global unifying factor because they brought the organizations and movements they had joined into the Islamist fold. Inside Bin Laden
Zanzibar, one of East Africa’s main ports, was con- sidered ideal as a center for transshipment of people, goods, and weapons throughout Africa and the Third World as a whole. Inside Bin Laden
One of the main projects of Ibrahim Ahmad Omar was the Sudanese support for an 8oo-man Ugandan militia, mainly of the Aringa tribe, under the com- mand of Jumah Aris, that was being trained and based in Juba and used for cross-border raids into northern Uganda. Inside Bin Laden
At the same time Sudan’s anticipation of a major escalation in the Before long these forces—and the entire Sudan-based command, train- Although bin Laden played only a supporting role, albeit a vital one, in CRISIS AND REBIRTH . Inside Bin Laden
THE STRATEGICALLY CRUCIAL Horn of Africa—Ethiopia (including now independent Eritrea), Somalia, and Djibouti—has been the playground of superpowers and regional powers for centuries. Inside Bin Laden
The manpower of any one of these organizations or fronts was dominated by a specific nationality, and each nationality’s individual goals determined its priorities. Inside Bin Laden
Most important were the United Somali Congress (USC), which derived from the Hawiye clan in central Somalia, and the Somali National Movement (SNM), derived from the Isaaq clan in Somaliland, the former British colony that is the northern arm of Somalia along the Gulf of Aden. Inside Bin Laden
By late 1992. Inside Bin Laden
Meanwhile, because of the clannish charac- ter of the revolt against General Muhammad Siyad Barre (who had ruled for twenty-one years) in summer and fall 1991, the clans and subclans who had provided most of the city’s services, including police, escaped, fearing the advancing Hawiye. Inside Bin Laden
One of the leaders of an Islamist charity organization accused the West of exploiting the humanitarian aid in order to implement “a suspicious plan aimed at partitioning Somalia to European countries and of implementing the partition plan by fanning the flames of dissen- sion among Somali factions fighting for government control.” Inside Bin Laden
While Somalians were starving, additional National Islamic Front train- ing camps for fighters from Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Kenya, and Uganda were opened and expanded in Sudan under the direction of Dr. Ali al-Haj, one of Turabi’s closest friends and confidants. Inside Bin Laden
At least one Libyan expert bomb maker was brought in from Afghanistan- Pakistan. Inside Bin Laden
Although invited to participate in this conference, bin Laden elected to act as one of Turabi’s inner circle of advisers. Inside Bin Laden
The Islamists anticipated that “a decisive battle will inevitably occur between General Aidid and the international, and particu- larly the American, forces.” Inside Bin Laden
After consultations with Tehran, General Bashir erroneously concluded that a U.S. military intervention against Sudan could be expected in late De- cember or early January. Inside Bin Laden
The repeated claims of Somalian officials, all supporters of Ali Mahdi Muham- mad, and Arabs that “General Aidid is the one responsible for this con- frontation” increased the confusion. Inside Bin Laden
came to help the Somali people, but their operational method has become one of destruction, bombardment, and arrests with no recourse to law—but rather to the use of force and the barrel of the gun.” Inside Bin Laden
the ties between bin Laden and te Egyptian Is- lamist leaders, including Zawahiri.d the Egyptian Is- lamist leaders, including Zawahiri Inside Bin Laden
The U.N.-U.S. forces learned about the presence of two of Aidid’s senior foreign policy advisers, Osman Salah and Muhammad Hassan Awali, at the Olympic Hotel. Inside Bin Laden
One HizbAllah force arrived via Ethiopia and the other via Kenya. Inside Bin Laden
Somalia was the first time he was involved in a major undertaking at the leadership level, exposed to the complexities of decision making and policy formula- tion. Inside Bin Laden
The achievement against the United States in Somalia convinced him that it would be possible to ultimately evict the United States from Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf States as well. Inside Bin Laden
buildup was one of Bhutto’s personal priorities. Inside Bin Laden
IN LATE 1993 the ISI began strenuous efforts to carry out the promises made in Khartoum. Inside Bin Laden
By the early 1990S Islamabad’s quest for control of Afghanistan’s road system had become one of the ISI’s biggest covert operations, perhaps sec- ond only to its sponsorship of subversion and terrorism in Kashmir. Inside Bin Laden
Both bin Laden and Zawahiri played a major role in the Islamists’ war in the Balkans, in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, following through on their experience and expertise. Inside Bin Laden
Together these organizations constitute a resilient and redundant in- frastructure that sustains thousands of Islamist terrorists throughout the Balkans. Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden accomplished this undertaking at a personal risk. Inside Bin Laden
Specifically the summit decided to conduct two key evaluation sessions—one in Khartoum, to be chaired by Turabi, to study the prepara- tions for the campaign, and one in Mecca, to be chaired by Jannati, to study the situation inside Saudi Arabia. Inside Bin Laden
Using one of his European forged passports, Zawahiri established a forward base of operations in Santa Clara near San Francisco, California. Inside Bin Laden
One of the key legislative texts distributed by Khartoum was a fatwa originally issued by the Islamic Religious Conference held in Al-Obaeid, Sudan, on April 27, 1993. Inside Bin Laden
EMIR BIN LADEN . Inside Bin Laden
ONE THEATER WHERE the Islamists encourage a local Muslim minority to challenge the rule of a Christian majority and an elected government is the Philippines. Inside Bin Laden
Said Akhman was one of the candidates to be the suicide pilot in this operation. Inside Bin Laden
He had become one of Turabi’s coterie of confidants, and his advice and opinion were sought in making decisions. Inside Bin Laden
As one of Turabi’s inner cir- cle bin Laden played a part in formulating the strategic campaign against the main U.S. allies in the Arab world—Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Inside Bin Laden
As part of a movement driven by ideology and theology, the Islamists felt compelled to elucidate their reasons for undertaking drastic acts even before they acted. Inside Bin Laden
This younger generation of populist Islamists grew up on the legacy of bin Laden’s generation, the heroic young Islamists who participated in the Afghan jihad. Inside Bin Laden
Soon after the publication of Sheikh Udah’s fatwa, other Islamist circles began to act on it, mostly by preparing their supporters for the transforma- tion of the Islamist resistance in Saudi Arabia. Inside Bin Laden
For example, Islamist networks in Italy and Bosnia-Herzegovina were acti- vated for Mubarak’s planned November 1994 visit to Italy to attempt his assassination. Inside Bin Laden
Because diverting Zawahiri’s attention to Mubarak would adversely affect the highly important operations in the United States, Turabi decided to examine the issue in one-on-one consulta- tions with the Egyptian. Inside Bin Laden
In mid-June, at the time of Zawahiri’s visit to Sudan and Ethiopia, the final phases of the preparations were launched. Inside Bin Laden
This blast blew off one side of the building, destroyed more than forty-five cars, and shattered windows more than a mile away. Inside Bin Laden
“Terror- ism takes place where it is most unlikely,” because “terrorism sometimes takes place in one territory as a kind of vexation or the settling of accounts with another territory.” Inside Bin Laden
Still, Riyadh insisted that the act of terrorism was aimed at a third party and not the Saudi regime. Inside Bin Laden
One car bomb was defused near the De- fense Ministry building, and another car bomb was defused at the parking lot of the Petromin Oil Company. Inside Bin Laden
sabotage operations were narrowly averted around November zo—z5. Inside Bin Laden
But the choice of Islamabad was more than one of obvious expediency. Inside Bin Laden
Soon the real motives behind the purge surfaced. Inside Bin Laden
On the eve of the attack many Arab “Afghans” had been warned and moved from the Pe- shawar area, where they were dwelling in ISI-supported compounds, across the border into Afghanistan. Inside Bin Laden
THE COMMITTEE OF THREE . Inside Bin Laden
If in late 1995 Tehran needed any reminder of the importance of the Sunni Islamists and especially the up-and-coming “Afghan” leaders, the cri- sis in Bosnia-Herzegovina over implementation of the U.S.-sponsored Day- ton Accords or retention of the Muslim character of Bosnia’s government provided one. Inside Bin Laden
The terrorist forces were concealed as elite units of the Bosnian army or as members of Islamist “humanitarian work” and “charity” organizations. Inside Bin Laden
The sons, King Fahd and his six full broth- ers, are very close to one another. Inside Bin Laden
Preparations for the Syrian special operations began immediately. Inside Bin Laden
f them “confessed” to havingmet Osama bin Laden and to being one of “his men.”ving met Osama bin Laden and to being one of “his men. Inside Bin Laden
One target was initially selected, but other operations were likely also prepared at the time and are probably still ready for implementation. Inside Bin Laden
Guards at the al-Khobar compound had recorded incidents of professional surveillance over several months prior to the bombing. Inside Bin Laden
One of the visiting expert terrorists who was captured and is still im- prisoned by the Saudi security authorities testifies to the importance of these initial inspection visits. Inside Bin Laden
The mere use of the term HizbAllah was important. Inside Bin Laden
“This latest terrorist incident marks a new beginning for Saudi Arabia on a road of turmoil and an uncertain future,” warned a Westernized opposition group. Inside Bin Laden
One Arab observer with direct knowledge of the conference considered the resolution to be “a virtual declaration of relent- less war” on the U.S.-led West. Inside Bin Laden
This warning came only one day after the Movement had suddenly taken credit for the Dhahran bombing in addition to credit for the November 1995 Riyadh bombing. Inside Bin Laden
This time the events were bin Laden’s relocation of his main base from Sudan to Af- ghanistan and the establishment by Pakistan of the Taliban’s rule over that country. Inside Bin Laden
The extent of the Taliban’s genuine commitment to the “Afghans” was clearly expressed in one of their first encounters with bin Laden in Jalal- abad. Inside Bin Laden
The Taliban have a profound theological and historical commitment to the “Afghans” for their contribution to the anti-Soviet jihad. Inside Bin Laden
In early July 1996 Robert Fisk of the British newspaper Independent was one of the first to interview Osama bin Laden in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. Inside Bin Laden
is clear evidence of the huge anger of Saudi people against America. Inside Bin Laden
According to bin Laden, the average Saudi blamed the United States for these crises. Inside Bin Laden
They noted that “military action in the form of guerrilla ac- tion does not require a huge cadre equal to that of the armies and security establishments. Inside Bin Laden
This was an in- triguing assembly since bin Laden still enjoyed the hospitality and protec- tion of the Taliban, while Ahmad Shah Massud was and still is one of the Taliban’s most determined and effective foes. Inside Bin Laden
“The base enjoys good protection,” Atwan reported. Inside Bin Laden
Furthermore, Turabi emphasized, if one could understand the panic at the height of the Gulf Crisis that prompted Riyadh’s permission to U.S. forces to deploy to Arabia, there could be no excuse or justification for their remaining on the sacred soil of the land of the two holy shrines. Inside Bin Laden
Again Turabi stopped short of endorsing or en- couraging terrorism or violence. Inside Bin Laden
And it was here, in evicting the Americans from Muslim lands, that the Islamists could play a role. Inside Bin Laden
Several senior Iranian officials addressed the summit and ordered the terrorist leaders “to be ready to launch an unprecedented international terrorist campaign.” Inside Bin Laden
AT THE TIME that the terrorist warnings of late 1997 were being issued, Zawahiri, bin Laden, and the highest echelons of the leadership of Islamist international terrorism were preoccupied with one of the most significant yet least understood or known dramas of Islamist terrorism: an apparent secret deal between the Islamist terrorists and the Clinton administration that drove Egypt into de facto cooperation with the Islamist terrorism- sponsoring states against the United States. Inside Bin Laden
Back in the 1980s Abu-Umar al-Amriki openly acted as an emis- sary for the CIA with various Arab Islamist militant and terrorist move- ments—including the groups affiliated with Azzam, bin Laden, and Zawahiri—then operating under the wings of the Afghan jihad. Inside Bin Laden
213 214 • NEW ALLIES IN THE WAR and Equip” program. Inside Bin Laden
The source said that an official of one Western security organ had a meeting with Ayman al-Zawahiri, leader of the al-Jihad Organization, at a camp in Peshawar on Pakistan’s border with Afghanistan.” Inside Bin Laden
The opposition paper al-S ha b, which is well connected to and identifies with the nationalist sector within the defense establishment, published a long survey of an American-Israeli conspiracy run by the CIA. Inside Bin Laden
Cairo was rocked by demonstrations of widespread popular support for Iraq—demonstrations orchestrated by the Islamists. Inside Bin Laden
Of great significance was the formulation of the initial fatwa for a jihad issued in the name of the London-based al-Muhajiroun, one of the organizations supporting bin Laden and orchestrated by the Islamist head- quarters in Britain. Inside Bin Laden
One of those present was Ahmad Ibrahim al-Naj jar, a senior Islamic Jihad leader in Albania. Inside Bin Laden
. Inside Bin Laden
The establishment of the World Islamic Front was a major achievement for the Islamist terrorist groups sponsored by Iran, Sudan, and Pakistan. Inside Bin Laden
With Egypt, one of the most pro-U.S. Inside Bin Laden
First, the overall development of the global Islamist international terrorist capabilities was being consolidated. Inside Bin Laden
Muhammad Sadiq Odeh, the~man arrested in Pakistan in early August 1998 for involvement in the bombing of the U.S. embassies, was one of these Jordanians deployed by Zawahiri. Inside Bin Laden
There he was influenced by militant Islamism, trained in one of bin Laden’s base camps for Arab “Afghans,” and joined the mujahideen in their fight against the government in Kabul. Inside Bin Laden
An Egyp- tian confidant of al-Zawahiri’s, al-Rashidi commanded one of the elite units in the fighting with the U.S. forces in Mogadishu in fall 1993. Inside Bin Laden
As a rule, support networks are run by a different group of people than operational networks. Inside Bin Laden
Since the establishment of the HizbAllah International in the summer of 1996, Tehran has tended to stay in the back- ground, letting such prominent but fiercely loyal Sunni leaders as bin Laden and Zawahiri carry out the hands-on activities. Inside Bin Laden
Concurrently, in the winter of 1996—97, the significance of East Africa to Iran’s grand strategic calculations profoundly changed. Inside Bin Laden
Anticipating a new round of brinksmanship and a possible eruption in the Middle East, Tehran warned the Arab states against permitting the United States to op- erate against the Iranians. Inside Bin Laden
Tehran continued to raise the ante against the United States and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, specifically Saudi Arabia. Inside Bin Laden
In Tanzania the Iranian ambassador is Ali Saghaian. Inside Bin Laden
In mid-May 1997 Saudi security authorities arrested Sidi Tayyib, a businessman married to a relative of bin Laden. Inside Bin Laden
Fazil stressed that these counterintelligence operations were triggered by the acquisition of firsthand intelligence. Inside Bin Laden
247 248 . Inside Bin Laden
Security authorities in Western Europe learned about the nearly completed preparations for the strike during the World Cup games. Inside Bin Laden
The United States is helping the infidels and the Christians and Jews have established control over one third of the Muslim nation, something which we aim to halt.” Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden concluded with a milestone decree legitimizing the conduct of a global jihad irrespective of whether local forces were governments or Islamist movements. Inside Bin Laden
In these bomb blasts, 19 Americans were killed and more than one hundred wounded. Inside Bin Laden
However, despite these early successes there had also been setbacks, in particular one in the Mecca area. Inside Bin Laden
Once the pattern of the U.S. -sponsored and -overseen campaign to arrest Egyptian Is- lamist terrorists and extradite them to Egypt was established, the Islamist leadership issued a formal warning. Inside Bin Laden
Final planning and preparations for the operation had begun in July. Inside Bin Laden
One network comprised the ex- perts and supervisors; the other network comprised the actual perpetrators, including the martyrs-to-be. Inside Bin Laden
Odeh was a major supplier of fish for the hotel. Inside Bin Laden
One of his first steps was to rent a villa near Nairobi for May through August. Inside Bin Laden
At least one other terrorist, most likely Owhali, moved into the villa. Inside Bin Laden
Only one of these forays was noted by the embassy guards. Inside Bin Laden
According to the Nairobi Nation, one of the embassy’s Kenyan security guards “saw three Arab-looking men filming the U.S. Embassy for about twenty minutes, four days before the bombing. Inside Bin Laden
Marine] guards at the embassy, but they brushed him off.” Inside Bin Laden
According to the guard, one of the three also “filmed the embassy using a micro-yideo camera at close range.” Inside Bin Laden
The third terrorist got out of the pickup and argued with the embassy’s local security guards, but they re- fused entry. Inside Bin Laden
A command vehicle—a white Mitsubishi Pajero driven by Fazil—was followed by the yellow Mazda or Mitsubishi Canter pickup with Dubai license plates on which the bomb was loaded. Inside Bin Laden
Captain Rhyl Jones, a British Army engineer who has extensive experience with Irish Republican Army (IRA) bombs, was one of the first to arrive on the scene of the bomb- ing in Nairobi. Inside Bin Laden
The main operational network, however, comprised about six terror- ists, all of whom are either still at large or dead. Inside Bin Laden
The bomb itself was constructed at the house in Ilala. Inside Bin Laden
With everybody but one person in the immediate vicinity presumed dead, it is not clear what transpired in these last few minutes. Inside Bin Laden
Witnesses de- scribed one or more guards approaching the truck for the standard security check. Inside Bin Laden
But there seems to be a grain of truth in Odeh’s statement to his lawyer about one of his interroga- tors, who, in the lawyer’s words, seemed to have taken “pity on him.” Inside Bin Laden
The IAF stressed the all-Islamic character of both the historic struggles and the forthcoming one: “The causes of Jerusalem and Palestinian people never were the exclu- sive concerns of the Palestinians; they are the concern of the entire [Mus- urn] Nation. Inside Bin Laden
hes pooling the [Muslim] Naion’s energies in order to perform the duty im- posed by God, namely the Jihad against the atheists among American Christians and Israeli Jews.”] Nation’s energies in order to perform the duty im- posed by God, namely the Jihad against the atheists among American Christians and Israeli Jews. Inside Bin Laden
The ramifications of these changes in Tehran’s policy for bin Laden and the Islamist terrorist elite were ideologically far-reaching but in prac- tice nil: the United States, not the local rulers, was reaffirmed as the ulti- mate foe and thus an object of terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
Saudi support for the Taliban has stemmed from Riyadh’s determination to find an outlet—as far away from Saudi Arabia as possible—for the Islamist zeal of Saudi radicalized youth. Inside Bin Laden
The other missiles hit nearby villages. Inside Bin Laden
According to eyewitness reports, “a large number of villagers” were killed not only by flying shrapnel but also by collapsing homes and shattered win- dows. Inside Bin Laden
The August 2.4 Inside Bin Laden
Throughout the Mus- urn world is widespread conviction that the U.S. strikes on Afghanistan and Sudan must be answered by striking back, so hard that even a superpower like the United States will take notice. Inside Bin Laden
On August 2.9 Inside Bin Laden
“The [American] President wanted a target, and on his list Sudan was there,” he told the Christian Science Monitor. Inside Bin Laden
Muhammad al-Zawahiri is a graduate of advanced terrorist training in both Pakistan and Afghanistan, where, according to Egyptian security officials, he was “trained in the use of weapons, in drawing up plans to assassinate offi- cials and security men, and in carrying out attacks on public establishments.” Inside Bin Laden
Mo~t of these mujahideen deployed from Bosnia and are hardened combat veterans. Inside Bin Laden
He also emphasized that any trial of bin Laden, if one were to take place, would be public and open for attendance by the international media and any interested foreign officials. Inside Bin Laden
Firstly, the Islamic Emirate an- nounced that Osama bin Laden will not use the territory of Afghanistan against other countries, and Osama bin Laden himself accepted it. Inside Bin Laden
The cave consists of three rooms hollowed into the rock face. Inside Bin Laden
But Bin Laden is also considering his legacy. Inside Bin Laden
One such garrison site, an expansive complex of mud-walled, turreted for- tresses, has already been completed on the outskirts of Qandahar. Inside Bin Laden
During the Afghan war the resistance maintained several large- scale clandestine facilities there. Inside Bin Laden
instead bin Laden maintains a tangled web of “companies,” partnerships, and other-name entities that interact with one another and are ultimately concealed in another layer of bigger international financial entities so that his involvement in any of these investments cannot be discovered. Inside Bin Laden
A recent Arab visitor to Afghanistan identified in one cluster of camps some 5,000 trainees, be- tween sixteen and twenty-five years old, who have come from virtually all corners of the world. Inside Bin Laden
322 . Inside Bin Laden
One of the first concrete outcomes of these contacts was Baghdad’s agreement to train a new network of Saudi Islamist intelligence operatives and terrorists from among bin Laden’s supporters still inside Saudi Arabia. Inside Bin Laden
These are not empty threats. Inside Bin Laden
In early July 1998 this group included seven Saudis and one Egyptian, all of whom had studied pharmacy, medicine, and microbiol- ogy in Hungary and Romania. Inside Bin Laden
The Islamists converted an isolated farmhouse into a “research center” for ad- vanced weaponry. Inside Bin Laden
These weapons are a mix of suitcase bombs and tactical warheads/bombs. Inside Bin Laden
It is not inconceivable that bin Laden’s nuclear experts would be able to “hot-wire” a suitcase bomb so that the coded transmission is no longer required to activate the bomb. Inside Bin Laden
On the one hand, the Muslim world is on the defensive against the penetration of Western values and culture now expedited through the electronic media. Inside Bin Laden
On the contrary, the only viable polity of the Hub of Islam will “deepen the divide, harden the positions, and broaden the base of the conflict.” Inside Bin Laden
Faced with insoluble social, political, and economic crises that threatened the very existence of Pakistan, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif sought to compensate by adopting a strict version of the Sharia as the country’s legal system. Inside Bin Laden
Most of these schools—both registered and unregistered—are run by militant ulema who indoctrinate their Taliban in the obligation to fight for Islam and Islamist causes. Inside Bin Laden
Former interior minister Nasirullah Babar, himself a supporter of the Afghan Taliban as well as Pakistani sponsorship of Is- lamist and jihadist causes, considers some of these schools to be “hotbeds of terrorism” that endanger Pakistan. Inside Bin Laden
During the first half of November the U.S. government was warned by more than one allied government about Turabi’s plans and the steps already undertaken to implement them. Inside Bin Laden
For their part, the Taliban reciprocated bin Laden’s endorsement and declared their support for his jihad in a major fatwa. Inside Bin Laden
There is a good reason for this feai of the Islamists’ rage, the Islamic Group concluded: “Let the Americans know that we are determined to fight them ferociously in a long and sus- tained battle in which generations will pass the trust to one another. Inside Bin Laden
so if the remains of the Americans are scattered, and if the planes carry coffins to them containing a mixture of charred parts of their criminals, they should blame no one but themselves.” Inside Bin Laden
One of the first to elucidate this argument was Abdul-Bari Atwan, the editor of al-Quds al-A rabi. Inside Bin Laden
Although prompted by the presi- dent’s current crisis, the bombing campaign should be considered as a com- ponent of the overall policy of the United States. Inside Bin Laden
This theme dominated the several rallies held that after- noon. Inside Bin Laden
Religious luminaries expressed the exas- peration and hostility of “establishment” Islamists, strengthening the hands of militant Islamists eager to translate their rage into violence and terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
“The Islamic movements should play their role in supporting our Muslim people in Iraq, and they should unite to re- sist the U.S. arrogance.” Inside Bin Laden
Also in late December, Iraqi official media alluded to Baghdad’s pen- chant for terrorist revenge. Inside Bin Laden
The IS! Inside Bin Laden
You may declare Islam or step aside and invite His people to take over. Inside Bin Laden
For example, the preacher in the al-Aqsa mosque devoted his sermon to the situation in Iraq, clearly identi- fied as America’s victim, and in particular Saddam Hussein’s speech. Inside Bin Laden
Three Britons and an Australian tourist died, and one Briton, one Ameri- can, and one Australian were injured—most of them by the army’s fire. Inside Bin Laden
The Islamic Jihad is one of five or six Islamist organizations that were formed for internal power-politics purposes in about 1993 with the backing of Sanaa. Inside Bin Laden
After his capture he admitted to his interrogators that he had ordered both the kidnapping and ultimately the killing of the Western hostages as acts of jihad. Inside Bin Laden
“We regard what we have done and opening fire on the Christians a form of jihad in the cause of God.” Inside Bin Laden
Of the six, one had a valid French passport and the other five had valid British passports. Inside Bin Laden
The terrorist plan collapsed following the arrest in New Delhi of one of the key operatives, Syed Abu Nasir, a 27-year-old Bangladeshi national. Inside Bin Laden
He became an activist Is- lamist in about 1990. Inside Bin Laden
Abu Nasir joined the terrorist elite in mid-September 1998. Inside Bin Laden
The operational plan called for Abu Nasir to lead the expert terrorist team to Calcutta first. Inside Bin Laden
The preparations picked up in late January when bin Laden dispatched abu-Ayub al-Masri, one of his senior commanders, for a series of meetings in Dubai and Turkey. Inside Bin Laden
For this trip he was given one of the Yemeni passports provided by Hijazi. Inside Bin Laden
In early February bin Laden dispatched an envoy to Pakistan to con- fer with several Islamist leaders. Inside Bin Laden
The study then set the religious logic and justification for the use of international terrorism as a form of jihad obligatory for all Muslims. Inside Bin Laden
In early January 1999 Islamist scholars in Jordan published a study about the centrality of the jihad in Islam. Inside Bin Laden
Writing in the pro-Saudi al-Hayah, one of the most authoritative Arab newspapers, Yussuf Samahah stressed that bin Laden’s vision was the wave of the future—the real merger of international megatrends and Islamdom. Inside Bin Laden
At present this trend is usually dominated by the U.S.-led West, with the sole exception bin Laden’s philosophy of an all-Muslim resurgence. Inside Bin Laden
and we will avengeevery martyr by killing ioo Americans.”enge every martyr by killing ioo Americans. Inside Bin Laden
He declared that Harakat Jihad Islami “would not allow any one to compromise the blood of the Muslims being spilt in Kashmir and Afghanistan.” Inside Bin Laden
Hence the United States should not be permitted to win in Kosovo. Inside Bin Laden
Similar sentiments were elucidated by the HizbAllah in Lebanon. Inside Bin Laden
The April 23 sermo~i in al-A~sa Mosque in Jerusalem, one month into the NATO bombing, elucidated the Islamists’ frustration and rage. Inside Bin Laden
One of the first moves under- taken by Qusay in connection with the establishment of the al-Nida Force was the activation of long-term dormant networks of Iraqi intelligence planted in the West in the wake of the Gulf War in order to support joint operations with bin Laden’s Islamist terrorists. Inside Bin Laden
The network was exposed in late April after a!- Inside Bin Laden
Kosovo and Chechnya. Inside Bin Laden
One of the keynote speakers at the conference was bin Laden’s sup- porter Mustafa Kamil, also known as Abu Hamzah al-Masri, who is the head of the Partisans of the Sharia Organization. Inside Bin Laden
Osama bin Laden is the only Islamist leader to have fostered unity of purpose and genuine cooperation among the various Islamist terrorist organizations all over the world. Inside Bin Laden
The unity achieved was a gen- uine one, for the various Islamist organizations began to closely cooperate in operational matters and “were able to benefit from the expertise and ca- pabilities of each other’s cadres.” Inside Bin Laden
“I myself heard bilq Laden say that our main objective is now limited to one state only, the United States, and involves waging a guerrilla war against all U.S. interests, not only in the Arab region but also through- out the world, and that this operation on the whole will ultimately force the United States and those gravitating within its sphere to review their policies toward the Islamic groups. Inside Bin Laden
“Of course, we know him as the greatest Mus- lim hero of our time,” said one teenage Pakistani made an invalid by the strike. Inside Bin Laden
Even those wounded in the U.S. strike revere him. Inside Bin Laden
Ultimately the quintessence of bin Laden’s threat is his being a cog, al- beit an important one, in a large system that will outlast his own demise— state-sponsored international terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
Every Muslim is expected to make at least one Hajj in his/hei lifetime. Inside Bin Laden
Intifadah Term that means literally “shaking off” (the flu, bugs, etc.). Inside Bin Laden
Journal “Rashid. Taliban
The Afghans have also been affected by one of the greatest tragedies of this century - the longest running civil war In this era which has brought untold misery. Taliban
How do we explain the use the Taliban are putting our renovation of the football stadium to?’ said one Western aid-worker. Taliban
They also looked nervously at my colleague Gretchen Peters, an Amer- ican journalist. Taliban
One pick-up sprouted a tinny sounding loudspeaker — the kind seen on thousands of mosques in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Taliban
Abdullah, who had been seated throughout the proceedings in another pick-up guarded by armed Taliban, was now let out. Taliban
million dead have forced many Afghans to accept the j’aliban ways of justice. Taliban
For some Afghans the Taliban created hopes that a movement led by simple Islamic students with an agenda of bringing peace to the coun- try might succeed in finally disposing of the warlord factions which had devastated people’s lives since the communist regime in Kabul had been overthrown in April 1992. Taliban
The one-eyed Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar remains an enigmatic mystery. Taliban
This was a land where the first ancient religions of Z~roastrianism, Manichaeanism and Buddhism flourished. Taliban
The Timurids, a Turkic people brought the Turkic nomadic culture of Central Asia within the orbit of Persian civilization, establishing in Herat one of the most cultured and refined cities in the world. Taliban
However, one or another Durrani clan was to rule Afghanistan for over 200 years until 1973, when King Zahir Shah was deposed by his cousin Mohammed Daud Khan and Afghanistan was declared a Republic. Taliban
The Afghan Mujaheddin were to become the US-backed, anti-Soviet shock troops. Taliban
It’s an old wooden stump. Taliban
Silver, the pirate in Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure island.. Taliban
On the other hand Gulbuddin Hikme- tyar’s Hizb-e-Islami built a secretive, highly centralized, political organiza- tion whose cadres were drawn from educated urban Pashtuns. Taliban
Next to his tomb is the shrine of the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed — one of the holiest places of worship in Afghanistan. Taliban
The Cloak has been shown only on rare occasions such as when King Amanul- lah tried to rally the tribes in 1929 and when a cholera epidemic hit the city in 1935.~ Taliban
Kandahar remains one of the most heavily mined cities in the world. Taliban
Mullah Mohammed Ghaus, the one-eyed Foreign Minister of the Tali- ban said much the same. Taliban
A talib is an Islamic student, one who seeks know- ledge cqmpared to the mullah who is one who gives knowledge. Taliban
During the 1980s jihad his family moved to Tarinkot in Urozgan province — one of the most back- KANDAHAR 1994: THE ORIGINS OF THE TALIBAN 23 24 ISLAM OIL AND THE NEW GREAT GAME IN CENTRAL ASIA ward and inaccessible regions of the country where Soviet troops rarely penetrated. Taliban
As success came, another tin trunk was added — this one containing US dollars. Taliban
One commander, Amir Lalai, issued a blunt warning to Babar. Taliban
The Taliban lost only one man. Taliban
The Taliban cleared the chains from the roads, set up a one-toll system for trucks entering Afghanistan at Spin Baldak and patrolled the highway from Pakistan. Taliban
If Afghans want to cross the border, I do not stop them. Taliban
Masud decided to deal with his enemies one at a time. Taliban
But on 15 March 1979, the population of the city rose up against the Soviets in an unprecedented urban revolt. Taliban
Its 200 square miles of irrigated farmland in a valley rimmed by mountains, was considered to have the richest soil in Central Asia. Taliban
The tomb, with its panelled walls of Persian blue tiles bejeweled with floral decorations and topped by a ribbed blue dome with dazzling white Koranic inscrip- tions, is still considered one of the finest examples of Islamic architecture anywhere in the world. Taliban
Bhutto sent several emissaries to Washington to urge the US to intervene more publicly on the side of Pakistan and the Taliban, but despite a common antipathy to Iran, Wash- ington resisted, refusing to take sides in the civil war. Taliban
The Taliban were unable to concentrate enough firepower and manpower on one front to achieve a breakthrough into the city and Masud was con- stantly breaking up their formations. Taliban
But there were no UN officials in Kabul to take responsibility for Najibullah. Taliban
All women were banned from work, even though one quarter of Kabul’s civil service, the entire ele- mentary educational system and much of the health system were run by women. Taliban
Masud was one of the most brilliant military commanders and charis- matic personalities to emerge out of the jihad. Taliban
He became one of the young Islamic opponents of the regime of President Daud and fled to Pakistan in 1975, after he led a failed uprising in the Panjshir. Taliban
In exile in Peshawar, Masud fell out with his colleague Gulbuddin Hikmetyar and their rivalry for the next 20 years was a determining reason why the Mujheddin never united to form a coalition government. Taliban
‘The Taliban took five months to capture one province but then six provinces fell to us in only ten days. Taliban
Since then he had, at one time or another allied himself with everyone — Masud, Hikmetyar, the Taliban, Masud again — and betrayed everyone with undis- guised aplomb. Taliban
The hard-drinking Dostum then became a ‘good Muslim’. Taliban
As the north- ern provinces fell one after another to this unlikely alliance of Pashtuns and Uzbeks from Malik’s power base in Faryab province, Dostum fled with 135 officers and men, first to Uzbekistan and then to Turkey. Taliban
He was one of the most celebrated com- manders from the anti-Soviet war. Taliban
The Taliban then declared that they would segregate Kabul’s hospitals and not allow women to be treated together with men — and there was only one women’s hospital in the city. Taliban
Later in Tehran, Annan addressed the summit meeting of the Organiza- tion of the Islamic Conference (OIC) and bluntly criticized their apathy in trying to resolve the conflict. Taliban
surround Bamiyan, Hazara children with extended stomachs and rake- thin features played their version of a cops and robbers game they called ‘Taliban’. Taliban
These short, stocky people with their distinctive Mongol features were, according to one theory, the descendants of inter- marriage between Genghis Khan’s Mongol warriors and the indigenous Tajik and Turkic peoples. Taliban
The two statues, one 165 feet high, the other 114 feet high, are weathered and cracked while the faces of both the Buddhas are missing, but their impact is stunning. Taliban
Mullah Mohammed Hassan, the usually mild-mannered, one-legged Governor of Kandahar, threw a table and a chair at the head of one UN official and then tried to throttle him, because he had refused to pave a road in Hassan’s village. Taliban
With more than half of Kabul’s 1.2 Taliban
The Taliban went on a killing frenzy, driving their pick-ups up and down the narrow streets of Mazar shooting to the left and right and killing everything that moved — shop owners, cart pullers, women and children shoppers and even goats and donkeys. Taliban
‘People were shot three times on the spot, one bullet in the head, one in the chest and one in the testicles. Taliban
Some containers were taken to the Dasht-e-Laili desert outside Mazar and the inmates massacred there — in direct retali- ation for the similar treatment meeted out to the Taliban in 1997. Taliban
The Taliban were to target one more group in Mazar that was to bring down a storm of international protest and plunge them into near war with Iran. Taliban
This time, due to repeated international appeals to respect human rights, Mulish Omar ordered his troops to restrain themselves against Hazara civilians. Taliban
Both offensives failed but the Taliban conducted a bloody scorched- earth policy north of the capital, which led to some 200,000 people fleeing the area and the devastation of the Shomali valley — one of the most fertile regions in the country. Taliban
The Taliban were playing host to extremist groups from Central Asia, Iran, Kashmir, China and Pakistan. Taliban
But for cen- turies this admirably suited the loose Afghan confederation. Taliban
Nevertheless one survivor, Sibghatullah Mujad- dccli, set up his own”resistance party in Peshawar, the Jabha-i Najat Miii Afghanis~n, National Liberation Front of Afghanistan, and became a TALIBAN fierce critic of the radical Islamic parties. Taliban
The clan, tribe and ethnic group on one hand and the state and religion on the other. Taliban
Haq is still bitter about how he was ignored by the ISI for so long. Taliban
He is also the principle organizer for recruiting Pakistani students to fight for the Taliban. Taliban
The Taliban’s refusal to compromise with the UN humanitarian agencies or foreign donor coun- tries or to compromise their principles in exchange for international recognition and their rejection of all Muslim ruling elites as corrupt, has NEW STYLE FUNDA1~4ENTA1ISM OF ThE TALIBAN 93 94 ~- TALIBAN inflamed the debate in the Muslim world and inspired a younger genera- tion of Islamic militants. Taliban
TALIBAN’S POLITICAL AND MILITARY ORGANIZATION through a collective political leadership, which was consultative and consensus-building, rather than dominated by one individual. Taliban
Of the ten original Shura members, six were Durrani Pashtuns and only one, Maulvi Sayed Ghiasuddin, was a Tajik from Badakhshan (he had lived for a long time within the Pashtun belt). Taliban
In one sense this allows for remarkable flexibility amongst the Taliban hierarchy as they all act both as administrators and generals and this keeps them in touch with their fighters. Taliban
‘The Taliban are willing to negotiate with the opposition, but on the one con- dition that no political parties take part in the discussions. Taliban
‘The Taliban had promised peace, instead they have given us nothing but war,’ said one village elder.8 Taliban
Rabbani went off on one of his periodic long leaves and there were rumours he was under arrest. Taliban
Thus the Taliban, like the Mujaheddin before them, had resorted to one-man rule with no organizational mechanism to accommodate other ethnic groups or points of view. Taliban
One addresses public attendance at sports events, which the Taliban had initially banned. Taliban
Twenty years of continuous warfare has destroyed Afghan civil society, the clan community and family struc- ture which provided an important cushion of relief in an otherwise harsh economic landscape. Taliban
Illiteracy was a major problem before the Taliban appeared, affecting 90 per cent of girls and 60 per cent of boys. Taliban
One such woman was Nasiba Gui, a striking 27-year-old single woman who aspired to be part of the modem world. Taliban
One day in the company of 200 ‘ruby-lipped’, beautiful ladies-in-waiting, the Queen inspected a mosque and madrassa complex she was building on the outskirts of Herat. Taliban
The rnadrassa students (or taliban) bad been asked to vacate the premises while the Queen and her entourage visited, but one student had fallen asleep in his room. Taliban
They closed down home schools for girls which had been allowed to continue and then prevented women from attending general hospitals. Taliban
The Taliban also clamped down on homosexuality. Taliban
They remained buried under the rubble for half an hour, but one managed to survive. Taliban
One of Afghanistan’s foremost artists, Mohammed Mashal, aged 82, who was painting a huge mural showing 500 years of Herat’s history was forced to watch as the Taliban whitewashed over it. Taliban
The rest of the profits were made by the dealers and distributors in Europe and the US. Taliban
Not a single syndicate was broken up during that decade. Taliban
In Iran, the government admitted to having 1.2 Taliban
In 1998 guards on the Tajikistan—Afghanistan border confiscated one ton of opium and 200 kilograms of heroin. Taliban
Herdin addiction was also increasing in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turk- menistan and Kyrgyzstan as they became part of the heroin export chain. Taliban
Six months later Arlacchi was less optimistic when he told me, ‘Afghanistan is one of the most difficult and crucial parts of the world but HIGH ON HEROIN: DRUGS AND THE TALIBAN ECONOMY 123 124 TAL1BAN a wider political settlement is needed before drugs production can be be controlled.”4 Taliban
One such is Mullah Abdul Rashid, a fierce-looking Taliban military commander from Helmand, who gained notoriety in April 1997 when he captured a Pakistani military patrol that had entered Afghan territory from Baluchistan province to chase a gang of drug smugglers. Taliban
In 1998 the economic situation visibly worsened. Taliban
million Afghan refugees in Pakistan and 1.4 Taliban
Most of these radicals speculated that if the Afghan jihad had defeated one superpower, the Soviet Union, could they not also defeat the other superpower, the’~US and their own regimes? The logic of this argument was b~sed on the simple premise that the Afghan jihad alone had brought the Soviet state to its knees. Taliban
The multiple internal reasons which led to the collapse of the Soviet system, of which the jihad was only one, were conveniently ignored. Taliban
He was born around 1957, the 17th of 57 children sired by his Yemeni father and a Saudi mother, one of Mohammed Bin Laden’s many wives. Taliban
Ahmed Shah Masud later criticized the Arab-Afghans. Taliban
Seven outsiders were killed in the strike — three Yemenis, two Egyptians, one Saudi and one Turk. Taliban
Afghanistan had held Central Asia in a tight embrace for centuries. Taliban
The~Uzbeks trace their genealogy to Genghis Khan’s Mongols, one branch of which, the Shaybani clan, conquered modern-day Uzbekistan ~j northern Afghanistan in 1500. Taliban
From the late seventeenth century to World War One, 3 Turkey and Russia fought over a dozen wars and this rivalry had prompted Turkey to join NATO and try and become a member of the EU How- ever, the independence of the CARs suddenly awakened Turkey to its much older historical legacy. Taliban
oil could be pumped along the Baku-Ceyhan corridor. Taliban
One is fear and the other is opportunity,’ the UN mediator for Afghanistan Lakhdar Brahimi told me. Taliban
Bnidas began to export oil from its Keimir field in 1994, with production rising to 16,800 b/d. Taliban
Unocal proposed a gas pipeline from Daulatabad, with gas reserves of 25 tcf, to Multan in central Pakistan. Taliban
One that would allow them to exploit the Caspian’s resources, help the Caspian states assert their independence from Russia and enlist them in the Western camp. Taliban
Washington had scotched one attempt by US lobbyists to promote Niyazov. Taliban
The USA could not develop strategic clout in Central Asia without Uzbekistan, the largest and most powerful state and the only one capable of standing up to Russia. Taliban
I did not begin to investigate this unfolding story until the summer of 1996. Taliban
It took me seven months of travelling, over one hundred inter- ~ views and total immersion in the literature of the oil business — of which I knew nothing — to eventually write the cover story for the Far Eastern Economic Review which appeared in April 1997. Taliban
‘The good part of what has happened is that one of the factions at last seems capable of developing a government in Afghanistan,’ said Senator Hank Brown, a supporter of the Unocal project.2’ Taliban
Bridas had one advantage with the Taliban. Taliban
Bridas told them it did not need to raise finances for the project through international lending institutions, which would first demand an internationally recognized gov- ernment in Kabul. Taliban
tcf per year shortfall in gas. Taliban
On 16 October 1997 Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif paid a one-day visit to Ashkhabad to talk to Niyazov about the Unocal project. Taliban
However, Unocal’s attempt to woo the Russians had failed. Taliban
In September 1997 Brida sold 60 per cent of its company’s stake in Latin America to the US 01 giant Amoco, raising the possibility that Amoco could influence Niyazo~ to ease off on Bridas’s frozen assets in Turkmenistan. Taliban
With the USA now preoccupied with capturing Bin Laden, it seemed for the moment that one phase of the Great Game was now over. Taliban
US policy has been too preoccupied with wrong assumptions. Taliban
We can live with that,’ said one US diplomat.20 Taliban
These are people who hover around in Pakistan from one cocktail party to the other, they do not cut much ice because they have no support in Afghanistan,’ Ayub said on a visit to Tokyo.24 Taliban
US policy was again a one-track agenda, solely focused on getting Bin Laden, rather than tackling the wider problems of Afghanistan-based terrorism and peace-making. Taliban
In September 1997 Bridas sold 60 per cent of its company’s stake in Latin America to the US oil giant Amoco, raising the possibility that Amoco could influence Niyazov to ease off on Bridas’s frozen assets in Turkmenistan. Taliban
Through the 1990s the ISI tried to maintain its exclusive grip on Pakis- tan’s Afghan policy. Taliban
This unprecedented access enabled the Taliban to play off one lobby against another and extend their influence in Pakistan even furthur. Taliban
In military thought it is a non-concept, unless one is referring to a hard-to-reach place where a defeated army might safely cocoon,’ wrote Pakistani scholar Eqbal Ahmad. Taliban
In the words of one retired IS! Taliban
A failed state is one in which the repeated failure of policies carried out by a bankrupt political elite is never considered sufficient reason to reconsider them. Taliban
He believed that the message of the Afghan Mujaheddin would spread into Central Asia, revive Islam and create a new Pakistan- led Islamic block of nations. Taliban
Afghanistan has been just one area of conflict in the intense rivalry between the Persians and the Arabs. Taliban
Both peoples have conquered and ruled one another against a background of dispute between Sunni Arabia and Shia Persia. Taliban
However, to end its isolation from the West, Iran needed to demonstrate that it was a responsible and stabilizing member of the international community. Taliban
The new Great Game must be one where the aim is to stabilize and settle the region, not increase tensions CONCLUSION: ThE R.TrURE OF AEOHANIS~AN 209 210 — TALIBAN and antagonism. Taliban
leaving Kabul contested by the two sides. Taliban
One lure could be a substantial reconstruction package put together by international donors, the World Bank or large private charit- ies, which would not be disbursed until there was a minimum agreement. Taliban
Sitting and speaking between male and female doctors are not allowed, if there be need for discussion, it should be done with hijab. Taliban
During the night duty, in what rooms which female patients are hospital-6. Taliban
Hotak Muj. Taliban
Ex-Hlzbe (K) 0. Taliban
Name Abdul Latif Mansur Mohammed Essa Alla Dad Akhund Nuruddin Turabi Hamldullah Nemani Ahmed Jan Jalaluddin Haqqani Sadeq Akhond Qari Din Mohammed Maulvi Qalamuddin Name Maulvi Jalilullah Maulvizai Mohammed Hassan Wakil Ahmed Sher Mohammed Stanakzai Arifullah Arif Office Agriculture Water, Power Communications Justice Higher Education Mines and Industries Frontier Affairs Commerce Planning Head of Religious Police Office Attorney General Gov. Taliban
1996 APPENDIX3 227 228 ~- TALIBAN 11 July. Taliban
20 July. Taliban
1999 21 February. Taliban
Iran opens new 100-mile railway route linking Turk- menistan and Iran. Taliban
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Paid- stan and Afghanistan sign agreeement giving Turk- menistan the right to nominate the consortium to build the pipeline. Taliban
Chapter 11 1. Taliban
I interviewed Carlos Bulgheroni in Islamabad in June 1997 over several days and again on 30 January 1999 in Davos, Switzerland. Taliban
18. Taliban
Chronology V Chronology 5880-1901 5904—19 1919—29 1929 1929—33 5933—73 1973 1978 1979 1989 1992 5994 1995 5996 Abdur-Rahman undertakes comprehensive conquest of Afghanistan and establishes Pushtun populations in the north. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Present boundaries of Afghanistan fixed through a series of international agreements. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This book is one among many efforts to facilitate this process, by seeking to establish, as much as can reasonably be achieved within a book of this size, an objective understanding of the current situation. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In order to do this one has to look at the wider geopolitical picture and at Afghanistan’s role in the world economy, and to take on board the country’s ethnic, religious and linguistic mix and the nature of its terrain. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In seeking to engage and negotiate with a movement such as the Taliban, what benchmarks should one be using? Are the UN Human Rights Conventions appropriate or are they, as the Taliban state, based on Western value systems? Should one take the view that radical movements can be a symptom of the state of a society and 2 Introduction that one should respect their philosophies as a manifestation of popular belief, or should one look to the views of moderates and liberals within the population to guide one’s negotiating position? Should one be influenced by what Islamic scholars are saying as to what is or is not consistent with the Qur’an and the reported sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, the Hadith? Should one look to women within the population of Islamic scholars and other intellectuals to indicate what may be reasonable norms? Alternatively, should one draw on the perspectives and values of those living in the rural areas of Afghanistan, both women and men? In so doing, how does one take on board the diversity of perspectives and values from village to village, province to province and one ethnic group to another? The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Even if one establishes appropriate benchmarks, one is still dealing with a movement that contains people with a range of perspectives and attitudes. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Faced with this inevitable internal divergence, humanitarian agencies have often felt at a loss in assessing whether the Taliban have been responding positively to negotiations on human rights issues. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The question of how agencies respond to human rights abuses in a conflict situation is a complex one. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This is not only a relic of the colonialist period. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This book endeavours to inform a consideration of these, even if it cannot offer easy solutions. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
It assesses the impact of the Taliban on the different populations under their control, and explores the reasons for the considerable divergence between one area and another. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
My own conclusion, from studying the many statements Taliban leadethey have a clear set of beliefs, there is no theoretician providing a written framework to guide the movement as it finds its way forward.m looking at their actions, is that, while they have a clear set of beliefs, there is no theoretician providing a written framework to guide the movement as it finds its way forward The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
nconsiderable variations over time and between one part of Afghanistan and another, and the conflict has complicated the situation enormously.considerable variations over time and between one part of Afghanistan and another, and the conflict has complicated the situation enormously The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Certain areas have fared much better than others. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The tribal culture of the Pushtuns bears many simil- arities to that of the Arabian peninsula, yet the system of purdah that is so characteristic of Muslim society in south Asia is also in evidence. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
long retreat to Babylon, where he died in 323 BC leaving his empire to fragment among his Greek colonists, who remained in control, in one form or another, for a further two centuries. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, they failed to wait while a promised Afghan escort was organised to lead them safely out of Afghanistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In May 1863, one month before he died, he added Herat to his domain. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One area after another exploded in violence against the regime, and government forces were called upon to respond with even greater violence. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
A key element in a consideration of the Mujahidin movement is the extent to which the parties that were seen to represent ent it were in — fact representative. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
To take this forward, one needs to be clear a out definitions. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The strategy behind this was one that was central to Pakistan’s defence: to create strategic strength against India through the formation of an Islamic bloc stretching from Pakistan to Central Asia. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Following the hanging of Bhutto by the new president of Pakistan, Zia Al-Haq, the Islamist parties found a leader whose ideoligical aspirations for Pakistan w re very much in line with their own thinking and with the thinking of sim ar parties in Pakistan, such as the Jamaat-i-Islami. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
His attacks in the press on Daoud’s reforms meant that he had to flee to Pakistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
From the time that these parties were designated as channels for military aid, it became difficult to determine to what extent the various groups inside Afghanistan were affiliating themselves to one party or another because of the resources on offer, and to what extent conviction was the deciding factor. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The fact that, within any given village or family, more than one party might be represented added to the confusion. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The larger of the two, Hisb-e-Wahdat, was forme wit t e en- couragement of the Iranian government to bring the various Afghan parties basen the bargaining power of the Shi’as in the internal struggle for power within Afghanistan.in Iran under one umbrella and so strengthen the bargaining power of the Shi’as in the internal struggle for power within Afghanistan The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
That is quite possible, but it is also important to recognise that Gorbachov may have decided to close the Afghan chapter because of the serious problems he was facing at home. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The relative unity they had shown during the period of Soviet occupation quickly evaporated following the departure of Soviet troops. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Assassinations of intellectuals were frequent. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The city became a place of constant fear, with Afghan liberals and aid workers be- coming particular targets of fringe movements taking anti-Western positions from an Islamist perspective. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The continued existence of the jihad was, almost certainly, the dominant factor in the earlier reluctance to return, although in- security and economic factors would have had some impact. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The ideological underpinning of the movement has been a further cause for debate. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
He was previously a member of one of the traditionalist Mujahidin parties, Hisb-e-Islami, headed by Younis Khalis. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The winter of 1995—96 was a particularly harsh one for Kabul as food and fuel shortages and spiralling inflation took their toll on a highly impoverished people. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This stalemate was suddenly and dramatically broken when one of Dostam’s generals, Abdul Malik, who controlled the province of Faryab to the immediate east of the Badghis front-line, announced on 19 May that he had defected to the Taliban. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Further 53 The Taliban evidence of this was provided by the announced defection of another opposition commander, this time one of Masoud’s men who con- trolled the Salang Pass. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, the events in Mazar are not so easily consistent with an act of treachery. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Then, on 20 July, the opposition alliance succeeded in capturing Charikar and the strategically important airbase of Bagram, north of Kabul. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
There have thus been many examples in both Christianity and Islam of movements emerging that have imposed highly specific codes of conduct and dress on their adherents in order to provide a secure containing environment in what is felt to be a chaotic or overwhelming world. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
There was widespread corruption and theft, and there were road-blocks every- where. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
No one can commit theft or crimes. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In cases of violation, no one will have the right of complaint. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The military agenda, the objective of bringing the whole country under Taliban control, has been the most important one, followed closely by the imposition of prescribed codes of behaviour and dress. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Every effort to raise the issue of female access to education and employment has thus been met with the response that this is a relatively low priority and one that will have to await the successful conquest of Afghanistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
There is the usual spectrum from hard-line to relatively moderate that is to be found in any radical movement. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One of the major difficulties in seeking to understand the belief / system of the Taliban lies in assessing to what extent it draws on custom and practice within the Pushtun society of southern Afghan- subcontinent and the wider Islamic world. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This may well be the case, yet one has to take account of the fact that no entity is entirely impervious to the many influences that surround it. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Thus, while recognising that one is being speculative, it is worth drawing parallels and comparisons with the other major movements of recent times, namely those of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Wahhabis, the Libyan Revolution and the Iranian revolution. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
67 The Taliban One such movement; and one that has been enormously in- fluential, is the Muslim Brotherhood. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Earlier Islamic movements6. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One of the leading ideologues of the Muslim Brotherhood, Muhammad Ghazali, in his book Our Beginning in Wisdom, published in 5948, argued that the Shari’a had to be the source of law in all aspects of life — social, political or economic. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One can see a number of parallels here with the creed of the Taliban. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One is the very clear implication from their statements and actions that Islam is not simply a basis for individual faith but a system that encompasses all aspects of society, including individual behaviour and the relationship of the individual to both society and state. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
While the Taliban’s interpretation of Shari’a law may be quite different from that of the Brotherhood, the fact that it is regarded as the legal code to guide the actions of both the state and the individual is a clear parallel. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
While the footsoldiers of the Taliban have been relatively uneducated, the question of disadvantage is much less of a factor than the response to the conflict. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In the early 192os, Abul Aziz conquered one area of Arabia after another. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One can see many similarities between the Taliban and the Wah- habi movement. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In looking at the military and political strategies of the Taliban, one could speculate that they may be mindful of the split that eventually occurred between Abdul Aziz and his followers and of his consequent need to seek the support of the West to bring them under control. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One can also see a link between the emphasis on the religious leader in Iran, with his reliance on Islamic scholars for advice, and the designation of Mullah Omar as Amir A1-Mu’minin and his dependence on the Ulema — for example, in drawing up an education curriculum. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, its members have been brought up and educated in an environment in which many of these ideas have been in circulation. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Within the Islamist camp, at one end was Hisb-e-Islami (Hekmatyar), which sought a radical restructuring of society. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Rather, using Shari’a law as their sole guide to action in governing the country, they are looking to the Ulema to provide guidance as to how they should proceed in any given situation. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One can see here a possible parallel with the Taliban emphasis on values and the very clear view that the preservation and promotion of these values take precedence over material consider- ations. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
86 The Afghan Islamic tradition To summarise, one can see a range of influences in the creed of the Taliban, drawn from Islamic movements in the Middle East, Iran, the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
87 Women ... are not Just the biological reproducers of the nation, but also its cultural reproducers, often being given the task of guardians of culture who are responsible for transmitting it to the children and constructing the ‘home’ in a specific cultural style. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
(Nira Yuval-Davis, 1997: 116). The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The ban on female education has been linked to the drawing up 89 The Taliban of an appropriate education curriculum, in order to ensure that the next generation is brought up on the basis of an acceptable system of belief. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
It has therefore been difficult to say, at any one time, whether the situation was deteriorating or whether the police were taking a more hands-off attitude. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One problem has been that the footsoldiers have taken a simplistic view of the Taliban gender policy; it has thus been easier to imple- ment an absolute prohibition on women working than to grapple with nuances as to whether it is appropriate for women to work in particular sectors or with foreign agencies. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Taliban have also been relatively extreme in requiring that women’s faces be covered. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, women have been seen as the primary vehicle for passing Islam from one generation to the next. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
By presenting the agencies as a potential threat to Islam and to Afghan society, through the corrupting influence they might have on Afghan women, they gave the agencies a symbolic importance in the public eye. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
There are differences between women in Afghanistan based on ethnicity, religion, access to income and urban or rural settlement, just as within the West there are significant differences based on nationality, class, age, income and environment. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Afghanistan is one of the few places left in the world where Western media do not penetrate to a significant degree. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
They therefore had to accommodate themselves to an ideology with which they were not necessarily in agreement and one that envisaged a more defined and restricted role for women than was the norm in most of the world. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The issue of how to consult with women and how to ensure that they benefited equally from the assistance provided was a difficult one from the very beginning. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
For example one could reasonably argue that women might benefit as much as men from work to restore the agricultural base. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Agencies felt the issues should, theoretically, be negotiable because they were presented in the context of a belief system that was clearly stated as being based on Islam. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The agencies opted to focus on operational concerns and to rely on the concept of charity inherent in Islam as a basis for negotiation. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Some agencies have been given authority, either verbally or in writing, to employ women for certain types of programmes. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
What, then, are the choices open to agencies in a situation such as this? At one extreme, they can choose to disregard the political and human rights situation, on the grounds that the level of human- itarian need is so great they have a duty to do what they can, overcoming whatever obstacles present themselves. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One of the difficulties agencies have faced in seeking to maintain a common position is that the Taliban have behaved more punitively in Kabul than in other areas controlled by them. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
I 13 customs, but a rich resource, usually full of internal contradictions, and a resource which is always used selectively in various ethnic, cultural and religi- ous projects within specific power relations and political discourse (Nira Yuval- Davis, 1997: 38). The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This suspension was an extension of one issued in response to the ban imposed on female education when the Taliban took Herat in September 1995. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One can draw certain initial conclusions about what may be understood by this, but any attempt to try to define the possible differences creates the inevitable risk that one is making gross generalisations. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Taliban have drawn a distinction between what they term the international and national value systems. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Individual freedom is understood to be freedom to seek one’s own fuffilment and determine one’s own views and perspectives — in short, to give expression to one’s own unique- ness. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Western value system puts a high value on democracy and The Taliban and the international community116 on individual freedom. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The individual is seen as absorbed within, and subject to, society. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However poor a family may be, it will struggle to find a way of The Taliban and the international community Certainly, in urban areas and refugee communities, every family one meets will put this very near the top of their list of priorities. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
These two parts of the Covenant could provoke different responses from the Taliban. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
While one can draw a clear distinction between the Taliban and others in their treatment of the population at large, it is difficult, at this stage, to compare the state-sanctioned violence perpetrated by the Taliban against prisoners and that of the Soviet period or the period of the Mujahidin government. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The key question is to what extent the international community should rely on the UN Conventions or, alternatively, take on board the values and perspectives of one or other element of the Afghan population in seeking to engage in dialogue with the Taliban, and how this might modify the position it adopts. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
One could, for example, take the view that a society that has experienced trauma at the hands of the superpowers should be allowed the freedom to restore itself through a reinterpretation of old certainties, and that it will then move towards internationally accepted standards. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This is a difficult question, and one the international community may or may not be asking itself. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Many cases of executions, imprisonment arian agencies and their own tortuous negotiations with the Taliban and violation of human rights can be seen in these countries. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
On 2 October 1996, only a few days after the Taliban capture of Kabul, one of the radical Islamic parties in Pakistan,Jamiat-al-Ulema al-Islami, which is headed by Maulana Fazl-ur-Rahman, announced that it had prepared a draft constitution for Afghanistan at the request of the Taliban. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
We believe the conflict in Afghanistan is an Afghan domestic affair.’ The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Even if one accepts their denial, this does not of course preclude the possibility that a splinter movement may, at some point in the future, seek to provide support to radical movements in Central Asia. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, the Taliban creed is not easily transferable to Central Asian societies. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The saga has already been an intriguing one. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Iran’s paranoia at the presence of a radical Sunni movement on its borders may well have led it to lend support to the northern opposition. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
It is quite possible, however, that funding from non-governmental organisations seeking to promote Wahhabism, and from collections within the mosques of Saudi Arabia and from wealthy individuals there, is reaching Afghanistan through one channel or another. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Further, the advocates for increased trade with Central Asia and for the construction of pipelines tend to favour a peaceful settlement at the earliest opportunity. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
12. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Similarly, one can be reasonably sure that, whether or not the Taliban take northern and central Afghanistan, the Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazaras and Turkomans will feel less affinity with the Taliban creed than will the Pushtuns of the south. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
On the one hand the international community, embodied in the UN Security Council, calls on the parties to bring an end to the fighting and also calls on other countries to cease any interference in Afghan- istan’s affairs. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
All one can say for certain is that the international community does clearly have a continuing responsibility to do what it can to bring the conflict to an end. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The part played in this by humanitarian agencies is a complicated one. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
If we are to look for conclusions from the Afghan conflict for agencies working in other conflict situations, perhaps the dominant one is the need for them to inform themselves on the complexities of the situation. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
ly, the process of shifting should not involve self-decentring, that is losing one’s own rooting and set of values. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In considering possible benchmarks for the process of dialogue with the Taliban, it is perhaps best to be clear that we are primarily concerned with the populations of Kabul and Herat, whose values are clearly distinct from those of the Taliban and, perhaps, echo the appeal made by Mullah Omar that his footsoldiers should treat the 150 Conclusion people of Kabul kindly, extending this, of course, to Herat. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In particular, the emphasis on not denying one’s own values and on finding elements within the other group whose values, and goals — for example, the need to combat poverty — might be compatible with one’s own, may Two things are vital in developing the transversal perspective. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
First- 152 Conclusion be of some validity If one accepts that, in the end, it may not be possible to find a way forward, this is as practical a way as any and is, at least, grounded in concrete reality rather than the myths that can so often cloud negotiations across cultural divides. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
State B. 79, 2031, .1979, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
“Given the close relations with Washington, Pakistan would have been privy to U.S. plans,” a senior Western diplomat stated. Inside Bin Laden
Packed in with 200 journalists I was fortunate enough to be privy to~y of the internal stand-offs between diplomats from the UN, the USA, the Soviet Union, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. Taliban
As for army officers, some guerrilla commanders, particularly those in the tribal areas, have refused to incorporate newcomers with military skills for fear of communist infiltration or losing face in front of their men. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The communiqué ridiculed Washington’s claim that the strike was in retaliation for bin Laden’s part in the bombings in East Africa and earlier terrorist operations: “It remained only for Washington to accuse bin Laden of assassinating John Kennedy!” Inside Bin Laden
President Rabbani had temporarily consolidated his political and military position around Kabul and Herat. Taliban
Their activities led to a number of assassinations, including that of the king in 1933 as he was handing out prizes at a school ceremony. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
I am deeply grateful to Cathy Gannon, the bureau chief of Associated Press in Islarnabad and Kabul, who deserves several Pulitzer Prizes for her excellent coverage over the years, not to speak of her gener- osity and modesty. Taliban
The Taliban were likely to have greater popular appeal than the Islamist parties because they were not seeking to overturn the 142 The regional picture decision-making structures that had always existed and to replace them with new structures appropriate to political parties. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Cambridge, 1962, 342p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
BIBLIOGRAPHIES 0071 0072 0073 Ethe, H., 1916, The National Library of Wales, , - - - 0074 0075 HaIl, L., 1981, A brief guide ‘to sources for the 0076 lvanov, V., 1924, Concise descriptive catalogue of the 0077 Jackson, A.V.W. and Yohannan, A., (Eds.),l914, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY AND POLITICS 2705 2706 Bilgrami, A.H., 1972, Afghanistan: and British India, 2707 2708 Bomford, T., 1921, The Afghan wars and modern 2709 Boulger, D.C., 1879, England and Russia in Central 2710 Boulger, D.C., 1885, Central Asian question: essays on 2711 2712 2713 Boulger, D.C., 1904, Awakening of Afghanistan, 2714 Braun, P.C.M.S., 1968, Die Verteidigung Indiens 1800— 2715 2716 Bruce, R.I., 1900, The forward policy and its results 2717 Brunnhofer, H., 1897, Russlands Hand Uber Asien. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ment, 1960, Untitled report dealing with the 1960—61 wheat program, Kabul, Ministry of Agriculture, Wyoming Team and USAID, 1960, lOp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Staatsrath Chanykov eingesandte afghanische Hand- schriften, von B. Dorn, Mélanges Asiatiques, 3, 1859. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Hand coloured. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1469, 2860, 2861 Nalte—Brun, V.A., 1165 Malusek, Z., 0545 Hand!, K., 0875, 0933 Mann, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Under such conditions, it is virtually impossible to gain a first-hand overview of the war. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Along the main highways to the south, mujahed groups did not hesi- tate to harass Soviet armoured columns, despite heavy air protection. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Brezhnev was apparently in favour of limited intervention only in order to maintain an ‘indepen- dent’ but amenably pro~SoViet AfghafliStafli thus keeping the non- aligned nations happy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Relying Ofl first-hand information from their diplomatic missions and consulates in Kabul, Kandahar and Herat as well as from resident nationals, businessmen, travellers and other sources, they warned the Americans that the Sovi- ets were ~ontemp1atiflg some form of direct interventioti. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the West, this severely altered the regional balance of power in Moscow’s favour. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
From Combat to Subversion If certain reports are to be believed, the KGB was at odds with the Red Army from the very start on bow to deal with the insurgency; from late 1981 onwards, the Soviet secret police appeared to be gaining the upper hand. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At around midday, Afghan army units tried to penetrate the southern sector of the village, but were forced back suffering further casualties. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the conservative peasantry, the backbone of Afghan society, opposition to the communists was initially a vehement refutation of the ruthless policies practised by a highly msensitive and anti religious government The urban elite on the other hand, regarded it more as a struggle for civil liberties, while the southern Pushtun tribes, among The Guerrilla War to infringement of the Pushtunwali, the tribal code of honour. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
CIA funds have been directed towards purchasing mainly Soviet*tYPe weapons and ammunition, much of it from Egyptian military stocks provided by the Russians during the 1960s, as well as from the Chinese. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The politically-led fronts, on the other hand, have emerged as far more effective, with some producing outstanding commanders and fighting units. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Sabbet units, on the other hand, are village-based and function as a local militia with a small number of anti-aircraft guns shared out among them for the general defence of the valley. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Better acquainted with the terrain, the Panjshairis offered much greater resistance than the Soviet military high command apparently expected. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Preparing for Power Whether the Soviets had ever intended a communist takeover remains open to question. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While some have suspected the hand of the Soviets behind the shooting, others have pointed to the Daoud regime or Muslim activists. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Many Afghans also remained indifferent as long as the hand of the Khalq did not affect them directly. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Those who plot against us in the dark will vanish in the dark’, maintained Taraki. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As with other students on military deferment, he always kept his papers on hand. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Many once common traditions such as elaborate wedding festivities have been abandoned in many areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
To prevent the situation getting out of hand, the Islamabad government recognised only the six major ones and the remainder, unable to solicit openly for financial or other support from abroad, were forced to merge, close down or operate semi-clandestinely. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Among the three main Peshawar parties, Harakat is reportedly the most influential. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
have been trying, with mixed success, to mingle the elements of democracy and social reform with local customs. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Long-term survival also depends on the terrain. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On the other hand, the shortwave networks have furnished a necessary balance by quoting fresh newspaper dispatches from Western journalists or interviews with French doctors and returned travellers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The BBC has on several occasions broadcast excellent reports from commissioned journalists travelling inside, their tapes carried back by hand to Pakistan by couriers in good nineteenth century cleft-stick fahion. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Only five days after Shan Mansour’s accident, the medical team came across another casualty, a small boy whose left hand had been shattered by an explosive object that, according to the child, ‘looked like a stone’ when he tried to pick it up. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the Soviet-backed Kabul authorities, the mujahed is nothing but a bandit or counter-revolutionary operating outside the law and disturbing national order and security. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
225 226 Refugees, Doctors and Prisoners Afghanistan, on the other hand, presents a radically different equation . Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While some irate critics maintain that the ICRC has made a secret deal with the USSR, a more realistic appraisal suggests that the organisation’s pro. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Pakistanis have been placing greater emphasis on a precise timetable for Soviet withdrawal, which, they insist, should last no longer than three months and should coincide with the return of the Afghan refugees. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The air force appears to be faring satisfactorily as more (and better paid) cadets complete their training in the USSR. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Further- more, without presaging an immediate break-up of the Soviet empire, it is felt that continued fighting in Afghanistan could one day precip- itate ethnic and political upheaval anion Ever since the invasion, Afghanistan has engendered far more interest in Europe than in the United States. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On the other hand, the elimination of Cold War constraints has not only provided opportunities for second- and third-tier powers but also posed problems for weak states. Afghanistan's Endless War
In the early spring of 1979, war came to the cities of Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
This act, coupled with another surge in war activity in 1986 and impor- tant strategic and tactical developments later in the year, marked the end of stage three and the beginning of stage four. Afghanistan's Endless War
With its demise, the end of the communist government in Kabul was finally at hand. Afghanistan's Endless War
Despite their wealth of first-hand military experience, their performance in their few actual battles has been mixed at best. Afghanistan's Endless War
The security and stability that the Taliban brought to Kanda- har in particular, as well as its key location as the terminus of the tran- sit trade through southwestern Afghanistan, have made it possible for small businesses to thrive there. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Taliban are preferred in Kabul to the alternative of having Massoud back, at least among Pushtuns. Afghanistan's Endless War
It bolstered Afghanistan militarily and eco- nomically, and it championed the Kabul regime’s cause diplomatically. Afghanistan's Endless War
Although the Taliban have the upper hand at the moment in terms of military strength and the territory they control (90—97 percent of the country, depending on the source), they are more internally divided than at any other time since their emergence, and only a successful 1998 On the battlefield staved off the loss of their Pakistani support.’7 Afghanistan's Endless War
25. Afghanistan's Endless War
Davis, Anthony. Afghanistan's Endless War
I worked with both women and men but rarely left the camp or village. Bartered Brides
Had we wanted on the other hand to collect detailed ‘hard’ data on household consumption patterns and nutrition, for example, the difficulties would have been virtually insurmountable. Bartered Brides
39). Bartered Brides
The ban on hypogamy, on the other hand, is almost completely effective. Bartered Brides
The Maduzai negotiators would accept no compensation — four girls and some four lacs (400,000) of Afghanis (E2000) were said to have been offered — but demanded the return of Kaftar. Bartered Brides
Within the Durrani ethnic group, on the other hand, there is an absence of formal differen- tiation by descent or marriage rules. Bartered Brides
On the other hand, it does highlight Figure 6 Principal levels of political confron__________________ (wolus) Level I Level II factions = (to! Bartered Brides
Households with unity are much admired: for instance, it was said of the household of a man and his brother’s son, ‘They looked after each other well and with great fairness: they would have stood in the fire for each other.’ Bartered Brides
The reputation of a household depends on success in the management of political and economic affairs, including of course marriages. Bartered Brides
A slightly different picture emerges if we consider household size in relation to wealth. Bartered Brides
But unless he has some reason to think he can compel such a division, this strategy is of very dubious value. Bartered Brides
Earnings from outside employment are only rarely used for capital investment; most often they are used either to improve a household’s immediate standard of living or to pay brideprices. Bartered Brides
Objections to child betrothal, on the other hand, are couched in pragmatic rather than moral terms. Bartered Brides
She puts her henna’ed hand out of the all-enveloping bridal veil, sprinkles her own head three times with water from the bowl which is held up for her, and then she in her turn is showered with sweets and coins as her camel is led away. Bartered Brides
Women wish their husbands to be young and hand- some and well-suited to them, but in the end a woman’s well-being depends so much on her husband’s efficient management of household affairs that women’s preferences focus more on a man’s intelligence, his ability to get along with others, and his capacity for hard work. Bartered Brides
On the other hand, powerful men — those who may act as usurpers and oppressors — are also likely to be those who are able to control the sexual behaviour of their women most effectively. Bartered Brides
The information at hand, which is slight, indicates that over the half century since the arrival of the Maduzai in Turkistan, there has been a rise in average brideprices by a factor of about 100, and that prices of irri- gated land, and of wheat, have risen by the same factor; though, people say, prices of animals have not risen quite so much. Bartered Brides
Ahmad Shah Timur Shah Shah Zaman Shah Mahmood Shah Shuja Shah Mahmood (return) Civil War The Saddozais Dupree, Nancy33 1747 -1773 1773 -1793 1793 -1799 1799 -1803 1803 -1809 1809 -1819 1819-1826 Durrani Tribes DURRA.NI Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
For a while, it seemed that triumph was at hand. Inside Bin Laden
“Showing respect for the religious feelings of the masses, the USSR holds out the hand of solidar- ity and friendship to all Muslims who are struggling against imperialist The Soviet invasion was the first time since World War II that non- forces and exploitation for the right to control their own destiny, for free- dom, independence, and economic and social progress,” wrote A. Vasiliev, a pseudonym used by the Kremlin to signal an authoritative message deliv- ered by a senior official. Inside Bin Laden
That year he was also a part of a small Arab force that held in Jaji against repeated assaults by a much larger DRA force sup- ported by Soviet firepower. Inside Bin Laden
The seemingly loose organizational affiliation of the “Afghans” was misleading. Inside Bin Laden
THE FURTHERING AND EXPORT of the Islamist revolution into sub- Saharan Africa has long been a high priority shared by Tehran and Khar- toum. Inside Bin Laden
The United States embarked on an intentional confrontation with Aidid. Inside Bin Laden
Inciting the Revolution IN 1995 THE ISLAMISTS showed their hand to friends and foes alike with a series of audacious operations that constituted the dramatic begin- ning of a continuing, relentless campaign against the governments of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Inside Bin Laden
According to some reports, this explosion was caused by a hand grenade tossed from the small car. Inside Bin Laden
By mid-June the professional, thorough observation and reconnais- sance of the al-Khobar area was completed. Inside Bin Laden
In mid-November 1996 the ISI asked the Taliban to ostensibly close down the training camps run by Hizb-ul Mujahideen, a group affiliated with Pakistan’s Jamaat-i- Islami. Inside Bin Laden
“Before the attack, Osama [had] been transferred to a safer place and no force and no attempt can force Afghanistan to hand him over to the Ameri- can government,” the Taliban announced. Inside Bin Laden
The same day, August zi, bin Laden further clarified the issue of the terrorist conference the United States had attempted to hit. Inside Bin Laden
He convened an Afghan Ulema Council meeting in Kabul to decide what to do about bin Laden. Inside Bin Laden
The Saudis agreed with the Pakistanis that the bin Laden extradition issue should be brought to a quick, conclusive end. Inside Bin Laden
Sec- ondly, the Islamic Emirate’s body for dealing with Osama bin Laden’s case passed the task to the highest judicial body to investigate the issue and col- lect documents. Inside Bin Laden
On the other hand, if anyone attempts to worsen the good relations with the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and raises the issue of Osama again it means that they are acting against the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan through the issues of Osama bin Laden and this is an unreasonable action. Inside Bin Laden
Fully aware of the U.S. effort to get him, bin Laden is working to ensure that the jihad he has launched will outlive him. Inside Bin Laden
A major issue at hand was the expansion of cooperation in the smuggling of drugs, weapons, and strategic materials. Inside Bin Laden
With key players such as Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri providing a semblance of deniability to the sponsoring states, mainly be- cause the Clinton administration uses this fig leaf for its own self-interest, the terrorism-sponsoring states have no reason to unilaterally abstain from using such effective instruments of statecraft. Inside Bin Laden
The Islamists, however, constitute a largely disenfranchised, unskilled segment of the population, with no prospect of self-betterment in impoverished Pakistan. Inside Bin Laden
“I had no hand at all in the bombings in Kenya and Tanzania,” he told an Afghan correspondent. Inside Bin Laden
Concurrently Islamisi leaders in both Afghanistan ar~l Pakistan vowed to protect bin Laden against American capture and assassination attempts. Inside Bin Laden
He helped with read- ing and commenting on early drafts as well as with locating data on the In- ternet; he “held my hand” as my computers kept crashing and helped by just being a good friend. Inside Bin Laden
Born into a poor peasant family in 1955 in a village near Shiberghan, he was a farm-hand and a plumber until he joined the Afghan army in 1978. Taliban
Prisoners were taken from detention, told they were going to be exchanged and then trucked to wells often used by shepherds, which held about 10 to 15 metres of water. Taliban
The Taliban leadership, unversed in UN procedures and even the UN Charter, proved to be the greatest obstacle. Taliban
The Taliban were outraged and organized demonstrations in Afghan cities to protest against the attacks. Taliban
UN aid agencies were unable to return to KabuL Washington was now obsessed with Bin Laden’s capture and the Taliban’s refusal to hand him over. Taliban
Brahimi’s resignation was followed by a much tougher reaction against the Taliban by die international community. Taliban
Instead they insisted they were restoring law and order, only to hand over power to a government which was made up of ‘good Muslims’. Taliban
General Zia ul Haq had commanded Pakistani troops in Jordan in 1970 and had helped King Hussein crush the Palestinians. Taliban
The Amerislamic duty to acquire chemical and nuclear weapons to use against the USA.er galvanized when Bin Laden claimed that it was his Islamic duty to acquire chemical and nuclear weapons to use against the USA Taliban
After the August 1998 Africa bombings, US pressure on the Saudis increased. Taliban
The Afghanistan desk officers, helped by a Pushto translator, held lengthy conversations with Omar in which both sides explored various options, but to no avail.25 Taliban
On the other hand, Unocal’s position was closely linked to US policy on Afghanistan — that it would not construct the pipeline or discuss com- mercial terms with the Taliban, until there was a recognized government in Kabul so that the World Bank and others could lend money for the project. Taliban
That walk became a run in 1992 after the fall of Kabul. Taliban
All these lobbies had to be kept on an even keel by the Foreign Minis- try and Alneddin Boroujerdi, the Deputy Foreign Minister for Afghanis- tan. Taliban
He is said to have seen them as potentially strengthening his hand in relation to the highly sensitive issue of Pushtunistan, on which President Daoud of Afghanistan 28 The Mujahidin took an aggressive line (Arney, 1990:132). The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
himself re-elected as president by a hand-picked lack of regard for Dostam as well as the other leaders. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
They can suspend them, as the Save the Children Fund (UK) did in Herat, or put them on hold, the option chosen by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees when some of its staff were arrested, pending an improvement in the human rights situation. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
On the other hand, they feel upset that the West has not recognised what they regard as a major achievement: the bringing of peace, law and order to Afghanistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Agree- ment was first reached in Peshawar in April 1992, in the presence of the prime minister of Pakistan and representatives of Iran, Saudi Arabia and the UN, that a 50-person commission, headed by Sibghatullah Mujadidi, would take control of Kabul and prepare the way for the formation of an interim government, to be led by President Rabbani, who would hold office for a further four months II. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
When the Taliban entered jalalabad and then Kabul in September 1996, they took most observers by surprise. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
On the other hand, through the provision of resources they are, at the same time, potentially condoning these abuses by giving a message that their donor governments are willing to give assistance in spite of their human rights concerns. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
1973, Area handbook for Afghanistan, 4th. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
handbook for Afghanistan, DA pamphlet no. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Geographical Journal, 58, 1921, p.178—198. handbook, Paris, Hachette, 1974, 383p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Edinburgh Review, 162, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan: a new Soviet handbook: a commentary, Central Asian Review, 9/2, 1961, p.2O6—219. istan in the Soviet Press, Central Asian Review, 9/1, 1961, p.106—107; 9/2, 1961, p.220—221; A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dorfberatungsmodell, (Paktia, Afghanistan — a German community development model), Zeitschrift für Auslandische Landwirtschaft, 9/4, 1970, p.363—371.. 383 384 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 4740 Peace Corps, 1963, Village Technology Handbook; CL-li, 4741 Peace Corps, 1963, Village Technology Handbook; CL-12, 4742 Raper, A.F., 1956, Raper’s report on rural development 4743 Raper, A.F., 1957, Selected documents of Arthur F. 4744 Raper, A.F., 1957, Discussion of relation between 4745 Raper, A.F., 1957, Completion of tour report (Regional 4746 Raper, A.F., 1957, Review of rural development in 4747 Raper, A.F., 1958, The unique role of the church in 4748 Raper, A.F., Heydon, L. and Beers, M., 1955, Report 4749 Raper, A.F., Heydon, L.,. and Beers, M., 1957, Rural 4750 Raper, A.F. et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
comprehension test based on the teachers’ guide in mathematics (Grades 1 and III), Kabul, Ministry of Education, Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5391D Hamid, A.A., 1975, An Analysis of Decision—Making in 5392D Heine, H.D., 1964, Die Cholera im Mittleren Osten, 5393D Kakar, M.A., 1976, A Survey of UNESCO Recommen- 5394D Kaloti, S.A., 1974, The reformation of Islam-and the 5395D Kamali, M.H., 1976, Matrimonial Problems of Islamic 5396D Kayeum, A., 1948, Recommendations for the improvement 5397D Knoch, B.C., 1967, Verbreitung und Okologie der 5398D Maroof, N., 1965, A handbook for the Afghan secondary 5399D 5400D 5401D Monier, M.1., 1977, Some Effects of an Activity ‘~ 5402D the Elementary School Curriculum and Textbook Development Project in Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1966, Afghanistan’s accelerated wheat production program: agricultural technician ‘s handbook, Kabul, Ministry of Agriculture and USAID, 1966, 60p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, (spices), Chicago, 1968, 64p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ETAP report no.1817, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Posh Kafirs, with a short list, of words; to. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
General izdatel’stuo “Nauka”, 1981, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan: Handbook Russian Text, Izdatel’ stuo “Nauka”, Moscow, 1981, 172p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
59. Afghanistan's Endless War
Reuters, 15 August 1998. Afghanistan's Endless War
Handbook on Managemeni of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan, (revised) edition. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghan mullahs were never known to push Islam down people’s throats and sec- tarianism was not a political issue until recently. Taliban
Only once in early May, 1982 did I again set foot in ‘official’ Afghaistan when my Ariana Afghan Airways flight transitted in the capital for three hours. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
253REFERENCES CITED Abdali Pushtuns, 25—26 Abdur Rahman Khan, Amir, 34—35,39 Afghan Interim Government (AIG), 71 Afghan Leadership Council, 176 Afghan War: casualties, 5, 65, 75, 76, 79, 92—94; cultural heritage, 129—31; physical destruction, 75, 92—97; refugee population, 60—61; socioeco- nomic structure, 97—104, 127—29; totality, 91—92, 131. Afghanistan's Endless War
Work was commenced on the Afghan bibliography in July 1978 at a time when access to Afghanistan, and more partic- ularly to libraries and repositories of information, was relatively easy. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Acknowledgements 1’ I - • -- - ----~ r’ ~ ---- xififl — 1•l - - 1.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1 BIBLIOGRAPHIES - -- - ~_; . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
BIBLIOGRAPHIES 0024 0025 0026 - Pastidis, S.L., 1963, Bibliography of food - and 0027 Pastidis, S.L., 1964, Addendum II to the bibliography 0028 - Patra, A.N., 1976, Anglo-Afghan wars,- a select 0029 Pickett, ~L.C., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4 0037 0038 0039 0040 0041 Wilber, D.N., 1968, Annotated bibliography of Afghan- 1. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- 1965, Bibliography in AID little, library, Bost, USAID, 1965, 28p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN GENERAL 0095 Abercrombie, T.J.’, 1968, Afghanistan, Crossroad of 0096 Adab, (P), 1976, Kabul d’hier a aujourd’hui, 0097 Ahmad, J—ud—D. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, 19/3, 1964, p.35—38. --. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN GEOLOGY 3.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Griesbach, C. L., 1841, Extracts from reports on sub— jects connected with Afghanistan, Journal of the ~ Asiatic Society of Bengal, 10, 1841, p.803.’ Griesbach, C.L., 1885, Afghan field—notes, Records of the Geological Survey of India, 18/1, 1885, p.57—64. Griesbach, C. L., 1885, Geologische Notizen aus Afghan- istan, Verhandlungen den K.K. Geologischen Reich—S sanstalt, 28, 1885, p.3l4—315. ‘ ‘s: ~ 3 GEOLOGY 13 5.-s A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1931, Les données nouvelles sur Ia 0176 Niedermayer, O.Von, 1937, Persien und Afghanistan, 11db. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, Beitrage zur regionalen Geologic der Erde, Berlin, 14, 1980, 500p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Hayden, H.H., 1911, The Geolog~r of Northern Afghan- istan, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, 29/1, 1911; also, London, Kega,n Paul, Berlin, Friedlander & Son, 1911, viii, 96p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kaboul et ses rapports avec les zones limitrophes, Revue Geographic Physique et de Geologic Dynam- ique (Ser.2), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4/3, 1961, p.149—lGl. •~ .sérle A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3.3.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(Afghan—. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
0276 Reed, F.R.C., 1911, Devonian5fossils from Chitral, 0277 0278 0279 Siehl, A., 1957, Zur Stratigraphie und Paläogeographie Macmahon, C.A., 1903, Additional notes on-the corre— lation of the rocks associated with . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Persia, Afghanistan and the Himalayas, Records ~ of the Geological Survey of India, 41/2, 1911, p.86—113. Reed, F.R.C., 1931, Upper carboniferous fossils from Afghanistan, Palaeontologia Indica (N.S.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1977, Relationship between sedimentation volcanism and plutonism in the cretaceous of Central Afghan— istan, Abstracts of the 5th annual Earth Science meeting, 19—22 April 1977, No.77—0099, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Gondwanaland and closing of the Tethys in ~Afghan— istan and surrounding areas, Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences,, (Sen.D), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
The Jurassic Karkar formation in north—east ‘Afghan- istan, Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia, 71/4, 1965, p.1181—1222. crétacés de l’Afghanistan, Records of the. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Douab, Afghan- 0312 Mennessier, G., 1962, Sun la stratigraphie du Crétacé 0313 Mozaffari, C., 1976, The Rhaetian and Jurassic floras Paleontographica, (Abt.A), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rosset, L.F., 1952, Contribution a I’étu trias 0317 0318 Schweitzer, H.J., 1977, The Rhaetic—Junassic flora of 0319 Seward, A.C., 1912, Mesozoic plants from Afghanistan 0320 Sitholey, R.V., 1940, Jurassic.’plant A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Iran and Afghanistan, 4: The Rhaetic hermaphrodite.’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3.3.3 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Nummulites et Assumes du Flysch de Gardez et du Khost (Afghan- istan oriental), Mémoires de Ia Société Gdologique de France, (Sen.5), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Yakwalang and Ghorband valley), Mémoires de la Soc— idtd Geologique de Prance, 8, 1977, p.107—115. Lapparent, A.F.de, and Blaise, J., 1966, ‘Sun 1’Age’’ recent des granites situés a I’Ouest de Ghazni (Afghanistan centrale), Comptes Rendus dc l’Académie des Sciences, 262, 1966, p.1177. graphique de la province de Kaboul (Afghanistan) depuis Ic miocène, Comptes Rendus de Ia Société Geologique de France, 2, 1963, p.29. ‘-~ l’époque pléistocène, Revue Ecolé Anthrop., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Wakhan Formation of the Great Afghan Pamir and the Eastern Hindu Kush, Afghanistan Journal, 612, 1979, p.54—’61. the geography and geology of the Himalaya Moun— 2 tains and Tibet, Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1907, 117p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I GEOLOGY 0420 Mensink, 1967, Mariner Jura im westlichen: Hindukush 0421 0422 Ministry of Mines and industries, Afghan Petroleum 0423 Morgan, D.E., 189~t, The mountain systems of Central 0424,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Abstracts of the 5th annual Earth Science meeting, 19—22 in Persia, Turkey, West Pakistan and Afghanistan~ and plate tectonics of. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Alpenvereins, 80, 1955, p. 116—122. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
western Himalayas and the Afghan mountains, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 36/2, 1867, p.18—20. 1976, A young volcanogenic carbonatite complex in Afghanistan, International Geological Review, 18/11, 1976, p. 1305—1312. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
0473 Huddleston and Macmahon, 1902, Fossils from~the ‘Hindu 0474 Janvier, P., 1977, The Devonian fish of .Centra1~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Nummulites découverte A l’Est de Kaboul (Afghan- istan), Comptes Rendus de Ia Société Géologique de France, 7, 1961, p.188-189. zur Stratigraphie Afghanistans, Erdöl und Kohle, 18/9, 1965, p.678—684. im Gebiet Qasim Khel—Ali Khel. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Macmahon, C.A. and Huddleston, W.H., 1902, Fossils from the Hindu Khoush, Geological Magazine, 9/3, 1902, p.3—8; 49—58. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
from Afghanistan, Proceedings of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1879, p.l76—l77; 1880, p.3-4. molluscs from near Ghorband, Afghanistan, Records of the Geological Survey of India, 72, 1938. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN GEOLOGY 0508 Dunn, P.J., 1974, Gem spodumene and achnoite tour— 0509 Fox, C.S., 1936, The coalfields of Afghanistan, report 0510 Fuchs, G., Matura, A. and Schermann, ‘0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Leckebusch, R., 1977, Chemistry, colour and colon— metry of tourmaline from Afghanistan, Fortschritte der Mineralogie, 55/1, 1977, p.84—85. ‘‘ ‘‘‘ jade from Afghanistan, Mineralogical Magazine and “0 Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain 47 ‘I 48 0545 Malusek, Z., 1958, The mining industry in Afghanistan 0546 Mazina, B.G., 1949, Mineral resources of Iran and 0547 Medlicott, H.B., 1880, On rock—salt from the Kuram 0548 Mennessier, G., 1961, Sun la presence du Nummulitique 0549 Michel, A.A., 1961, The natural resources of Afghan- 0550 Mining Journal, (c)., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
p.175—183. Geologiceskij Vestnik, 1, 1916, p.30—31. most of the tourists and historians of the world have remembered from the lazuli mines of Afghan- istan — what is the economical distinction of lapis lazuli? Afghanistan, 18/1, 1963, p.51—56; 18/2., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Oil News, (P), 1925, Oil possibilities of Afghanistan; note from Afghan Minister, London, Oil News, 17/647, 1925, p.451—452. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1937, Afghan oil concessions, 0590 Woods, C.W., (Ed.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Petrol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(German: On the Geology of the Paleozoic of Malestan (Central Afghan- istan).) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(German: on the Geology of the Southern Slope of the Afghan Hindukush between the Salang and Parandeh Rivers.) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Salang und Parandeh. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
afghanischen Hindukush zwischen den Flüssen . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1920, x, 132p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, Den Haag, 1954. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Botany III, 1888, p.1—139. features of the country traversed by the Afghan De- limitation Commission during 1884—85, Transactions of the Botany Society Edinburgh, 17, 1889, p.421—434. knowledge of the products of West Afghanistan and of North—East Persia, Transactions of the Botany Society Edinburgh, 18, 1891, p.1—228. Hindu-Kush. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Pilze aus Afghanistan, (Parasitic fungi from Afghan— istan), Decheniana, 125/1—2, 1972, p.165—188. Central India, London, 1874, 578p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN FLORA AND FAUNA 0680 Freitag, H., 1972, Interesting and new Labiatae and 0681 0682 Freitag, H. and Wendelbo, P., 1970, The genus’ .-~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Feddes Repertorium, 69, 1964, p.175—. Gilli, A., 1971, Eine sukzessionsaufnahme aus Afghan- istan, (survey of plant succession from Afghanistan). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 75, 1971, p.77—81. gesellschaften, (Afghan ruderal and segetal plant communities, Feddes Repertorium, 86/3, 1975, p.171—197. grammen im Bereich der Mykologie, Afghanistans, Afghanistan Journal, 1979, p.92—94. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Salicales, Fagales, Urticales, Polygonales, FLORA AND FAUNA 0706 Harrison, S.G., 1951, Edible pine kernels: Afghanistan 0707 Hayon, j.C., Kilbertus, G. and Pelt, J.M., 1970, Flore 0708 0709 Hedge, I.C., 1965, Studies in the flora of Afghan— . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
0710 Hedge, 1.C., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1974, A further note on Salvia tetrodonta, 0711 0712 Hedge, I.C. and Wendelbo, / P., 1964, Studies in the 0713 0714 0715 31/2, 1972, p.33l350. - Arranged by John M. McClelland. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Studies in the new taxa3.and A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ergänzungen zur Brassicaceen—Flora, Afghanistans (Beitrage zur Flora Afghanistans, IX), (Additions and supplements to the Brassicaceae flora from Afghanistan (contributions to the flora from Afghan- istan, IX), New taxa.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN FLORA AND FAUNA ... 17/1, 1957, 0743 0744 Paulsen, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1963, p.33l—349. S S . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
-I1”j -‘ dineenflora Irans und Afghanistans, (Contribution to the Uredinales, rust fungi, flora of Iran and Afghanistan, Puccinia buffoniae, Aecidium’ iranicum, new taxa.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Flora Afghanistans (Beitrage zur Flora von Afghanis— tan, VII), (Contribution to the flora of Afghanistan, VII. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
O.H.Volk (u.a.) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ritchiana (Griff.) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Taraxacum-art aus nordost—Afghanistan, (Taraxacum podlechii, a new species from northeastern Afghan- istan), Mitteilungen aus der Botanischen.Staatssamm— A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1969, Toulouse, biochemique de l’ochotone Afghan (Ochotona, Rufescens Rufescens) en vue de son utilisation comme animal de laboratoire, Ph.D., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
77 et 78 0856 Bajtenov, M.S., 1977, Notizen über einige Arten der 0857 Balthazar, V., 1956, Neue Chrysididen aus Afghanistan: 0858 Baithazar, V., 1957, Neue Spheciden aus Afghanistan 0859 Barus, V. and Tenora, F., 1970, Further discoveries of 0860 Barus, V. et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Beitrag zur Bonbyces—und Sphinges— Fauna), (Austrian expeditions to Iran and Afghan- istan, Lepidoptera fauna, 16. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
magiana xanthos ssp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dujardin, F., 1976, Description de Zygaena. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
p.47—74. : : Arctiidae, Ergebnisse der 2. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
170. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Evk. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
0931 Machatschke, J., 1958, Em neuer Adoretus aus Afghan- 0932 Mahunka, S., 1976, Zwei neue Milben-Arten aus Afghan- 0933 Mandl, K., 1955, Die Cicaden, Caraben und Calosomen 0934 Medvedev, G.S., 1970, New species of tenebrionids (Col. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANiSTAN FLORA AND FAUNA 0935 0936 Millett, E.R., 1960, Annual reports, regional insect 0937 Millett, E.R., 1961—(annual), Annual reports, 0938 Millet, E.R., 1961, Insect pests identified from Afghan- 0939 Millet, E.R., 1962, The desert locust situation ‘in 0940 Millet, E.R., 1962. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Cataglyphis bicolor Fabricius), Zoologischer’~Anzeiger, 187/3—4, 1971, p.2O2—2l3. ‘ 89 90 0969 Schneider, P., 1973, Uber die geruchsrezeptoren der 0970 Schneider, P., 1975, Soziallebende Assein in Afghan- 0971 Schneider, P., 1976, Honigbienen und ihre Zuch1~ in 0972 Schneider, P. and Nauroz, M.K., 1972, Beitrag zur 0973 Schroder, H., 1975, Eine neue Afghanische Unterart des 0974 Schulte, A. and Witt, T., 1975, Eriogaster amygdali 0975 Serfaty, A., 1948 and 1953, Au sujet d’un cas térato— 0976 Serfaty, A. and Vachon, M., 1950, Quelques remarques 0977 Shallow, D.D., 1958, Terminal report, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1958 0978 Smit, F.G.A.M. and Rosicky, B., 1973, Siphonaptera 0979 Smit, F.G.A.M. and Rosicky, B., 1974, Siphonaptera 0980 Spencer, K.A., 1976, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Fauna Afghanischen wasternassel, Naturw. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
30. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, WHO, 1972, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
p.22—37. Ludin, M.B., 1962, The role of reservoir and dam site selection in water resources development in Afghan- istan, Proceedings of the regional symposium on “dams and reservoirs, flood control series no.21, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
measurement of canals and the Helmand River in the Chakensur area, Kabul, FAO, 1959, lip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Handbuch, Vol.3, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Balland, D., 1979, Réflexions d’un géographe sun une décennie de recherches francaises en Afghan—’ istan (1968—1978), Mission Scientifique Afghanistan Bulletin, 8, 1979, p.3—21. Barrat, J., 1972, Quelques traits caractéristiques de l’Afghanistan, Annales de Geographie, 81, 1972, p.2O6—229. Bouillet, M.N. and~Chassang, A., 1880, Afghanistan, Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire et de Geographie, M.N.Bouillet and A. Chassang, Parls,~Hachette, 1880, p.21. Brown, G.G., 1941, Afghanistan, Scottish. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Leech, Dr Lord and Lieut. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Gazetteer of Afghanistan: Including the Provinces of Kabul, Afghan Turkistan and Badakhshan Wakhan, and the Independent States of Chitral, Kafiristan and Koram, Part 1 and II: Maitland, P.J. and MacGregor, C.M., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft, 19, 1926, p.130—l42. . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
National Geographic Magazine, 64, 1933, p.73l—769. raphical names in Afghanistan, Kabul, Royal Afghan Ministry of Mines and Industry, 1962, l2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
237—291; 44, p.424—432. Collin—Delaraud, C., 1960, Khbadja Qendu: misc en valeur d’un piémont dans le Turkestan afghan,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
province de Maimana, ( development- of foothill area in Afghan Turkestan, Maimana provlnce,~ Annales de Géographie, 69/372, 1960, p.135—156. country, language, religion and customs ~of the Siaht Posh Kafirs, Lahore, 1873, 2Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Berjchten des Missionärs Hughes und des Afghanen Munshi Syud Schah, Petermanns Magazine, 29, - 1883, p.404—. de Geographic de Paris, 1886. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
part of Beluchistan, geographical, ethnographical and historical. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kaboul Valley, Beitrag zur Physik der Atmosphaere, 3—4, Geographical Review of Afghanistan, 1/2, 1962, p.6—12. - ~‘. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1960, p.215—236. - - 119 120 1341 Stratii—Sauer, G., 1952, Die SommerstUrme Sudost—Irans, 1342 United States Geological Survey and Helmand Valley 1343 Voiekof, A.J., 1896, The Meteorology of Central Asia, 6.5 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1357 Furon, R., 1934, Sur les relations géologiques et i-.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- 1358 1359 1360 1361 of Awpar travertine (Ghandak valley, Central Afghanistan), Comptes Rendus de 1 ‘Academic des Sciences (Ser.D), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kaboulistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan settlements, Afghanistan Journal, 812, 1981, pp.66—72. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1456 Grötzbach, E., 1979, Städte und Basare in Afghan— 1457 Hahn, H., 1964—65, Die Stadt, Kabul (Afghanistan) und 1458 Hahn, H., 1972, Wachstumsablaufe in einer oriental—, 1459 Holdich, T.H., 1929, Kabul, Encyclopaedia Sritannica, 1460 Hurlimann, M., 1928, Der Weg nach Kabul, Kandahar, London, 1880. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES 1475 1476 Saied, M., 1973, Kabul, Geographical Review of 1477 1478 Sedqi, M.O., 1952, Qandahar, Afghanistan, 714, 1952, 1479 1480 Tate, C.E., 1887, Notes on the city of Herat, Journal 1481 Turn, E., 1961, Mulini e vento nefl’oasi de Herat, 1482 Turn, E., 1964, Villaggi fortificati in Iran e Afghan- 1483 Vercellin, G., 1974, Sindand. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rivista Geografica Italiana, 68, 1961, p.71—75. ~ istan, Rivista Geografica Italiana, 1, 1964, p.20—34. nimo afghano, Annali della Facolta di Lingue et Letterature Straniere de Ca’Foscari, 5, 1974, p.99—107. Wiebe, D., 1973, Some considerations on the municipal structure of large Afghan cities illustrated by the ~ $ example of Kandahar, IULA, Studies in comparative local government, 7/1, 1973, p.41—49. .1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
V Afghan, Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Paris, (Ser.6), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1587 Wright, T., (Ed.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
London, 1852. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
V V • tV ~,tV1L * ~ • . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
V - 144 1625 Curzon f Kedleston, Marquess, 1926, Leaves from a 1626 Dalton, O.M., 196/,, The treasure A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Iran-Afghanistan-Pakistan, New York, David McKay Co., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Land der Zukunft: Reisen, Abenteuer und Fors+, t~-~L 1928; 176p.• A Bibliography of Afghanistan
TRAVEL, EXPLORATION AND DESCRIPTION 1694 1695 K.H., 1954, Aus dem Leben der Deutschen in Afghan- 1696 Katrak, S.K.H., 1929, Through Amanullah’s Afghan- 1697 Kessel, J., 1959, Afghanistan, Photographed by K. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Auf den Kreuzwegen Asiens,1 Munich, 1958, 29lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1713 Linde, G., 1978, Des Kremls Weg zum Khyberpass, 1714 Lucas, C., 1977, High adventure in ancient Afghanistan, 1715 Mackenzie, F., 1949, Brief glimpses of Afghanistan, 1716 Maclean, F., 1949, Maclean’s journey to Afghanistan 1717 MacMunn, G., 1931, The romance of Indian frontiers, 1718 Maeder, H., 1972, Berge, Pferde und Bazare: Afghan- 1719 Maillart, E.K., 1955, The cruel way, London, Heine— 1720 Masson, C., 1979, Narrative of various journeys in La Croisière Jaune. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965, p.8—1O. rRAvEL, EXPLORATION AND DESCRIPTION 1749 1750 1751 1752 1753 Royal Afghan Embassy, London, 1960, Visit Afghan- 1754 Saise, W., 1911, A visit to Afghanistan, Proceedings 1755 Scheibe, A., 1954, Die Hindukusch—Expedition 1935, 1756 Schickert, G., 1964, Arbeits -~ und Studienaufenthalte 1757 Schmidt, E., 1961, Ergebnisse der deutschen Afghan- 1758 1759 1760 ‘ Schultz, A., 1916, Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Royal Afghan Embassy, Information Bureau, 1960, 42p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1814 Ziemke, K., 1939, Als Deutscher Gesandter in Afghan- 1815 Zimmermann, M., 1907, L’Exploration du Seistan par 1816 Zugmayer, E., 1924, Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der OsnabrUck, Biblio Verlag, 1976, 33Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Wolfe, N.H. and Kohzad, A.A., 1972, An historical guide to Kabul, 2nd ed. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORICAL STUDIES 8.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1841 Barthoux, J., 1933, Lapis—Lazuli et rubis balais des perdue, Asie Nouvelle, 7/80-81.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Monuments pré —islam iques d ‘Afghanistan, M.émoires de Ia Délégation Archeologique Française en Afghan- istan, 19, 1964. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dupree, L., 1956, Shamshir Ghar, a historic, cave site 1899 Dupree, L., 1957, Shamshir Ghar — a cave in Afghan- 1900 Dupree, L., 1958, Shamshir Ghar;’ historic cave. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
‘~ ‘ 165. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(N.S), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1947 Foucher, A., 1923, Lettre au Président de Ia Société and adjacent areas in Afghanistan, Afghanistan, 22/3—4, 1969—70, p.91—107. Afghan Seistan between 31°20’ to 30°50’N and 62°00 to 62°10’E. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(plus 3 maps in folder), Zentralasiat— ische Studien, 4, 1970, p.483—53/+. pection arch éologique de Seistan Septentrional en Octobre 1970, Afghanistan, 23/4, 1970, p.37—50. Afghanischen Sistan, Indologen-Tagung, by H.Hartel and V.Moeher, 1970, p.204—209. the N. parts of Afghan Seistan, Bulletin of the Asia Institute, Pahiavi University, 2, 1971, p.40—72. Afghan Seistan 1960—1970, South Asian archaeology, ed. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I HISTORICAL STUDIES 1948 Faicher, A., 1924, Notes sur les antiquités boudd— 1949 Foucher, A., 1928, The French archaeological, dele- 1950 Foucher, A., 1930, Bustes provenant de Hadda (Afghan- 1951 1952 Foucher, A., 1942, La viellle route de 1 ‘Inde de 1953 1954 Franz, H.G., 1977, Pagode Turmtempel Stupa. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
in 1956 Franz, H.G., 1977, Der Buddhistiche Stupa in Afghan 1957 Franz, H.G., 1978, Das Chakri Minar als buddhistiche 1958 Franz, I-I.G., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1979, Erste Monographie zur Archaeologle’ hiques de Haibak, Turkestan afghan, Journal Asiatique, 205, 1924, p.139—153. gation in Afghanistan Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
~ -~ 169 170 1959 1960 Frye, R.N., 1948, Two Timurid monuments in Herat, 1961 Fussman, G., 1966, Notes sur Ia topographie de 1962 Fussman, G., 1973, Daniel Schlumberger, 1904—1972, 1963 Fussman, G. and Berre, M.Le., 1976, Vol.1, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1978, p.1—14. Ghoshal, U., 1928, Ancient Indian culture in Afghan- istan, Greater India Society Bulletin, no.5, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, Revue de I’Art Ancien et Moderne, 1937, p.302—304. hiques récemment misent au jour en Afghanistan, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORICAL STUDIES 2000 2001 2002 Hackin, J., 1938, The work of the French archae- 2003 Hackin, J., 1939, L’Hellénisme dans la Haute—Asic, 2004 2005 2006 2007 Hackin, J. and Carl, J., 1933, Nouvelles recherches 2008 2009 Hackin, J, Carl, J. and Meunlé, J., 1959, Diverses 2010 2011 Hackin, J. and Hackin, R., 1939, Recherches archéo-” Revue des Arts Asiatiques, 10, 1937, p.130—131. Hackin, J., 1938, Arch éologisch onderzoek in Afghan- istan, Mandschrift Wetenschappelijke, 1938, Afl.10. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Abaglu bri Takestan, Archaeology. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
.~.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan city, Geographical Magazine, 33/7, Nov. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
June 1959, p.81—92. l’histoire ancienne de l’Afghanistan, Afghanistan, 15/3, 1960, p.26—47. history of Afghanistan, London, Afghan Information Bureau, 1960. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rustam, 2194 Verardi, G., 1977, Notes on Afghan Archaeology: 2195 2196 2197 Wheeler, M., 1946, Trois. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Taktha Pol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORICAL STUDIES 2239 Pugachenkova, G.A., 1968, Les monuments - peu connus 2240 Saldjouqui, F., 1954, Osrad Banay Héravi, 2241 Sengupta, R., 1977, Preserving Buddhist shrines in 2242 Stark, F., 1970, The minaret of Djam: an excursion in 2243 Strzygowsky, J., n.d., The Afghan stuccos of the NP?, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Inscription, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (N.S), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
-8, - - 1918, p.214—227. Flury, S., 1925, Le decor épigraphique des monuments de Ghazna, Syria, 6, 1925, p.61—90. -- Frye, R.N., 1954, An epigraphical journey in Afghan— istan, Archaeology, 7, 1954, p.114—li8. - Ghafur, A.M., 1965—66, Two lost inscriptions relating to the Arab conquest of Kabul and the N.W.region of Pakistan, Ancient Pakistan, 2, 1965—66, p.4—12. Habibi, A.H., 1968, The mother of the- -Dan langüage:..t A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Robert, M.L., 1969—70, De Delphes a l’Oxus: inscrip- tions Grecques nouveiles de la Bactriae, Afghan- istan, 22/2, 1969, p.81—102; 22/3—4, 1969—70, p.108; 129. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Charlottesville, 1926, l84p./ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
rev, and enlg., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2nd ed., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1970, p.21—52; 23/4, 1970, p.24—36 -- 2412—3,~ 1971. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2458 Yate, A.C., 1918, “Jang Nafuskh” and “The~ Red Thread 2459 Zafar, M.F., 1978, The name of Hindu Kush in the 2460. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
9.3 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AD 1398—1707, Westminster, Archibald Constable, • 1895, xvi, 365p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
the Afghan occupation of Persia, Cambridge, Cam- bridge University Press, 1958, 584p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul to Peshawar), Revue de Paris, 7512,.:1968, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
By Afghan and foreign known. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1 219’ • ‘ 220 2617 Keene, H.G., 1879, Mogul empire. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan sultan, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 4/4, 1956, p.245—277. Rosset, L.F., 1946, Le Padishah Baber — 1483—1530.’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Men and events, in ‘Afghan- 2657 2658 Mann, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2676 Allan, J., 1937, The strategic principles of Lord 9.8.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Abdurrahman, Amir of Afghanistan, London, 1900. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2686 Anwar Khan, M., 1963, England, Russia and Central 2687 2688 Attar, A.G., 1980, Die Zweite Britische Intervention in 2689’ Babakhodzhaev, M.A., 1969, Russo-Afghan trade 2690 2691 Baker, H.D., 1915, British India, with notes on Ceylon, ‘;?~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1878, p.603—627. - Allardyce, A., 1878, The Afghan war and its authors, Blackwoods Magazine, 124, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1878, p.112—140. Allardyce, A., 1879, The Afghan War and its authors, Blackwoods Magazine, 125, Jan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1 •r :r~ 225 -~ ~ 226 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 2692 Bakshi, S.R., 1967, Elphinstone’s mission to Kabul, 2693 Balfour, B., 1899, The history of Lord Lytton ‘s Indian 2694 Banerjee, A.C., 1944, British policy towards the 2695 Banerjee, A.C., 1945, Some notes on the Ambala 2696 Basu, B.D., 1928, The second Afghan War, Modern 2697 Basu, B.D., 1928, The causes of the second Afghan War, 2698 Baxter, W.E., 1885, England and Russia in Asia, 2699 Bearce, G., 1961, British attitu~des towards India, 2700 BeIlew, H.W., 1879, Afghanistan and the Afghans: 2701 Bertacchi, C., 1880, L ‘Afghanistan nel conflitto 2702 Besant, A., 1931, England, India and Afghanistan and 2703 Beylie, L.de, 1884, L’Inde sera—t—elIe russe ou 2704 Bhargava, K.D., 1946, Wazir Au and Zaman Shah, Afghanistan and Tibet, Washington DC, Government Printing Office, 1915. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan War of Succession (1863-1868), Indian Hist- orical Quarterly, 20, 1944, p.9—20; 143—152. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2718 Bulletin Asic Francaise, (P), 1901,’ La sltuation~en ~ 2719 Bulletin Asic Francaise, (P), 1929, La révolte afghane, Biddulph, C.E., 1890, Afghan politics, London, Waterlow Bros., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Boulger, D.C., 1900, The coming Afghan crisis,~~.) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bulletin Asie Fran çaise, Jan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1929, p.15—20..~. ~ Feb. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLITICS 2735 2736 Cotton, S., 1878, The Central Asian question, 2737 Cowling, M., 1961, Lytton, the cabinet, and the 2738 Crangle, J.V., 1972, Liberal opposition to’ the Afghan 2739 Cucheval—Clarigny, 1877, L’Asie Centrale et he réveil 2740 Curzon, G.N., 1889, Russia in Central Asia in, 1889, r~. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
86, 1904, p.41—69. .. j ~ ~ ~ 2’ _ ~ 229 - 230 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 2750 Dixon, F., 1890, Sir Herbert Edwardes at Peshawar 2751 Donlni, P.G., 1975, Su11’inizio della terra guerra 2752 Durand, H., 1879, The first Afghan War and its 2753 Durand, H., 1907, The Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, 2754 Edinburgh Review, (P.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Jewish agent of the British during the first Anglo— Afghan war. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY AND POLITICS 2764 2765 Forgues, 1857, Les Afghans chez eux. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
137/3, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- 231 - V”~’ ;“,, 232 2778 Gordon, T.E., 1900, The problem of the Middle East, 2779 Gottmann, 3., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Nineteenth Century, 1900, p.413—424. l’UR.S.S. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY AND POLITICS 2791 2792 Hamilton, I.S.M., 1889, Our true policy in India, 2793 Hanna, H.B., 1896, Backwards or forwards? (Indian 2794 Hanna, H.B., 1899—1910, The second Afghan War, ~795 Hasan, M., 1977, An analysis of the centralization of 2796 Hasrat, B.J., 1959, Anglo—Sikh relations during-the :~ 2797 Hasrat, B.J., 1968, Anglo—Sikh Relations, 1799—1849, 2798 Haye, K.A., 1947, The first Afghan War — a review, 2799 Haye, K.A., 1952, Amir Dost Muhammad Khan Barakzai, 2800 Haye, K.A., 1958, The Afghar~—Sikh tussle over the 2801 2802 Hensman, H., 1881, The Afghan-War of 1879—1880, being 2803 Heraw, N., 1973, An historical edict from - Amir Shair - Services Magazine, 32, 1908, p.4l4—. ‘ - Hamilton, A., 1908, Habibullah and the lndo—Afghan frontier, Fortnightly Review, 89, 1908, p.973—981. ~ Fortnightly Review, 45(266, (N.S), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Its causes, its conduct, ‘and its con- ‘ ‘ - . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Fortnightly Review, 84, 1905, p.63O—655. - Blackwoods Magazine,47, 1840, p.512—526. Holme, F., 1841, Results of our Afghan conquests, Blackwoods Magazine, 50, 1841, p.l61—174. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2830 Kohzad, A.A., 1950, Two coronations (Sadozai: and 2831 Kohzad, A.A., 1952, Emir Cher Au Khan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Leurs conqu&es sur les rives du Syr et de L’Amou—-- Dana, -Revue des Deux—Mondes, 15 Feb. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Amir of Afghanistan, London, John Murray, 1900, 2 vol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
First Afghan War? Indian Culture, 14, l947—48~ p.67—71. in the 1870s: conflicting attitudes of Empire, Canadian Historical Association, Historical Papers, 1968, p.164—179. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2875 Murray, H., 1801, History of British- India, with con—~ 2876 2877 2878 Newcastle Foreign Affairs Association, 1860, The 2879 Newcastle Foreign Affairs Association, 1860, Falsi- 2880 Noorzai, G.M., 1979, The second Anglo_Afghan- War : - 2881 Norris, J.A., 1967, The first Afghan War, 1838—1842,~~. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan papers: petition presented by Mr Hadfield, May 11 1860 to the Honourable the Commons of Great Britain and Ireland and petition of the Newcastle Foreign Affairs Association, - London, in Parliament assembled, London, 1860, 8p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- - fication of diplomatic documentsL the Afghan papers,” report by Effingham Wilson, ‘1860, 32p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
-- - ~ ‘-- - 239 240 2885 Oliver, S.P., 1908, The Second Afghan War, 1878-80. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2886 Ohlier, E., 1879, Cassell’s illustrated history of the 2887 Osborn, R.D., 1879, India and Afghanistan, 2888 Osborn, R.D., 1880, The last phase of the Afghan War, 2889 -Osborn, R.D., n.d., Results of the Afghan War, 2890 Pal, D., 1945, 1946, The North—West Frontier policy of 2891 2892 Palat, C., 1895, L’Inde et la question anglo—russe. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Sir John Lawrence (1864—1868), Indian Historical Quarterly, 21, 1945, p.105—117;, 22, 1946, p.92—104. Pal, D., 1946, The Afghan War of Succession (1863— 1869), Indian Historical Quarterly, 22, 1946, p.207—219; 253—262. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I HISTORY AND POLITICS 2900 Quadflieg, F., 1914, Russische Expansionspolitik von 2901 2902 2903 Rahman, A., 1900, The Life of Abdur Rahman,—fAmir of: 2904 - Ramazani, R.K., 1958, Afghanistan and the USSR, 2905 Rashad, A.S., 1967, Ashraf—Ul-Wuzara, Shah Wall Khan 2906 Rastogi, R.S., 1965, Indo-Afghan relations, 1880—1900, 2907 Raverty, H.G., 1885, Muscovite proceedings on the 2908 Rawhinson, H.C., 1878, War in Afghanistan, crisis of 2909 Rawhinson, H.C., 1879, The reLuits of the Afghan War, 2910 Rawlinson, H.C., 1880, War in Afghanistan, the ~ 2911 2912 Rehatsek, E., 1886, The last years of Shah Shuja’a, - 2913 1774 — bis 1914, Berlin, 1914. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Qureshi, I.H., 1943, An Afghan account of Anglo— Afghan relations (1836—1842), Proceedings of the Indian Historical Records Commission, 19, 1943, p.119—121. - Rahimi, M.H., 1979, The causes of and prelude to the second Anglo-Afghan War (Trans. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan frontier, London, 1885, 6p 1878, Nineteenth Century, 4, p.969—. - - . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Trans. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Robinson, K.K., 1895, The Afghan alliance, Fortnightly Review, 64, Nov. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Asie. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Sobolev, L.N., 1885, The Anglo-Afghan struggle, sketch of the war 1879—1880, St Petersburg, 1880—1882, 3 vol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1885, xlii, 383p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Blackwoods Magazine, 127, April 1880, p.464—47S. note—book of a staff officer, Blackwoods - Magazine, 127, June 1880, p.757—767. - 1881, 256p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Jahrhundert und deren Auswirkungen.bis A Bibliography of Afghanistan
9.8.2 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Peshavar, and from thence/to Cabul, with the mission of Lieut. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rajput, English or Afghan? Asian Affairs, 10/2, June 1979, p.18O—l83. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Sir Donald Stewart in Afghanistan 1879-80, Edinburgh, 1902. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan War 1838—1842, Journal of Indian History, 12, 1933, p.251—268; 405—422. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLITICS 3032 Diver, K.H.M., 1924, The judgement of the sword, (The 3033 Douglas, J., 1915, Letters concerning the 44th regiment 3034 Duke, J,,1883, Recollections of the Kabul campaign, 3035 Dupree, L., 1967, The retreat of the British Army from 3036 Dupree, L., 1974, The first Anglo-Afghan war: folklore 3037 Dupree, L. and Dupree, N.H., 1967, Dr Brydon’.s A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3040 Durand, H., n.d., The outbreak in Cabul,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2SF 252 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 3045 3046 Eyre, Lt., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
The Crimean campaign, ... The Indian mutiny, ... The Afghan campaign of 1863; also sketches of the career of some of England’s commanders ... Ncttingham, Thos. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Havelock, H., 1846, Narrative of the:’war in Afghan- 3067 3068 Hills, J., 1900, The Bombay field force, 1880, London, 3069 Hobday, E.A.P., 1898, Sketches on service during the 3070 Holme, F.1 1843, The evacuation of Afghanistan, 3071 Hough, W., 1840, Narrative of the march and~opera- 3072 Hough, W 1849 A review of the operations of the London, 1881, 3lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Blackwoods Magazine, 53, Feb. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3091 3092 3093 3094 3095 Low, C.R., 1879, The Afghan War (1838-42), from the 3096 Lumsden, H.B., 1860, The mission. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bahadur, London, 1852, 68p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Knollys, W.W., 1880, The Candahar campaign, Edinburgh Review, 152, 1880, p.578-6O6. at Maiwand, 1880, (Second Afghan War), Journal of the Royal Artillery, 80/1, p.72—75. in India, including the Cabul disaster;’ captivities in Afghanistan and Panjab, London, John Murray, 1875. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY’. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
London, Stockwell, 1918, 7lp.’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Force Officer to his nephew, giving his ideas on fighting on the North West Frontier and in Afghan- istan, Sifton Praed, 1925. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3136 Thackwell, J., 1908, Military memoirs: Afghanistan, 3137 Thomsett, R.G., 1884, I.M.S. Kohat, Kuram and Khost 3138 Thomsett, R.G., 1899, With the Peshawar column, 3139 Thornton, E. and Thornton, A., 1910, Leaves from an 3140 Times of India, (P), 1880, Nott’s Brigade in Afghan- 3141 Trower, C.F., 1915, Diary of Lieut. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
The Afghan War:’ passages from the 3143 3144’ United Service Magazine, (P), 1889, Giving :up the 314S War Office Great Britain, 1878 Memorandum on London, 1880, 8lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan i War, London, Remington, 1884. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
, II Afghan scrapbook: the experiences of an English Official and his wife in Kabul, London, ‘J.’Murray,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bengal Native Infantry, during the Afghan War of.’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1842. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3152 Younghusband, G.J., 1898, Indian frontier warfare, 3153 Baker, W.J., 1975, A.C.Swinburne to’ Herbert Spencer, 3154 ‘ Baring, T.G. 1878, The Afghan question, London, 3155 Baring, T.G., 1882, Memorandum on Viscount Cran- 3156 Bellew, H.W., 1862 and 1978, Journal of a political 3157 Bosworth, C.E.,. 1974, ‘Ubaidallah b. Abi Bakra and (confidential), London, 1878, 22p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Horse, the story of a local corps; with a chapter relative to the Second Afghan War by Neville Cham- berlin, Edinburgh, William B.Iackwood, 1960, 474p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3166 3167 Eyre, V., 1869, A retrospect of the Afghan War; with 3168 Forrest, G.W., 1909, Life of Sir N. Chamberlain, 3169 Fowler, H.H., 1897, The Indian frontier que.stion~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Cavagnari, British Envoy at Cabul. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
P’ H . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
by~ 3194 Napier, R.W., 1936, Letters of Field—Marshall Lord 3195 Northbrook, The Earl of, 1878, The Afghan question. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLITiCS Clarendon Press, 1895, 22Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
in 3218 Urquhart, D., 1843, The Edinburgh Review and the 3219 Urquhart, D., 1878, The two Afghan wars. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
, 3213 3214. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY AND POLITICS 3238 3239 3240 3241 Becka, J., 1978, Tajik—Afghan relations and the 3242 3243 3244 3245 Buescher, H., 1971, Genossenschaften in Afghanistan, 3246 3247 Canfield, R., 1973, Hazara integration into the Afghan 3248 3249 3250 Castagne, J., 1921, 1: Notes sur la politique ex— Andel, H., 1961, Die Neuzeit kommt auch nach Afghan- istan, Deutsche Woche, 11/13, 1961, p.5. Balland, D., 1976, Passé et present d’une politique des barrages dans la region de Ghazni, Studia Iranica, 5, 1976, p.239—253. Bastid, P., 1960, Afghanistan, 1960, Revue des Deux Mondes, 1960, p.628—64l. writings of Sadriddin Aini, Archiv Orientalni, 46/2, 1978, p.97—ill. Benumeya, R.G., 1972, Actualidad des Afghanistan en la encrucijada asiatica mundial, Revista de Politica Internacional, 119, 1972, p.177—185. Bouvat, L., 1921, Notes sur la politique extérieure de l’Afghanistan depuis 1919. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1921). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan nation, Middle East Journal, 6, 1952, p. 400—416. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
today, a strategic appraisal, Strategic Studies, 2/3, Spring, 1979, p.64—83. Dupree, L., 1979, The democratic republic of Afghan- istan, 1979, American Universities Field Staff ‘ Reports, Asia, 32, 1979, lip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3304 Grant, A.H., 1906, A winter at, the court of an abso- 3305 Gregorian V., 1967, Mahmud Tarzi and Saraj-ol-Akhbar: 3306 Gregorian, V., 1969, The emergence of modern Afghan- 3 Grousset, R., 1930, S.M.Nadir Shah, Journal Asiatique, 3308 Guha, A., 1967-1968, The economy of Afghanistan 3309 Habibi, A.H., 1970, Afghan nationality and its factors 3310 Habibi, A.H., 1977, Al—Afghani, Afghanistan, 29/4, 3311 Habibullah, A., n.d., My life from brigand to king. Grousset, R., 1930, S.M.Nadir Shah, Journal Asiatique, 3308 Guha, A., 1967-1968, The economy of Afghanistan 3309 Habibi, A.H., 1970, Afghan nationality and its factors 3310 Habibi, A.H., 1977, Al—Afghani, Afghanistan, 29/4, 3311 Habibullah, A., n.d., My life from brigand to king A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Entwicklungslandern: Probleme der Integration’ ethnischer Gruppen in Afghanistan, Meisenheim am Glan Verlag Anton Ham 1970 25Op Middle East Journal, 19, Winter 1965 p 1—19 ‘ ‘ 271 272 . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ideology of nationalism and modernization in Afghan- istan, Middle East Journal, 21, 1967, p.345—368. istan: politics of reform and modernization, 1880-1946, California, Stanford Press, 1969, 586p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Stiefkind 3321 3322 3323 Hyman, A., 1979, The Afghan retains independence 3324 3325 3326 Jam, G., 1978, The Afghanistan affair. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
..• ~.: Kakar, H.K., 1978, The fall of the Afghan monarchy in 1973, International Journal of Middle East Studies, ‘ 9/2, 1978, p.195—214. . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Culture, 1, 1927, p.252—258. (extremist regimes boxing in Middle East), National Review, 30, 26 May 1978, p.634. Negaran, H., 1979, Afghanistan: a marxist regime in a muslim society, Current History, 76/446, 1979, p.172—175. ‘ ‘ ‘ 275’ 276 3362 Newell, R.S., 1972, The politics of Afghanistan, 3363 Newell, R.S., 1979, Revolution and rebellion in Afghan- 3364 Newell, R.S., 1979, Revolution and revolt in Afghan- 3365 O’Ballance, E., 1960—61, Afghanistan, Army Quarterly 3366 Peking Review, (F), 1979, Afghanistan in turmoil, 3367 Pernot, M., 1929, ‘La situation en Afghanistan: les 3368 Peter, Prince of Greece, 1947, Post—war developments in 3369 Philips, J., 1979, Afghanistan: Islam versus Marxism, 3370 Poullada, L.B., 1969, Political Modernization in Afghan- 3371 Poullada, L. B., 1973, Reform and rebellion in Afghan- 3372 Pradhan, R.C., 1966, First general election in Afghan- 3373 Princeton University, 1961, Current problems in Afghan- 3374 Puig, J.J. and Victor, J.C., 1980, L’Afghanistan, 3375 Quaroni, P., 1972, Ricordi e considerazioni politiche, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1972. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rahim, A., 1956, The nature of the Afghan monarchy and the position of the Afghan chiefs, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 4, 1956, p.116—132. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rubio Garcia, L., 1975, Components of modern ‘Afghan: istan, Revista de Politica Internacional, No.1: A Bibliography of Afghanistan
World Marxist Review, 17/7, 1974, p.117—121. ~ Correspondance d’Orient, Jan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Asic Fran çaise, 1929, p.15—20. ‘ Taillardat, F., 1930, Nadir Khan, Emir de l’Afghan—.~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3439 3440 Ahmed, A., 1980, Afghanistan and Pakistan: The great 3441 Zafar, M.F., 1980, How did Nadir accede to the throne? (two parts), (Trans. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Footman, (Eds.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLITICS 3457 Dupree, L., 1966, The Chinese touch base and strike 3458 Dupree, L., 1976, Afghanistan: Landlocked Images 3459 3460 3461 3462’ Harrison, S.G., 1980, Un nouvel enjeu’ international: 3463 Hasan, K., 1962, Pakistan—Afghanistan relations, 3464 Hasan, Z., 1964, The foreign policy of Afghanistan,’ 3465 Huebbenet, G.von, 1960, Teheran und Kabul — Kontraste 3466 Huffman, A.V., 1950, Afghan claims against P’akistan, 3467 Huntington, E., 1908, The relation of Afghanlst/ 3468 Khan,’ H.R., 1960, Afghanistan and Pakistan, 3469 Khan, K., 1950, Afghan minority in Pakistan, federation: Part 1: The empty triangle, Part 2: Political and economic considerations American Universities Field Staff Reports, South Asia Series, 7/3 &.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dutt, G., 1980, China and the developments in Afghan- istan, International Studies, 19/4, 1980, p.597—608. Embree, A.T., (Ed.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, 5/1, 1950, p.48—49. t’v Le~” 283 284 3470 Khan, N., 1951, Statement given by His Excellency 3471 Khan, N., 1952, Dr Najib—Uilah’s press conference on 3472 Kohzad, A.A., 1951, Le différend afghano-pakistanais 3473 Lee, V., 1961, Storm clouds over the Khyber Pass, 3474 Masse, H., 1935, Les Epopées persanes: Firdoussi et 3475 Mdntagno, G.L., 1963, The Pak-Afghan detente, 3476 Mukerjee, D., 1975, Afghanistan under Daud: relations 3477 Mustafa, Z., 1978, Pakistan — Afghanistan relations 3478 Prasad, B., 1980, india and the Afghan crisis, 3479 Robinson, N., 1953, Persia and Afghanistan and their 3480 Rubio Garcia, L., 1964, Un factor positivo en Oriente: 3481 Sarkisyanz, E., 1955, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, 3482 Sinha, P.B., 1977, Pak politics and Ziaul Haq’s visit 3483 Spain, J.W., 1954, Pakistan’s North—West frontier, Dr Najib—Ullah, Ambassador for Afghanistan in India, on the 11th of August 1951 (defending Afghanistan against Pakistan’s accusations), Afghanistan, 6/3, 1951, p.38—42. the 19th June, 1952 (denying any danger to foreigners flying between Afghanistan and india, and protesting a ban of Afghan—Indian air communication), Afghanistan, 7/3, 1952, p.45—50. vu par Sir George Cunningham, Afghanistan, 6/2, 1951, p.44—56. New Times, 51, 1961, p.27—28. l’épopée nationale, Paris, Librarie Académique Perrin, 1935, 4, 3O7p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4 286 3496 Afghanistan, (P), 1950, Pakhtoons determined to 3497 Afghanistan, (P), 1950, Far Eastern news letters. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBI,.IOGRAPHY A Bibliography of Afghanistan
World Today, 11/9, Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Foreign relations with India A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLITICS 3535 3536 Chopra, H.L.., 1959, Pandit Nehru’s visit to Afghan- 3537 Chopra, J., 1943, Dost Muhammad Khan in India, 3538 Courcy, K.de, (Ed.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Wakeed Abdullah (Kabul) Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1980, p.55—82. Fart 1: Historical background of Afghan-Russian A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLITICS 3591 3592 Dupree, L., 1979, Red flag. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3600 Fischer, D., 1964, Sowjetische Feldforschung in Afghan- 3601 relations, Part 2; The economic and strategic aspects of Soviet aid. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY .OF A Bibliography of Afghanistan
International Legal Materials, 19/1, 1980, p.1—3. International Legal Materials, (P), 1980,’ UN. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
General Assembly resolution on the situation in Afghanistan, International Legal Materials, 19/1, 1980, p.24&—247. of Soviet-Afghan friendship and co—operation, International Affairs, 1, 1956, p.4l—49. .: A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Etrangères, May 1936, p.283—289. .. : ~ ,~.M A Bibliography of Afghanistan
~ .,nt’M A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1981. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY AND POLiTICS 3719 Akhramovich, R.T., 1963, Afghan foreign policy since 3720 Allen, R.A. and Ramazani, R.K., 1957, Afghanistan: 3721 Artamonov, E., 1949, American penetration into 3722 Artner, S., 1980, Afghanistan und der Westen, 3723 Aymard, G., 1953, L’Afghanistan, carrefour de L’Asie 3724 Bakshi, S.R., 1968, Francophobia vs. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
France en Afghanistan Bulletin Asie Fran çaise, 205, Sept —Oct 1922 p 337—338 Byroade H A istan in Asia US Department of State Bulletin, ~ 44/1126, 1961 p 125—134 invasion and its consequences for British policy, Observations on the Committee s report by the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth ~ P Affairs HMSO Carter J President Carter s address to the nation Jan~4 1980 1961 The changing position of Afghan- 1980 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan ., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Educational Press, 1971. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLITICS 3774 3775 Mann, L., 1923, L’Afghanistan et la France, 3776 3777 3778 3779 Negaran, H., 1979, The Afghan coup of April 1978: 3780 3781 3782 Oren, S., 1974, Threatening polarization of Mid East — 3783 3784 Ostwald, P., 1928, Ostasien .und A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLiTICS 3802 Società Dante Alighieni, 1972, Le relazioni tra l~’Italia • 3803 Spain, J.W., 1954, Middle East defence: a new 3804 Tabibi, A.H., 1958, Free access to the sea for 3805 Tabibi, A.H., 1978, The right of free access to and 3806 Taussig, H.C., l96i, Afghan neutralism, Eastern World, 3807 Thornton, R.C., 1975, South Asia: imbalance on the 3808 Tissot, L., 1948, Un grain de blé entre deux meules, 3809 United States Congress House~ Committee on Foreign • 3810 Wilber, D.N., 1953, Afghanistan, independent and 3811 Wilber, D.N., 1959, Afghanistan: a neutral in orbit, 3812 •\ Yapp, M.E., 1975, A little game, Afghanistan sinceO~& 9.9D A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1972), Rome, Società Dante Alighieni, 1972, p.4l9—634. approach, Middle East Journal, 8/3, 1954, p.25l—266. countries without sea coast; the position of Afghan- istan on this question, UN Library 341, 21/113, 1958, 26p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1948, p.597—6O6.6 Affairs, 1973, United States interests in and policies toward South Asia. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Entwicklungslandern: Probleme der Integration ethnischer Gruppen in Afghanistan, (German: Nation- alism and Nation State in Developing Countries: Problems of Integrating Ethnic Groups in Afghan- istan.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3824D Mokhtarzada, F., 1970, L ‘evolution de la situation ‘~c 3825D Radir, R.R., 1965, Decline of the Afghan problem as 3826D Reinhard, G.M., 1968, Strategic problems of the Indian 3827D Stack, S.C., 1975, Herat: A Political and Social Study, 3828D Tarzi, N., 1970, Les relations afghano—russes. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Frontiers and boundaries sketch, London, Elder & Co., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1897, 61p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
La politique anglaise sur Ia frontière A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I HISTORY AND POLITICS 3849 3850 Cracker, H.E., 1959, Tibet and Afghanistan: an 3851 Current Notes on International Affairs, (F), 1961, 3852 Darmesteter, J., 1882, A la frontière Afghane, 3853 Duke, C.W.,. 1889, The Baluch and Afghan •Frontiers 3854 Douie, J., 1916, The Punjab, North—West frontier. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
~‘ 3855 Dupree, L., 1961, The Durand Line of 1893:: A case 3856 Enniquez, C.M.D., 1910, The Pathan borderland, 3857 Fletcher, A., 1949, Afghans /and the frontier,,~ 3858 Foucher, A., 1901, Sur la frontière Indo—Afghane, 3859 Ghose, D.K., 1958, Russo—Afghan frontier~ delimitation, 3860 Gosse, E., 1889, The Baluch and Afghan frontier of 3861 Halmes, R.B., 1925, The North-West Frontier Province 3862 Hamelin, M., 1903, Le Waziristan et la frontière mdc 3863 Caroe, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
15 Feb. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
• • 313 314 3864 Holdich, T.H., 1885, Afghan Boundary Commission65 Holdich, T.H., 1897, The Perso—Baluch boundary, 3866 Holdich, T.H., 1897, Proceedings Pamir Boundary 3867 Huntington, E., 1909, The Afghan borderland, 3868 Hyman, A.,. 1980, Afghan/Pakistan border disputes, 3869 Immanuel, H., 1895, Die Losung des Pamirfrage, 3870 Indian Survey Reports, 1896, Russo-Afghan Boundary 3871 Jaeckle, H., 1968, Die Nordwestgrenze in der Verteidi— 3872 Klimburg, M., 1966, Afghanistan: Das land im histori- 3873 Kuhn, F., 1956, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India: 3874 Lett’s, 1885, Lett’s bird’s—eye view of the approaches 3875 3876 Macmahon, A.H., 1897, The Southern Borderlands of boundary in the vicinity of Arandu, Geographical Journal, 82, 1933, p.351—354. geographical notes, Proceedings of the Royal Geo- graphical Society, (N.S) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Indian Historical Congress Proceedings, 21 I • ~. • • • ,~•••• •. , • •- ~ . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Commission (1886) and Pamir Boundary (1896), Calcutta, Indian Survey Reports, 1896. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3879 Malhotra, R.l., 1977, Afghan frontier settlement 3880 Miller, C., 1977, Khyber: the story of the North—West 3881 Olivier, 1890, Across the border Pathan and Balouch, 3882 Peking Review, (F), 1963, The 5mb—Afghan boundary 3883 Planhol, X.de, 1975, Sur la frontière Turkmen de 3884 Rastogi, R.S., 1963, The KushI~ and Oxus canal -~ 3885 Rastogi, R.S., 1976, Russo—A f~han boundary disputes, 3886 Sachot, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1878, Les frontières anglaisesde l’Afghan— 3887 Simpson, F.C., 1944, Review of North—West frontier ~ 3888 Taillardat, F., 1932, L’Afghanistan et la révolte des 3889 Tarnowski, G., 1895, The boundary between~Rüssia ana • • Afghanistan, Geographical Journal, 9, -1897, p.392—415. Malhotra, R.l., 1974, Afghan frontier settlements 1872— 1893 and the press, Journal of Indian History, 52/2—3, 1974, p.421—432. ment, 1885—87, and the native newspapers in India, Quarterly Review of Historical Studies, 16/2, 1976—77, p.8l—84. • • • (1872—73) and Indian public opinion, Bengal Past and Present, 9611, Jan.—June A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1944, p.50—60;policy from 1849 to 1939, Journal of the United Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Asia. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3909 Karimi, A., 1946, The Constitution of Afghanistan, 3910 Khan, M., 1900, The constitution and laws of Afghan- 3911 Orient, (F), 1977, The constitution of the~-Republican 3912 Oriente Moderno (F), 1964, La cdstituzione dell’Afghan— 3913 Puget, H., 1965, Constitutions d’Asie et d’Australasie, Juristenkommission, 23 Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, 1/1, 1946, p.3—8. - istan, London, J.Murray, 1900, vii, l64p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
laws, statutes, etc., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Aus dem Persischen Ubersetzt von S.Beck, Die Welt des Islams, 2/1—2, Berlin, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Islam Kunde, 1928, p.67—l57. Laws and jurisprudence Containing the doctrines of the Hanifeca code of jurisprudence, Containing the doctrines of the Imameea code of jurisprudence, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLiTICS 3925 3926 Fyaz, A. and Qadir, F.., 1880, A manual of the 3927 Hager, P., 1975, Compiled translations of the Laws of 3828 Harrison, F., 1880, Martial law in Kabul, 3929 Hashimzai, Q. and Csalplar, R.C. Jr., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Mohamedan law of inheritance, comprising both the Sunni and Shiah principles. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afrika — 3931 Hentig, W.O.von, 1962, Der Rechtsbegriff Neutralität 3932 Hokoki, W., 1971, The training of judges, prosecutors 3933 Hokoki, W., 1972, L’organisation juridictionnelle en 3934 Jugow, W., 1964, Afghanistans neue Verfassung, 3935 Kabul Times Publishing Company, 1965, Law on basic 3936 Liebesny, H.J., 1980, Lawyers from developing 3937 Maxwell, L., 1979, My God Maiwand! A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul City, Afghan Demographic Studies,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Geuthner, 1922, 2 vol., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4012 Dupree, L., 1976, The Afghans honor a Muslim Saint: 4013 Dupree, L., 1980, Militant Islam and traditional war- 4014 Einzmann, H., 1975, Religious folk tradition in Afghan- 4015 Einzmann, H., 1977, Religioses Volksbrauchtum in 4016 Farhadi, A.G.R., 1980, Ibn Sina und Sufism,’ 4017 Gaulier, S., Jera—Bezard, R. and Maillard, M., 1976, 4018 Ghani, A., 1978, Islam and state—building in a tribal 4019 Ghobar, M., 1946, Le rô’te de l’Afghanistan dans la 4020 Glasenapp, H.V., 1926, Brahma und Buddha: die Relig- 4021 Gobineau, Comte de, 1928, Les religions et les philo— 4022 . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4047 Tran Buu Khanh, 1964, Le Dar Ui Islam: activisme et 4048 Utas, B., 1980, Notes on Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4057 Anderson, J.W., and Strand, R.F. (Eds.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Biddulph, C.E., 1880, Tribes of the H1ndoo-K~sh, Calcutta, 1880, 326p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Centlivres, P., 1972, Noms,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
New York, St Martin’s Press,~ 1958. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Gruppierung der Turkmenen in Afghanistan, Baessler—Archiv, (N.S.20), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistans, Afghanistan Journal, 8/3, 1981, p.94—95. in Afghanistan: an attempt at. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Westige (sic) des Mongoles en 4155 Motamedi, A.A., 1961, Contribution a l’étude de Ia 4156 Muller, G., 1939, Sprachen und Rassen in Afghanistan, 4157 Myrdal, J., 1960, Kultures Korsvag, (Kreuzweg der 4158 O’Dell, E., 1948, Afghanistan (future of tribal groups 4159 Osmanov, A., 1969, The Khatak tribe, Afghanistan, 4160 Ovesen, J., 1978, Ethnographic’ field research among 4161 Pennell, T.L., 1909, Among the wild tribes of the 4162 Phillips, E.D., 1965, The Royal Hordes, Nomad peoples 4163 Pictet, A., 1877, Les origines indo—européennes ou les 4164 Poucha, P., 1961, Mongolische Miszellen. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4167 Raunig, W., 1975, Vorlaufiger Kurzbericht uber die 4168 Raverty, H.G., 1894, The independent Afghan or Pathan 4169 Raverty, H.G., 1894, Indian, Afghan and Pathan 4170 Raverty, H.G., 1896, Kafiristan and the Kafiri tribes, 4171 Rendafl, G.H., 1889, The cradle of the Aryens, 4172 Robertson, G.S., 1896 and 1974, The Kafirs of the 4173 Robertson, G.S., 1897, Kafiristan: its manners and 4174 Rolando, V., 1957, On Afghan subjects of no weight, 4175 Ropers, H., 1965, Morgenbandische Teppiche, 9th ed., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4176 Rose, 1859, Afghans, the ten tribes and the Kings of 4177 Schurmann, H.F., 1957, The Mongols of western Afghan- 4178 Scott, G.B., 1929, Afghan and Pathan: a sketch, Hindu Kush, Researches into the physical history of mankind, by J.C.Pritchard, London, 1844, vol.6, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1973, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
schaftliche Aufnahmen bei den Moghol von Afghan- istan, 1970, Zentralasiatische Studien, 4, 1970, p.475—481. Merk., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
10.4 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN SOCIAL STUDIES 4233 4234 4235 4236 4237 4238 Debets, G.F., 1970, Physical anthropology of Afghanis- 4239 Dor, R., 1981, Nouvelles des Refugies, Afghanistan 4240 Dupree, L., 1976, Anthropology in Afghanistan: ethnic 4241 Dupree, L., 1978, The role’ of folklore in modern 4242 Dupree, L., 1979, Functions of Folklore in Afghan 4243 Dupree, N.H., 1974, An interpretation ‘of the role of 4244 Edelberg, L., 1952, Afghanistan som Omrade for frem— 4245 Edelberg, L., 1952, Traek af Landbrug og liosform kos 4246 Edelberg, L., 1955-56, Henning Haslund—Christensens ‘ Charpentier, C.J., 1973, Use of hashish and opium in Afghanistan, Anthropos, 68, 1973, p.482—490. Charpentier, C.J., 1974, Water—pipes, tobacco and snuff in Afghanistan, Anthropos, 69, 1974, p.939—944. Charpentier, C.J., 1976, The signet maker, Studia Iranica, 5, 1976, p.l35—l37. Christensen, A., 1980, The Pashtuns of Kunar. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Feb. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ideologies and transformational processes in Afghan- istan, 9th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1973, 9p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Middle East, Ithaca, New York, Society for Applied Anthropology, 1965, 104p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Hindukusch-Kundfahrt 1963. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
King, R.A. and Paktianie, M.A., 1966, Afghan social and cultural trends, Kabul, Faculty of Education, 1966. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Peshawar, University Book Agency, 1958, 58p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Pamir, Graz, 1978, 2llp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN SOCIAL STUDIES 4313 Peter, Prince of Greece, 1954, Jars built’ without a 4314 Poulton, R. and Poulton, M., 1977, Two Central Asian 4315 Reut, M., 1973, Le vent souffléde Hérat, 4316 Ricks, T., 1979, Once a Kurd, always a Kurd, 4317 , Shahab, Q., 1952, Pathans, Karachi, Pakistan Pub— 4318 Shakur, M.A., 1946,’ The Red Kafirs, Peshawar, 4319 Sigel, C., 1974, A cultural analysis of Afghan folk— 4320 Silger, H., 1963, Shamanism among the Kalash Kafirs:’ 4321 Singh, J.P., 1961, An anthropologist in Afghanistan, 4322 Snoy, P., 1959, Last pagans of the Hindu Kush, 4323 Spain, J.W., 1962, The way of the Pathans, 4324 Stadelmann, R., 1959, Erst bei der Hochzeit sicht er 4325 Staub, W., 19S3, Afghanistans Volkerverteilung, 4326 Afghanistan, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, 41, 1954, p.44—53. wheel in the Hazarajat of Central Afghanistan, Man, 54/73, 1954. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Imperial Press, 1946, 42p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
London, Hale, 1962, l9Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ahmed, A.S., 1980, Resettlement of Afghan refugees and the. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, FAO/PACCA, 1968, 14p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan Journal, 6/1, 1979, p.24—27. ses problèmes, ses espoirs, (A craftsman in Afghan- istan: his life, problems and hopes.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dupree, L., 1978, Language and politics in Afghan- istan, Contributions to Asian Studies, 11, 1978, p.131—141. Dupree, N.H., 1978, Behind the veil in Afghanistan,,.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, Central Asian Review,, 12/3, 196~4, p.236—241. Eberhard, W., 1962, Afghanistan’s young elite, Asian Survey, 41/42, 1962, p.3—32. ,,~. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4394 Koller, A., 1954, International club of Afghanistan, 4395 Lajoinie, S.B., 1980, Conditions des femmes en Afghan- 4396 Ludin, M.K., 1955, Evolution of civic responsibility 4397 Mehnert, K., 1979, Klaus Mehnert’ s interview mit 4398 Mehnert, K., 1979, Afghanistan und seine neuen Herren, 4399 Mills, M.A., 1978, Cupid and Psyche in Afghanistan: 4400 Mormann, H. and Ploger, E., 1978, Buskaschi in 4401 Moslem World, (P), 1945, Peasant life in Afghanistan, 4402 Motamedi, A.A., 1957, Buzkashy game in Afghanistan, 4403 Mouchet, J. and Blanc, J.C., 1972, Khandud, village 4404 Naim, E., 1946, Elan féminin, Afghanistan, 1/3, 4405 Oudenhoven, N.van, 1980, Common Afghan street games 4406 Pehrson, R. and Barth, F., 1966, Social org~nization Em empirischer Beitrag zur Untersuchung von sozio— kultuhellem Wandel und sozio—kultureller Bestandig- keit, Meisenheim am Glan, Ham, 1977, xviii, 471,p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6 407 Pc*illada, L.B., 1962, ‘Problems of social development in 4408 Public Administration Service, USOM, 1959, A demo- 4409 Puktianie, M.A., n.d., Change in women’s status in 4410 Rahmany, M., 1954, La Société feminine de bien— 4411 Sarwari, M.S., 1974, Afghanistan zwischen Tradition 4412 Sawitski, H., 1972, Die Elitegruppe der Akademiker in 4413 Sérignan, C., 1960, La condition des femmes en Afghan- 4414 Shalinsky, A., 1979, Central Asian emigres in.Afghan A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Central Asian emigres in Afghanistan, Journal of South Asia and Middle Eastern Studies, 312, 1979, p.7-l9. Afghan border, Asian Affairs, (N.S), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF’ AFGHANISTAN I SOCIAL STUDIES 4421 Tapper, N., 1977, Pashtun nomad women in Afghan- 4422 Thomas, L., 1928, Adventures in Afghanistan ‘for boys, 4423 Toepfer, H., 1976, Untersuchungen zur Wirtschafts— /,424 4425 Uberoi, J.P.S., 1968, District administration in the 4426 Weinbaum, M.G., 1980, Legal elites in Afghan society,’ 4427 4428 World Health Organisation, 1954, Bericht über eine 10.6 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Chemins d’été, chemins d’hiver entre Danwaz et I ‘ ‘ . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Juli 1967 in Bochum, Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 4 /19, 1967, p.815—B17. der wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und politischen Organ- isation nomadischer Durrani-Paschtunefl in Nordwest- afghanistan, Wiesbaden, Fr. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
cerning the advent of nomadic peoples in Greek Bactria, Afghanistan, 22/1, 1967, p.7—77. group of East Afghan nomads, Afghanistan Journal, 8/4, 1981, p.115—122. til ...? Jordens Folk, 3, 1978. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
SOCIAL STUDIES 4470 4471 4472 4473 Singer, A., 1976, Problems of pastoralism in the 4474 4475 4476 WaId, H.J., 1969, Landnutzung und Siedlung der 4477 4478 Wenner—Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, 10.6D A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan Pamirs, Asian Affairs, 63, (N.S), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
7, 1976, p. 156—160. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, Types of nomadic migration in the Hindukush region, Paper prepared in advance for participants in Symposium No 24 Pastoral Nomathsm, 15-26 1964 New York Wenner—Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research 1964 toral Nomadism in Transition. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(German: Nomadic Life in Afghanistan: A Geog- raphical Investigation of Forms of Life and Economic Forms in an Arid Asian Region.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
a study in social organization, Berkeley, 1951, l44p istan als sozial schwache Bevolkerungsschicht. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Neuchâtel, 1970, (Docteur Litt.). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Aspects of the Economic. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A.R., 1977, The Kafir Status and Hierarchy Pamir afghan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 11.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN A4534 4535 Hearn, J.B., 1966, Basic data on the economy of 4536 Hearn, J.B., 1970, Basic data on the economy of 4537 Hesse, K., 1956, Zur wirtschaftlichen Lage Afghanis— 4538 Hoff, H., 1964, Afghan reconstruction, Germany, 9/39, 4539 Hoff, H., 1964, Tatkraftige Aufbauarbeit in Afghanis- 4540 Huffman, A.V., 1950, Afghanistan summary of basic 4541 Huffman, A.V., 1950, Economic Review of Afghanistan, 4542 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 4543 International Reference Service, 1950, Afghanistan, ‘ 4544 4545 Mahajan, B.S., 1958, Statistical services in Afghan— 4546 McChesney, R.D., 1968, The economic reforms of Amir Hanke, G., 1954, Die wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen zwischen Afghanistan und De~tschland, Mitteilungen des Instituts für Auslandsbeziehungen, 4/9 —10, 1954, p.241 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Washington, US Government Printing Office, 1950. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, (1975-78), Kabul, Ministry of Planning, 1978, 200p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4564 Schwob, M., 1955, The economic challenge in Afghan- 4565 Statistiches Bundesamt, 1966, Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
41/8—9, 1951, p.1002—1016. United Nations, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East annual c1954—cl973, Current economic developments and policies, Afghani~tan, UN Depart- ment of Economic and Social Affairs Yearbook, (annual). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
The economy of Afghanistan: A.D.Davydov’s article on water resources, N.M.Gurevich’s article on Foreign Trade: 1900—1945 N.J. Chernyakhovskaya’ s article on Afghan’ s “Guided Economy”, From: Instituta Vostokovedeniya, Vol.31, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanskiy Sbornik—Kratkiye Soobscheniya A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE A review of: 11.2 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Development Planning 4583 Abawi, M.Y., 1972, Entwicklungsprozess und entwick— 4584 Afghan Embassy, 1961, Afghan progress in the fifth 4585 4586 4587 4588 Asian Review, (P), 1960, Afghanistan’s Five—Year Plan, 4589 Asiel, M.A., 1966, An analytical study of Afghanis- 4590 4591 4592 4593 4594 11.2.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
lungs Planung in Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4609 4610 Glaubitt, K., Saadeddin, F. and SchAfer, B., 1977, 4611 Hashimi, S.El, 1959, Afghanistan, plan quinquennal 4612 Hendrikson, K.H., 1965, Erlauterungen zum Gesetz 4613 Hendrikson, K.H., 1967, Bericht iiber die Planung und 4614 Hendrikson, K.H., 1967, Methodology of project evalu- 4615 Hendrikson, K.H., 1968, Ziele. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4617 Hondrich, K.O., 1965, Die Leute im Nordern Afghan-- “~‘ 4618 4619 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development p. 282—307. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
development plan, Kabul, Ministry of Planning, 1956, 28p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan ‘s economic development plan and her current difficulties, Washington, Minister of National Economy, 1949, 236p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4643 Noorzoy, M.S., 1976, Planning and growth in Afghan- 4644 Noorzoy, M.S., 1979, The first Afghan seven year plan Government of Afghanistan, Ministry of Planning, 1956. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
progress (yearly), Kabul, Ministry of Planning, 1958—. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1956—57/1961—62. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Marktuntersuchung GemLise und Obst in der A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4658 Royal Afghan Embassy, London, 1961, Afghan progress 4659 Royal Government of Afghanistan, 1963, Second five 4660 Saeger, C., 1952, Point four programs (Afghanistan), 4661 Saunders, R.F., 1966, The strategy of the third five 4662 Schalisi, 1963, Probleme und Merkmale der inneren 4663 Schwager, J., 1932, Die Entwicklung Afghanistan als 4664 Seifert, B., 1929, Der Anteil Deutschlands an der 4665 4666 Sherzad, G., 1975, Etude comparative de l’aide 4667 4668 4669 4670 Taussig, H.C., 1966, Planning in Afghanistan, 4671 United Nations, 1971, Problems of development and in the fifth year of the plan, London, Royal Afghan Embassy, Information Bureau, 1961. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Eastern World, 20/7—8, 1966, p.l4. ..‘ planning among the least developing countries, 377 378 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 4672 United Nations Development Programme, 1972, Fourth 4673 United Nations Development Programme, 1972, Project 4674 United Nations Development Programme, 1973, Fourth 4675 United Nations Development Programme, 1975, Social, 4676 United Nations International Children’s Emergency 4677 United States of America, 1958 — (monthly), Monthly 4678 United States Department of State, 1943, Afghanistan, 4679 United States Department of State, Bureau of Public 4680 United States Operations Mission, 19b1, Project Pro- 4681 Voppel, G., 1966, Grundlagen und Entwicklungsmog— 4682 Waterston, A., 1966, Developing planning in Afghan- Report of the 7th Interregional Seminar on Develop- ment Planning, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 6—7 Dec.1971, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
New York, UN, 1971, 33p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4683 4684 4685 4686 4687 Arens, H.J., Braach, G. Gurtler, S. and Nast, E., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
11.2.2 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4706 4707 Michel, A.A., 1959, The Kabul Kunduz and Helmand 4708 Ministry of Planning, 1962, Paktia Province, Kabul, 4709 Ministry of Planning, 1963, Summary of the Paktia 4710 Ministry of Planning, 1970, Herat and its region, 4711 Peace Corps, 1973, Project description 104. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
by F.W.Dwars; Schmidt und Klannig, Kid, (Studien Seminarberichte aus dem IPTS 18), p.65—90. eines grosstadtnahen Regionszentrums in Afghan- istan, Afghanistan Journal, 6/2, 1979, p.39—49. of the country by a group of economic specialists of the Ministry of Planning, Kabul, Ministry of Planning, 1964, l2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
I I AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4729 4730 Beers, N.M., 1957, Terminal report — rural develop- 4731 4732 Calloway, R.E., 1959, A report on rural development 4733 4734 4735 4736 4737 4738 4739 Lindauer, G., 1970, Paktia/Afghanistan — em deutsches~ 11.2.3. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Centrales, Paris, CINAM, 1971, l7Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1957, Revised section on rural 4751 Schutz, G., 1966, Report to the Royal Afghan Govern- 4752 Schweng, L., 1966, FAO/IBRD cooperative program. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4753 4754 Smith, E.C., 1972, Rural public works in Afghanistan — 4755 Stockley, T.L., 1977, Assistance to rural broadcasting, 4756 Tongul, A., 1971, Final report to the Royal Government 4757 United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organisation, 4758 United States Agency for International Development, 4759 United States Operations MissIon, 1955, Plan of work, 4760 Zafar, M.A., 1972, Agricultural development through 4761. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, USOM, 1955, 19p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
the participation of small farms, Report of the International Seminar on Extension and other services supporting the small farmer in Asia, Berlin, 31 Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
388 4781D Samini, A., 1961, Zustand und Entwicklungsmoglich- 4782D , Sarwari, M.S., 1973, Afghanistan zwischen Tradition 4783D Youriossi, A., 1955, Economic development of Afghan- 4784D Zhowandai, S., 1977, An Economic Analysis and 4785D Zikria, N.A., 1972, Les facteurs du sous—développement 11.3 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Freiburg i.B., 1978, (Dr.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 389 4792 Billerbeck, K., 1960, Soviet bloc foreign aid to the 4793 Colombo Plan Bureau, 1965, 1st colloquium on intra— 4794 Dupree, L., 1974, The new look in American aid to . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
New Times, 10, 1961, p.13—14. . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Development Programme coon try: Programme 1972-76, Kabul, UNDP. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1972, lO4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4839D Kherad, A., 1971, La politique de cooperation finan— 4840D Mokhtarzada, M.T., 1972, Entstehung und Entwicklung 4841D Yusuf, K.F., 1959, Economic and political cooperation 4842D Zekrya, M.B., 1976, Planning and Development in 11.4 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1966, p.9—12. Annual Report: for year 1351 ended on 20th March, 1973, Kabul, Agricultural Development Bank of Afghanistan, 1973, 3ip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4859 Far East Trade and Development, (P), .(ECAFE), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Balance of payments — reform of foreign—exchange system to help nation’s commerce, Far East Trade A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN Development Survey 1967, AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4860 Feiser, M.E., 1966, Considerations in livestock 4861 Feiser, M.E., 1966, Memorandum, April 1966 (Toward a 4862 Feiser, M.E., 1967, The State Bank of Afghanistan Act 4863 Fry, M.J., 1972, Afghanistan’s financial sector, a 4864 Fry, M.J., 1972, Demand for money, the financial 4865 Fry, M.J., 1973, Central banking for economic develop- 4866 Fry, M.J., 1973, The Afghan economy: money, finance 4867 Fry, M.J., 1973, The financial institutions of Afghan- 4868 Fry, M.J., 1973, An interest rate policy for Afghan- 4869 Fry, M.J., 1973, Report on a survey of business and ‘~ 4870 Fry, M.J., 1974, The Afghan economy: money,..finance A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, USAID, . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 397 4887 4888 4889 4890 4891 4892 4893 4894 Parker, G.L., 1967, Background and present status of 4895 Pastidis, S.L., 1961, Financial institutions in 4896 4897 4898 4899 United States Agency for International Development, 4900 United States Agency for International Development, . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ministry of Finance, 1965, Income tax law for Afghan- istan, Kabul, Ministry of Finance, 1965, 34p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Noorzoy, M.S., 1977, An analysis of the Afghan foreign and domestic private investment law of 1974, Afghanistan Journal, 4/1, 1977, p.29—30. the Industrial Development Bank of Afghanistan, Kabul, Nathan Associates, 1967. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1973, Afghanistan — financial development committee reports 1973, Kabul, USAID, 1973, SOOp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1979, 4911 Babakhodzhaev, M.A., 1972, To question for the form- 4912 Bhagwati, J. and Hansen, B., 1973, A theoretical studies, economic and technical soundness analysis, capital projects, MO 1221, 2 Washington DC, US Department of State, 1964. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan trade, Afghanistan, 4/4, 1949, p.48—53. débouchés, Asie Nouvelle, 11/128—129, 1961, p.l67. Aul3enhandel und ‘terms of trade’ Afghanistans 1961—1975, ation of an all—Afghan market and the trade and industrial policy pursued by Amir Abdur Rahman, Part 2, Afghanistan, 25/2, 1972, p.42—48. analysis of smuggling, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87, 1973, p.172—187. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 399 4913 4914 Central StatisticsOffice, 1973—74, Exports of merchan— 4915 Cervinka, V., 1950, Afghanistan: structures économ— 4916 Checcin & Co., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Iran and Pakistan: A reassessment of options, Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4938 Indian Trade Journal, (P), 1950, Indo-Afghan and 4939 Indian Yearbook of International Affairs, 1958, Indo— 4940 International Trade Center, 1969, Oriental Carpets, 4941 Janata, A., 1975, Kantholexport nach Pakistan, 4942 4943 4944 4945 4946 4947 4948 Meyer—Thomas, G., 1961—1975, Die Exportentwicklung 5/1, 1981, p.3—9. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan trade agreements (signed on July 10 1958), Indian Yearbook of International Affairs, 1958, p. 222—224 Geneva: 1969, Vol.1: A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Khodjayev, M.A.B., 1972, To question for the formation of an all-Afghan market and the trade and indus- trial policy pursued by Amir Abdur Rahman, Afghanistan, 25/1, 1972, p.88—95. Koenig, H., 1952, Der österreichische Levantehandel, Wirtschaftsdienst, 32, 1952. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AuJ$enhandel und ‘terms of trade’ Afghanistans 1961—1975, p.l02—13O. International Trade Center, UNCTAD/GATT, Studienverlag, Brockmeyer, Bochum, 401 402 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 4949 Michel, A.A., 1961, Foreign trade and foreign policy 4950 Ministry of Commerce, 1965, Afghanistan’s foreign 4951 Molders, P., 1979, Die Regionalstruktur der Import 4952 Norvell, D.G., 1972, A rural bazaar in Afghanistan, 4953 Norvell, D.G., 1973, Markets and men in Afghanistan, 4954 Orient, (P), 1962, The development of the Afghan 4955 Owens, G.P., 1971, Price data book, Kabul, USAID, and 4956 Pastidis, S.L., 1961, Vertical i1~tegration and contract 4957 Perry, J.L., n.d., Raisin exports, Kabul, Asia 4958 Planhol, X.de, 1974, Le commerce de Ta neige en 4959 Rhein, E., 1966, Afghanistans AuBenhandel in Analyse 4960 Saadeddin, F. and Schafer, B., 1975, Kommentar zum 4961 Schafer, B., 1974, Schmuggel in Afghanistan, 4962 Schmitt—Rink, G., 1979, Der Einfluss einer internation- in Afghanistan, Middle East Affairs, 12. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4963 4964 Schumacher, H., 1979, Aul3enhandel und Terms of Trade 4965 Scott, R., 1972, Khalaj Market, Kabul, USAID, 4966 4967 4968 Taylor, E.G.R., 1950, Preparing shipments to ‘Afghan- 4969 United States Department of Commerce, 1955, Import 4970 United States Department of Commerce, 1971, Foreign 4971 4972 Whittlessey, N., 1967, The marketing system of Afghan- 4973 Wilbrandt, tI., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1972, 9p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4987 Hans, J., 1951, Trade Unionism in Moslem countries, 4988 Hirche, 1967, Das Institut für Industrieverwaltung 4989 International Labour Office, 1946, Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4990 International Labour Office, 1951, Asian labour law, 4991 International Labour Office, 1959, Labour adminis- 4992 International Labour Office, 1962, L ‘Administration et 4993 International Labour Office, 1965, Development of 4994 Kezem, S.M., 1969, Engineering manpower survey in 4995 Klein, H.G., 1968, Zur struktur des afghanischen 4996 Malikzada, A.G., 1965, Manpower planning in Afghan- 4997 Malikzada, A.G., n.d., Planning for the effective use 4998 Ministry of Education, 1969, Standard classification of 4999 Ministry of Education, 1969, Manpower and education Islamic Review, 39/12, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
405 406 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 5000 Ministry of Planning, 1962, Collection of employment 5001 Ministry of Planning, 1962, Report of the sixth round 5002 Ministry of Planning, 1963, Report of the manpower 5003 Ministry of Planning, 1963, Report on the manpower 5004 Ministry of Planning, 1965, Kabul employment market, 5005 Ministry of Planning, 1972, Population and manpower 5006 Ratz, A., 1964, Middle—Management—Ausbildung in 5007 5008 Scharaf, S.S., 1968, Das Verkehrswesen in Afghanistan, 5009 Scoville, J.G., 1969, Remuneration in Afghan industry, 5010 Scoville, J.G., 1971, Pre—industrial, industrial rela- 5011 Scoville, J.G., 1974, Afghan labour markets: a model 5012 Shalizi, A., 1950, The text of Mr Shalizi(’s) speech (on 5013 Sharma, K.B., 1963, Report on the manpower situation market in formation in Kabul, Kabul, Ministry of Planning, 1962. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5014 5015 5016 11.7 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
die industrielle Entwicklung wirtschaftlich zuruck— gebliebener Ráume Dargesteilt am Beispiel Afghan— istans, Berlin, Duncker und Humblot, 1975, 199p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANiSTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND iNFRASTRUCTURE 5039 Kackenhoff, G., 1960, NUchternes Industrialisierungs— 5040 Keeble, W. R., 1971, Final report to the Government of 5041 Khosla Publishing Company, 1966 onwards, Khosla ‘s 5042 Kimler, C., 1955, Field survey of Afghanistan’s 5043 Ministry of Commerce, 1965, Developing and packaging 5044 Monni, G., 1974, Preliminary survey of Afghan printing 50~5 Nagler, H., 1971, Privatinitiative beim Industrieaufbau 5046 Nagler, H., 1972, Industrialisierung auf der Grundlage 5047 Nejati, R.A., 1966, Machine tools, Part 1: work’ for 5048 Parker, G.L. 1966, Pclicy considerations affecting the industry of Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
409 410 5049 Perry, J.L., 1961, Fruit export company: Establishing 5050 Public Administration Service, 1964, How to organize 5051 Rhein, E., 1963, Probleme der Industrialisierung in 5052 Stilz, D., 1974, Entwicklung und Struktur der afghan- 5053 Strauss, A.A., 1965, Industrial development in Afg- 5054 Taussig, H.C., 1966, New avenues for industrialization 5055 Thomas Miner and Associates, 1965, Developing a 5056 Trempont, J., 1961, L’Afghanistan sous la pression 5057 Trends., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(an interview with Mr Abdul Samad Salim, Afghan Minister of Mines and Industries), Eastern World, 20/9—10, 1966, p.18—27. packaging industry in Afghanistan: Prepared for Ministry of Commerce, Royal Government of Afghan- istan, Kabul. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
BIBLiOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5060 Amin, J.C., 1967, Report to the government of Afghan- 5061 Charpentier, C.J., 1977, The making of karakul caps, 5062 Dedeyan, M., 1961, Les tapis afghans, 5063 Dupaigne, B., 1974, Un artisan d’Afghanistan: sa vie 5064 Ellwanger, W.D., 1904, The Oriental rug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A monograph 5065 Franses, J., 1973, Tribal rugs from Afghanistan and 5066 Ghaussi, A., 1953, Afghan carpet industry, 5067 Ghaussi, A~, 1954, Some facts about 3 important 5068 Guha, D.M., 1971, Report to ‘the government of 5069 International Labour Office, 1954, Report to the 5070 international. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs, 1969, Markets for oriental carpets, Geneva, UNCTAD, 1969, 3 vol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
bricks in the Kabul region during the late 1970s and early 1980s, Afghanistan Journal, 8/4, 1981, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE Developing Afghanistan’s Kabul, Ministry of 5085 5086 Zipper, K., 1976, Neue Wege der Mustergestaltung und 1l.7D A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(German: Possibilities and Limitations of the Industrialization of an Underdeveloped Area: Demonstrated by the Example of Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5106 5107 5108 5109 Baker, A. and Nelaw—Chapman, R., 1975, Wings over 5110 5111 Caroe, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965—66, Afghan highways, Geographical 5112 5113 5114 5115 5116 5117 5118 Holdich, T.H., 1901, Railway connection with India, of Afghanistan, 8/2, 1970, p.6—20; 911, 1970, p.30-38. Amin, H., 1971, Road transport in Afghanistan, Geographical Review of Afghanistan, 10/1—2, 1971, p.24—32; 10/3—4, 1971—72, p.6—22. Asian Development Bank, 1973, Appraisal of the Helmand Valley Development road project in Afghan- istan, Kabul, 1973, SOp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Scottish Geographical Magazine, 27, 1901, p.225—239. / 415 416 5119 Honrath, J.J., 1961, Transportation needs in Afghan- 5120 House of Representatives, USA, Committee on Foreign 5121 Interavia (P), 1967, Air Forces of the World: Part 1: 5122 International Civil Aviation Organization, (ICAO), 1966, 5123 International Engineering Company, 1949, Report on 5124 Jentsch, C., 1977, Die Afghanische Zentrairoute, 5125 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5126 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5127 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5128 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5129 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5130 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, istan, New York, UN Development Programme, 1961, 42p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 417 5131 5132 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5133 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5134 5135 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5136 5137 5138 S139 5140 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5141 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5142 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5143 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 1972, Supplementary studies no.4: A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 418 5144 5145 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5146 Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 5147 Kaye, E., 1879, The mountain passes leading to the 5148 Kurchhoff, D., 1901, Eisenbahnen und Eisenbahnpi~ne 5149 Leech, R., 1844, Route from Dera Ghazeen Khan to 5150 Leitner, G.W., 1891, Routes through the Hindu—Kush 5151 Linkewitz, W.., 1961, Photogrammetry in highway 5152 Markham, C.R., 1878, The Afghan passes, Geographical 5153 Markham, C.R., 1879, The mountain passes on the 5154 Marvin, C., 1885, The railway race to Herat. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan frontier of British India, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 1, 1879, p.38—62. account of the Russian railway to Herat and India. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5155 5156 5157 Negri, C., 1878, Riflessioni geographiche e politiche 5158 Nelson, J.C., 1964, Transport in relation to economic 5159 Nordlie, R., 1961, World survey of civil aviation: 5160 Parkyn, 5.5., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Far East, 1972, Pilot survey for the development of 419 420 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 5168 United States Agency for International Development, 5169 Vereinigte Wirtschaftsdienste GmbH, 1965, Das Fern— 5170 Zugmayer, E., 1911, Das Afghanische Bahnprojekt, 11. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5178 5179 Arnold, N., n.d., Crafts manual for Peace Corps 5180 5181 5182 Beck, N.C., 1960, A research institute for Kabul 5183 Brown, E., 1959, The Afghan educational system: a 5184 Brown, E., 1959, Planning for Afghan education, 5185 5186 Chardiwal, K., 1965, Principles of metal work, a 5187 5188 Deutscher Entwicklungsdienst, 1964, Proj ekt bericht, 5189 Diamond, A.I., 1975, Afghanistan: establishment of a 5190 . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Explorers Journal, 47/2, 1969, p.84—93. Children’s and adolescents! A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Identification processes among change agents in technical schools of Afghanistan, Journal of Social Psychology, 8711, 1972, p.l45. in evaluation, Afghan American Program, ESI quarterly report, Massachusetts, ESI, 1966, ll8p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5205 Gholam, A., 1954, Neues aüs dem Schul— . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, Kabul, US Operations Mision to Afghan- istan, Public School Survey and Planning Team, n.d, l73p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Khan at Delhi Province Post Graduate Teachers’ Club (on progress of modern education in Afghan- istan since 1905), Afghanistan, 5/2, 1950, p.47—62. research, Kabul, 1973, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5229 Koller, A., 1954, Physik und Mathematik Im Unter— 5230 Kraus, W., 1968, Afghanistan im Blickfeld der 5231 Lassen, C., 1839, Objects of research in Afghanistan, 5232 Letzguz, E.V., 1961, L’enseignement et l’influence 5233 Lindauer, G., 1977, Afghanistan Press — some remarks 5234 Linton, C.R. and Anderson, W.P., n.d., Proposed 5235 Ludin, H., n.d., Cultural Weeks, Kabul, Ministry of 5236 5237 Martin, R.T. et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Education, lip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Reports and studies on primary, secondary and vocational education, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHAN1STAN I AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5254 Muller—Daehn, C., 1968, Problems of scientific policy 5255 Munier, H., 1966, Planification de l’dducation, Afghan- 5256 Natik, G,N., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1954, Die Wirtschaftsoberschule Kabul, Mitteilungen des Instituts für Auslandsbeziehungen, 4/9—10, 1954, p.207. proposing the creation of a national centre for education testing in Afghanistan, UNESCO, July 1973, 45p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
system in Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, 26/4, 1974, p.82—92. from Phase I, Kabul, UNICEF, April 1974, 52p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
school television in Afghanistan: mission report 7 March - 6 April 1977, UNESCO, July 1977, 15p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5274 Ross, J.M. et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 429 5281 5282 Sen, B. and Unterbrunner, H., 1977, Mission. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
15, 430 5293 TCCU, 1966, Elementary and secondary education, 5294 TCCU, 1971, Some characteristics and attitudes of ten 5295 TCCU, 1972, Evaluation of Afghan elementary student 5296 TCCU, 1972, Second grade mathematics book, Kabul, 5297 TCCU, 1973, Fourth grade health book, Kabul, 5298 TCCU, 1973, End of year evaluation of first grade Dan 5299 TCCU, 1973, Observation report in Herat Province, 5300 TCCU, 1973, Report concerning observations in 5301 TCCU, 1973, Observation report of Mazar—i—Sharif and 5302 TCCU, 1973, End of year evaluation of second grade 5303 TCCU, 1973, End of year evaluation of third grade Pushtu 5304 TCCU, 1973, Fifth grade social studies, Kabul, Ministry 5305 TCCU, 1973, Fifth grade science report. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
TCCU, 1973, Mid year and end of the year evaluation of first grade Pushtu language art trial materials in A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND iNFRASTRUCTURE 5307 TCCU, 1973, Third grade mathematics, Kabul, Ministry 5308 TCCU, 1973, Report on the results of the teachers’ 5309 TCCU, 1973, Guidelines for the selection of trial 5310 TCCU, 1973, End of year evaluation of 2nd grade Dan 5311 TCCU, 1973, In-service programme proposals: present 5312 TCCU, 1973, Need for statistics for in—service planning, 5313 TCCU, 1973, School information form, Kabul, Ministry of 5314 TCCU, 1974, The material testing programme status 5315 TCCU, 1975, Six month report: July 1 — Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Report of testing and evaluation of the 1973 (1352) trial use of the curriculum and textbook project, fifth grade science materials, Kabul, Ministry of Education, Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Organization, 1973, Report of Afghan National Commission for UNESCO, UNESCO, 16 May 1973, 4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Organization, 1974, Preparatory meeting of experts ‘A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5350 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 5351 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 5352 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 5353 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural 5354 5355 United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization, 5356 5357 United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization, for the meeting of senior officials of the Ministries of Education of the 25 least developed countries, Paris, 1974. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1972, Functional literacy project, Kabul, FAO, Programme on Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives 435 Edualino, E., Kunduz 436 5358 United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization, 5359 United Nations International Children’s Emergency 5360 United Nations International Children’s Emergency 5361 United States Agency for International Development, 5362 United States Agency for International Development, 5363 United States Agency for International Development, 5364 United States Agency for International Development, 5365 United States Agency for International Development ,and 5366 United States Agency for International Development, 5367 United States Department of State, 1960, Inter- 5368 University of Illinois, 1959, The University of Afghan- in Afghanistan, 1972, 2lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1972, Vocational education in Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ministry of Education, 1966, Background and recom- mendation for the aims and organization pattern of the TCCU, Washington DC, USAID, 1966, 23p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
and TCCU, 1971, Some characteristics and attitudes of ten year old schoolboys and girls of Kabul city, Kabul, Ministry of Education, Research Section, 1971, l26p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Wilson, M., 1964, Educational broadcasting in Afghan- istan, Kabul, UNESCO, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Archiv des Bildungswesens in Entwicklungsländern, 1962, 23lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- casting, 15 Nov. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, 24p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan and American Educators on the structure of the University, Ph.D., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5414D Trumbull, D., 1968, The development of a reading text 5415D Ward, F.B., 1978, Education for national allegiance 5416D Wardak, G.W., 1978, Changing Language Arts Curri- 5417D Wrye, K.J., 1973, A study of the functions of the 5418D Yawar, A., 1978, Science Teachers Guide for Afghan 5419D Yusofzai, A.A., 1978, The Development and Direction 5420D Zai, B.Y., 1974, The goals of Kabul University: An 11.11 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5421 5422 Barakat, M.R., 1972, Malnutrition, a health problem 5423 program for elementary school teachers in Afghan- istan, Ph.D., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Public health and welfare 441 442 5424 Berke, Z., 1946, La sante publique et l’hyglene en 5425 Blumhagen, J., 1971, The Hazarajat project of the 5426 Blumhagen, R. and Blumhagen, J., 1973, Family 5427 Bryant, J., 1969, Health and the developing world, 5428 Buck, A.A. et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan on social security, Geneva, ILO, 1961, 45p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
operation of applied nutrition programme at the village level, Kabul, 1972, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ekistics, 38/227, 1974, p.247—251. . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Medicine A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5506 5507 5508 5509 5510 Fischer, L., 1943, Beitrag zur Kenntnis der afghan— 5511 5512 5513 5514 5515 Fischer, L., 1974, Volksmedizin in Afghanistan, 5516 5517 . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Malariaubertr ager in Sairobie: Afghanistan, Zeitschrift für Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, 8/1—2, 1957, p.69—83. 449 450 5518 Fuhner, F., 1962, Observations in infectious mono- 5519 Fuhner, F., 1962, Untersuchungen Uber die Eignung von 5520 Hallaji, J., 1962, Hypnotherapeutic techniques in a 5521 James, C.F., Chapman, M,D, and Akthar, M.D., 1966, 5522 Lindberg, K., 1949, Le paludisrne in Afghanistan, 5523 Macfadyen, D.R., 1978, Medical education in Afghan- 5524 Maranjian, G., 1952, The distribution of ABO blood— 5525 Nutrition Reviews (P), 1978, Epidemics of venoocciusive 5526 Obydy, M.A., 1970, Traditional Afghan cures for 5527 Papiha, S.S., Roberts, D.F. and Rahimi, A.G., 1977, 5528 Piorkowski, G., 1957, Medizin in Afghanistan, 5529 Samadi, A., 1967, Kwashiorkor in Kabul and Hyder- 5530 Simmons, J.S. and Whayne, T.F. et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, Global nucleosis, Afghan Medical Journal, 6, 1962, p.79—101. Eldonkarten für Blutgruppenuntersuchungen in Afghanistan, Afghan Medical Journal, 7, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 5531 5532 Wagner, W., 1962, Afghanistan, Medizin heute — für 5533 Wakeham, P., 1972—1973, Annual report of the Medical 5534 Wakeham, P., 1973, The use of village works in basic 5535 Waziri, R., 1973, Symptomatology of depressive illness 5536 Woodd—Walker, R.B., 1964, Tuberculin testing in rural ll.I1D A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5547 Pourhadi, I.V., 1976, Afghanistan’s press and its 5548 Pourhadi, I.V., 1979, Persian and Afghan Newspapers 5549 Rishtya, S.Q., 1946, Kabul calling, Afghanistan, 1/2, 5550 Rishtya, S.Q., 1948,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Journalism in Afghanistan, a brief 5551 Sims—Williams, U., 1980, The Afghan newspaper, Siraj 5552 W.H.E., 1964, Fortschritte und Probleme des Rundfunks 5553 Wilson, Q., 1958, Report to the USUS and IES on a 11. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1946, p.1—3. historical sketch, Afghanistan, 312, 1948, p.72—77. al—Akhbar, British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, Bulletin 712, 1980, p.118—122. in Afghanistan, Orient, 5/4, 1964, p.132—134. study of the Afghan press, Kabul, 1958. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
am Beispiel Afghanistan, (German: Political A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN ‘ ~‘ “f AFGHAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE 453 Journalism of Developing Nations: The Example of Afghanistan.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Burns, R.H., 1957, The background of Afghan agri- culture, Kabul, Wyoming Team, 1957, 2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, Wyoming Team, 1961, 12p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Development of Afghan agriculture. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5621 5622 5623 Ministry of Planning, 1978, Afghan agriculture in 5624 5625 5626 5627 5628 5629 Nielsen, G.A. and Samin, A.Q., 1967, Memorandum, 5630 Nolan, J.C., 1962, End of tour report, July 1960 — Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, 1960, Agricultural Councils election bill. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Jan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Studies in Islam, 2/4, 1965, p.229—253. gramme to improve Afghan farmers’ standard of living. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Legis- lative and administrative measures taken in Afghan- istan to attract and regulate foreign private invest- ment in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and related industries. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1967, Agricultural programs and practices in Afghan- istan in 1962. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan participants. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Development, 5674 United States Agency for International Development, 5675 United States Agency for International Development, 5676 United States Operations Mission, 1952 — (annual), 5677 United States Operations Mission, annual, Project 5678 United States Operations Mission, 1961, Directory of 5679 United States Operations Mission and Ministry of 1967, Catalogue of FAO publications 1945—1966. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Area reports 5693 Allen, R.H., 1963, Helmand Valley development, Kabul, 5694 Baxter, P.F. and Bresson, A., 1959, Report of stay 5695 Bradshaw, B., 1956, Terminal report, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1957, Kabul, Wyoming Team, 1957, 8p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bureau of Reclamation and Helmand—Arghandab Valley Authority, 1966, Draft feasibility report, Shamalan Unit, Bost, Bureau of Reclamation and HAVA, 1966, lS3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1963, Zarest area, Shamalan project: suitability for irrigation settlement, Lashkar Gah, Bureau of Reclamation and HVA, 1963, Bp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Nathan Assoc., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
economic studies as part of UNDPISF 171 in Afghan- istan during 1967-68, UNDP/SF project ‘AFG/iO, Survey.of A Bibliography of Afghanistan
New York, UN, 1967, p.1—6. 1963, Development of irrigation projects in Afghan- istan, Rome, FAO, 1963. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Van der .Plaats, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
manual, Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1962, 2l2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 5949 Fly, C.L., 1954, Progress report, soils and drainage 5950 Fly, C. L., 1954, Memorandum, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Morrison—Knudsen, 1954, l3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kandahar, Morrison—Knudsen, 1957. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
487 488 5959 5960 5961 5962 Helmand—Arghandab Valley Authority, 1964, The deter- 5963 Helmers, J.L. and KohEers, R., 1938, Bodenphysikal— 5964 Hildreth, A.C., 1957, Afghan soils in relation to 5965 Joint Agricultural Committee, 1953, Nad-i—Ali project, 5966 5967 5968 Lewis, W., 1964, Approaches to land taxation, 5969 Martinez, M.M., 1967, Outline of laboratory test 5970 Ministry of Mines and Industries, 1943, Analysis of 5971 Mi J.G., 1963, End of tour report, April 1961 — Hauser, G.F., 1951, Very short summary about the work of the soil research station, Kabul, Ministry of Agriculture, 1951, 4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965, Survey of land and water resources, Afghan- istan, Vol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
redwheat at Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, Field crops production Kabul, Faculty of Summary of yield.d wheat at Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, Field crops production Kabul, Faculty of Summary of yield A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Progress 6049 Hildreth, A.C., 1956, Corn in Afghanistan,: . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, 6050 International ‘ Maize and Wheat Impro~ment Center, , Regional Office, 1963 and 1964, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
on his visit of 23 March to 1 April 1965, Afghanistan, Kabul, USAID, 1965, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Clifton, J.H., 1971, Afghanistan: the choice location for production vegetables and field crop seeds. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
cation of Afghan pomegranate varieties, Kabul, ~ -, 503 .504 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, Kabul University, Faculty of Agriculture, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6176 Pastidis, S.L., n.d., Tentative Afghan standards for Observational plots of sugar beets, Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1963, 9p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1958 (Horticultural advisor, HVA)•, Lashkar Gab, USOM, 1958, i8p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
12.5.3 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
at the Afghan Club House on,:Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Tenn., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Washington DC, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 1965, 2lOp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Mechanisation and improved technology 517 518 6319 Muckenhausen, E., 1972, Moglichkeiten der Prodük— 6320 Myer, F.E., 1962, Purchasing recommendation for farm 6321 Nielsen, G.A., 1966, Memorandum, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6350 Ministry of Planning, 1965, Draft statement for the 6351 Moyer, R.T., 1965, Memorandum, June 23, 1965 (A cooperative organizations during the period of the second Afghan five-year plan, 1961—1965, Kabul, FAO, 1960. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bacon, E.I., 1961, Extension for extension workers, course syllabus for Afghan extension workers, Kabul, USOM, 1961, l24p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
and suggestions for implementation of an expanded program, training Afghan personnel and organization needed for its efficient operation, Ithaca, Cornell University, 1958, (Diss.). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
/ 523 524 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 6389 Fritz, D.B., 1964, Vocational agriculture suggestions, 6390 Fritz, D.B., 1965, Memorandum, March 15, 1965 6391 6392 Gháfoor, A., 1966, Seed distribution plan 1345-1350 6393 Ghannam, Y., 1971, Report on duty trip to Afghan- 6394 Gui, A., 1958, The role of public relations in agri- 6395 Gui, A., 1959, Developing an extension service 6396 6397 6398 Haidary, G.J., 1962, 4-.D A Bibliography of Afghanistan
New Delhi, 1960, New Delhi, ICA and Government of India, p.19—21. and Carter, D.P., 1967, Plan for HAVA extension ~ farmer corn result demonstration, Bost, Helmand— ~!~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
report on agricultural education in Afghanistan, UNESCO, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Some notes on major livestock problems in ‘Afghan- istan, Some suggestions on government’s cotton program, Some tentative ideas on cereal improvement, Reynolds, D.D., 1961, training advisor), report, extension, Educational approaches to hasten agricultural development, mobilizing leaders and farmers, a few quick result projects, speed up techniques, Kabul, USAID, 1962, 54p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
USOM, 1960, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Marketing and storage Afghan Fertiliser Company, Chechi & Co., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
28—31 Bost, USAID, 1966, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Grune, 99/24, 1971, p.761—774. Carter, D.P., 1965, Gross value per jirib of crops for Helmand Valley, Bost, IJSAID, 1965, 2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Krochmal, A. and Nawabi, A.A., 1958, Experimental air shipment of Afghan fruit to Bahrein, Bulletin 102, Kabul, Ministry of Agriculture and Wyoming Team, 1958, 9p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan Karakul Institute, 1969, The Karakul industry in Afghanistan, a short history, Kabul, Afghan Karakul Institute, 1969, 6p.~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, 1967, 3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6537 Bertone, E., 1953, , Rrtto the Government of Afghan- 6538 Brookshier, C.C., 1956, Feeding livestock, Afghanistan, 6539 ‘ Brookshier, C.C.,, n.d., Sheep, a proposal for Nad-i- 6540 Bulbul, S.P.D. and Masàlov, V.I.,1964, Pastural 6541 Bulletin of International Epizoot, (F), 1974, Control of 6542 Buscher, H., 1967, Der aufbau von Karäkulgenossen— 6543 Cerny, V., Daniel, M., Amin, A. and Olejnicek’, J. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1974, The bufflaoes of Afghan- 6546 Connefl, W.E., 1964, Terminal report, Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1957, (Vo. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY I 6598 6599. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
data collection on herd and pasture conditions with Afghan nomadic groups, USAID, Nov. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Lashkar Gah, Agricultural Depart- ment, HVA., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6649 Faizi, B.M., 1964, Helmand Valley, forestry plan, 6650 Faizi, B.M. and Rann, J.L., 1967, Fourth inter-Asian 6651 Fischer, D., 1970, Waldverbreitung bauerliche Waldwirt— 6652 Fletcher, A., 1972, Waldverbreitung bauerliche Waldwirt— 6653 Gilli, A., 1977, Die Waldgebiete im Osten Afghanistans, 6654 Heit, C.E., 1976, Seed studies and laboratory germin- 6655 Helmand—Arghandab Valley Authority, 1956, Forestry 6656 Helmand—Arghandab Valley Authority, 1967, Senior 6657 Lobell, E., 1972, Walder und Forstwirtschaft in Afghan- 6658 Mayer, K.R., 1959, Trip report, Southern Province 6659 Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, 1965, Trans- 6660 Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, n.d., Forestry Final report of the Department of Forestry, Kabul, 42p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLiOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 6684D Lakanwal, A.G., 1972% Situationsanalyse landwirtschaft- 6685D Mohammad, S., 1966, A proposed training program for 6686D Nazir, S., 1959, Grape growing in Herat County, 6687D Nedeltcheff, N., 1929, Le mouton Karakul, Lyon, 6688D Qaderi, M.Z., 1977, An Assessment of Agricultural 6689D Reut, M., 1976, L’ dlevagedu ver àsoie en Afghan- 6690D Uddin, 1., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
genres datura et hyascyamus récoltées en Afghan- istan, Nancy, France, University of Nancy, 1966,- 133p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Cox, A.D., 1911, Notes on Pushtu grammar together 6709 Dames, M.L., 1891, Text book of the Halachi language 6710 Davidson, J., 1902, Notes on the Bashgali (Kafir) 6711 Dor, R., 1976, Orature du nord—est afghan, 1: Les 6712 Dor, R., 1977, Orature du nord—est Afghan, 2: Les 6713 Dorn, B., 1840, Grammatische Bemerkungen Uber das 6714 Dorn, B., 1842, Nachtrage zur Grammatik der Afghan— 6715 Dorn, B., 1842, Uber die ursprUngliche und Richtige - 6716 Dorn, B., 1847, A chrestomathy of the Pushto or 6717 Dvorjankov, N.A., 1966, The development of Pushtu as etymology, Acta Orientalia, 7, 1928, p.180—197. 2nd ed. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: ~THE ARTS 6705 Charpentier, J., 1928, Some remarks on Pashto 6706 Chodzko, A., 1883, Grammaire de la langue persane, 6707 Christiansen, R.R., 1944, The Pashai Languages, text 6708. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Schreibung einiger Afghanischen Benennungen, Bulletin de l’Acadérnie Impériale des Sciences de St Petersbourg, 10, 1842. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ciation, Washington, US Department of State, Foreign Service Institute, 1954. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- ~ ~----‘~~ - ‘. ‘ 553 -- :V~) 554 6747 Keppel, G.0.R., 1922, A manual of Pushtu, London, 6748 Khalatbary, A., 1938, L ‘Iran et le Paste Oriental, 6749 Khan, M.I., 1894, Guide to Pushto, Abbottabad, 1894, 6750 Khan, M.l., 1896, Tutor to Pushto, Abbottabad, 1896, 6751 Kieffer, C., 1977, Approaching end of relict Southeast 6752 Klaproth, J.von., 1810, Uber die Sprache und den 6753 Kohzad, A.A., 1957, The distribution of the Parachi 6754 Laveday, 1841, The Pushtu language, Asiatic Journal, 6755 Leech, R., 1838, Vocabularies of seven languages, 6756 Leech, R., 1839, A grammar of the Pashto or 6757 Leitner, G.W., 1880, Lecture on the Bashgali and their 6758 Lentz, W., 1935, Sprachwissenschaftltche und. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHAN1STAN I LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: THE ARTS 6762 6763 Lorimer, D.L.R., 1922, The phonology of the Bakhtiari, 6764 Lorimer, J.C., 1902, Grammar and vocabulary of Waziri 6765 Mackenzie, D.N., 1959, A standard Pashto, Bulletin of 6766 , Miran, A., 1977, The functions of official languages 6767 Miran, M.A., 1977, The functions of national languages 6768 Miran, M.A., 1977, Sociolinguistic factors in Afghan- 6769 Mohammad, M.S., 1905, English and Pushto vocabulary, 6770 Mojtabai, F., 1963, A brief survey of the history of 6771 Morgenstierne, G., 1926, Report on a linguistic mission 6772 Morgenstierne, G., 1927, An etymological vocabulary 6773 Morgenstierne, G., 1929—1944, Indo—Iranian frontier 6774 Morgenstierne, G., 1932, Report on a linguistic mission 6775 Morgenstierne, G., 1940, Pashto, Pathan, and the Lorimer, D.L.R., 1915, Syntax of colloquial Pushtu, Oxford, 1915. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Vol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
dictionary in the roman character, containing all English words in common use with their meanings modern Persian with numerous examples, Calcutta, the Author (printed at the Baptist Mission Press), 1914, vi, 36lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Pushtu, London, 1875. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Zyar, M.A., 1978, Pushto dialects, Afghanistan, 31/3, 1978, p.79—82. 560 13. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1D Dissertations — Language 6827D Kieffer, C.M., 1975, Les parlers de la vallée du 6828D Meyer—lngwersen, J.C., 1966, Untersuchungen zum 6829D Tegey, H., 1978, The Grammar of Clitics: Evidence 6830D Zyar, M.A., 1974, Die Nominalkomposita des Paschto, 13.2 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: THE ARTS I 6839 Beardsley, C., 1959, The naked hills: some tales of 6840 6841 Beaurecuell, S., 1976, Abdullah Ansarl, a profile, 6842 Beaurecueil, S., 1976, Studying Ansari of Herat, 6843 6844 6845 6846 6847 Bernard, P., 1976, Fouilles D’ai Khanoum, 6848 Besi, T.W., 1894, Oriental biographical dictionary, 6849 6850 6851 Bidduiph, C.E., 1890, Afghan poetry of theSeve~nteenth 6852. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6873 Garcin de Tassy, M., 1945—48, La rhetorique des 6874 Ghani, A., 1976, Literature as politics, the ~case~ of 6875 Habibi, A.H., 1946, The oldest poems in Pashto, or, 6876 Habibi, A.H., 1964, Amir Kror, Afghanistan, 19/1, 6877 Habibi, A.H., 1968, Pashto literature at a glance, 6878 Hackin, R., 1940, Shahr-i—Gholghola, Afghan legend, 6879 Henry, V., 1882, Etudes afghanes, Paris, Maison— ~ 6880 Historical Society of Afghanistan, 1970, Afghan and 6881 Homan, S.S., 1972, A brief criticism of the~ so—called ;.~ selner unmittelbaran Nachfolger, Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie, Strasbourg, 1897, p.223—233. Mawlana Jalaluddin of Balkh, Afghanistan, 29,1. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
XIIIème siècle, Afghanistan, 7/1, 1952, p.39—hi. selections, prose and poetical in the Pushto or Afghan language, London, 1860, vi, 186, 212p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Pakhtu poem, 6930 Ullah, N., 1963, Islamic literature, an introductory 6931 6932 6933 6934 6935 Zorz, A., 1980, La fiancée, Les Temps Modernes, 13.2D A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Zaman, Afghanistan, 30/4, 1978, p.33—52. Voigt, E., 1981, Die Sammiung voigt, Afghanistan ~ Journal, 8/3, 1981, p.102—104. Wilson, D., 1969, Afghan literature, a perspective, Afghanistan, some new approaches, ed. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
July — Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: THE ARTS 6950 D.A.A., 1954, Feraidoun, Afghanistan, 912, 1954,,~ 6951 Dupree, L., 1964, Mahmud Tarzi, forgotten nationalist, 6952 Dupree, L., 1976, Serge de Beaurecueti, American 6953 Farhadi, A.G.R., 1976, Amir—Khusran, a profile,, 6954 Field, C.H.A., 1908, With the Afghans, 6955 Furon, R. and Raymond, A., 1952, René Grousset et 6956 Geographical Journal, (P), 1916, Sir George Robertson 6957 Javid, 1979, A glance into Amir Khustan’s life and 6958 Khan, N.U., 1951, Abouraihan al-Beiruni and his time, 6959 Kohzad, A.A., 1952, Sher Shah Souri, a representative 6960 Kohzad, M.N., 1951, Akbar Nameh, Afghanistan, 6/4,, 6961 Naimi, A.A., 1948, Une famille d’artistes, 0 6962 Pazhwak, A.R., 1970, The wanderer, 6963 Pazhwak, A.R., 1971, The prince of Bost, 6964 Pennell, A.M., 1923, Penneil of the Afghan frontier. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
I’Afghanistan, Afghanistan, 7/3, 1952, p.65—67. (Obituary), Geographical Journal, 47, 1916, p.149—150. , 0 :3 works, Afghanistan, 32/2, 1979, p.21—25. Afghanistan, 6/1, 1951, p.17—27. 0 0 0 of the Afghan spirit in India, Afghanistan, 7/4, * 1952, p.35—4O. 0 1951, p.59—6i. Afghanistan, 3/3, 1948, p.43—46. Afghanistan, 23/1, 1970, p.36—42. Afghanistan, 24/2, 1971, p.39—47. The Life of Theodore Leighton Pennell~ Seeley & Co., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
13.4 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Organisation, 1973, The millennium of the birth of Al Beruni, essays by Afghan scholars, Kabul, UNESCO, 1973, 42p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: THE ARTS . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rabab, Afghanistan Journal, 4/4, 1977, p.144—146. Sakata, L., 1978, Afghan musical instruments, the ,Dambura, Afghanistan Journal, 5/2, 1978, p.70—73. and Tanbur, Afghanistan Journal, 5/4, 1978, p.150—152. 0 Journal, 6/3, 1979, p.84—86. 0 * Saroz, Afghanistan 0 571 ;~ 572 6996 Sakata, L., 1979, Afghan musical instruments , the 6997 Sakata, L., 1980, Afghan musical instruments, Drums, 6998 Sakata, L., 1980, Afghan musical instruments, Sorna 6999 Sakata, L., 1980, Afghan musical instruments, Chang, 7000 Sakata, L. and Sakata, T., n.d., Folk music of 7001 Silver, B., 1976, On becoming an Ustad, six life 7002 Slobin, M., 1970, Persian folksong texts from Afghan 7003 Slobin, M., 1973, Music in the culture of Northern 7004 Slobin, M., 1975, Buz—baz, a musical marionette of 7005 Slobin, M., 1976, Music in the culture of Northern 7006 Traunfeilner, P., 1966, Osterreichische Musikschule in 13.4D A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: THE ARTS 13.5 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan- 7018 Centlivres—Demont, M., 1978, Volkskunst In Afghanistan, 7019 Deydier, H., 1950, Contribution a Vétude de;l’art du 7020 Dupaigne, B., 1968, Aperçus sur quelques .techniques A Bibliography of Afghanistan
573. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
10, 1933, p.21—24. bouddhique en Afghanistan, Transactions of the Meiji Japan Society, 42, 1934, p. 157—200. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Journal, 5/4, 1978, p.130—139. 0 Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1980, ihOp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: THE ARTS 577 7065 7066 Motamedi, H., 1975, Paintings from Bamlyan, 7067 Motamedi, H., 1978, A general view on Hadda Art and 7068 Musee, G., 1951, Exposition d’art asiatlque, Chine 7069 Mustamendi, 5., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Thomas, R.G.C., 1981, The Afghan crisis and South Asian security, Journal of Strategic Studies, 4/4, 1981, p.415—434. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
7116 7117 lbn Khaldun, 1980, Le voyage d’Occident et d’Orient, 9.8 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, al Maktab—al—I slami, Beirut, 1980, 581 1 582 7114 Shchepilova, E., 1981, Afghanistan, past and present, 7115 USSR Academy of Sciences, 1981, Afghanistan: past 9.6 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Accounts of the Afghan Wars and military campaigns Osprey, London, 1980, 224p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan victory of Maiwand, lzdatel’stuo “Nauka”, Moscow, 1980, 35Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
7122 7123 7124 Dupree, N.H., 1981, Revolutionary rhetoric and Afghan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
women, The Asia Society, Afghan Council, New York, • Occasional paper no.3, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dupree, L., 1980, Red Flag over the Hindu Kush: Part 5: Repressions or security through terror, Purges, 1—4, American University Field Staff Reports 28, Purges, 4—6, AUFSR/A, 29, 1980. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Sozialforschung, 1980, Revolution in Iran und Afghan- istan Herausg~geben vom Berliner Institut für • - Vergleichende, Sozialforschung, Frankfurt am Main Syndikat 1980, 295p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1980, How Pakistan destabilised - Afghan- istan, Link, 23 March 1980. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dissent, 2714, 1980, p.393—396. - - • - - H -- 589 year Sc. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Singleton, S., 1981, The Soviet Invasion of Afghan- istan, Atlantic Community Quarterly, 19/2, - 1981, p. 186—200 Hecht—Verlag, F. Wagner, ZUrich, 1980, 2O8p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
9.9.6 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
7322 Russell, L.K. and Richter, A.M., 1981, The training of 13.2 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Soziales Segment in Afghanistan, Verlag Anton Ham, Meisenheim am Glan, 198O,p.37O. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Carte Générale du Royaume de Perse ... en Afghan- istan par A.Vivien ... Giraldon Bovinet. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan Cartographic Institute, 1960—. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan Cartographic Institute, ca 1960-. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan Cartographic Institute, 1960. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul: Afghan Cartographic Institute, . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
‘, Kabul: Afghan Cartographic Institute, 1969. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
The Indian and Afghan Frontiers. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(Russo-Afghan , 1885). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Map of the Afghan and Persian border. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Calcutta: Survey of India, 1886. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
, , and Afghan positios ‘ 1:63,360 1:15,840 1:21, 210 1:250,000 609 610 7417 Afghanistan, Spec.ns ‘ 1:63,360 1:15,840 1:21, 210 1:250,000 609 610 7417 Afghanistan, Spec A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul: Afghan Cartographic InstItute, 1969. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1 sheet, 25 by 32 inches. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan Cartographic Institute, 1969. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Calcutta: Preliminary Map of the Routes followed by the members of the Afghan Boundary Commission by Major T.H. Holdich RE. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan Bdy. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
15.7 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I MAPS 7554 7555 Reiner, E., 1966, Die Kartographie in Afghanistan, 7556 Ritter, E., 1832, Entwurf zu einer Karte vom ganzen 7557 Scott, R. 8., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1978, Remote sensing of 7559 USA Army Topographic Command, 1971, United States of 7560 Virgo, K., 1977, Satellite imagery for land resource 7561 Virgo, K.J. and Clarke, I.D., 1978, Satellites over the Public Administration Service, 1962, Semi-annual reports of the Cadastral survey project of Afghan- istan, Series 1962 to present, Kabul, PAS, 1962, 3Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kartographische Nachrichten, Gütersloh, 16/4,~ 1966, p.137—145. Geblrgssystem des Himalaya nach den Quellenangaben; nebst Spezialkt. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
-: Qureshi, -S.M.M., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Critical acclaim for AFGHANISTAN: THE SOVIET WAR: *Citation for Excellence, Overseas Press Club in America 1985 Awards “Girardet’s is the most comprehensive, and perhaps the best, English- language book so far to explain the Afghan war to general readers.” Afghanistan: The Soviet War
1985 958’.1044 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
My gratitude, too, to members of other international relief organisations active in the interior, including AFRANE, Amis de l’Afghanistan and Afghan Aid for their valuable observations on the situation. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Also to Richard Smith of Dignity of Man Foundation who sadly died at the beginning of this year and who gave so much of himself to the Afghan people. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
William Dowell, Peter Jouvenal, Mike Barry, John and Romy Fullerton, S. Enders Wimbush, Jean-Jose Puig, Louis and Nancy Dupree, Alain Guillo, Christophe de Ponfihiy, Olivier Roy, Wayne Merry, Aernout van Linden, Pierre Issot-Sergent, Dominique Vergos, Julian Gearing and fellow hiker-cum-alpinist Douglas Archard, former US Consul in Peshawar. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the British Raj in India, it was whimsically known as ‘the Great Game’ — decades of frontier skirmishing with Afghan tribesmen, who, as Kipling deftly wrote, ‘ . Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Few Northwest Frontier PakistaniS hide their sympathies for the Muslim Afghan cause, but some financial persuasion is still required for the supply convoy to be officially registered as an ordinary merchant’s It is still dark when the caravan awakes. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Now well into its sixth year of occupation, the USSR has still failed to bring the Afghan resistance to heel, despite the massive political and military resources at its disposal. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Compared to the Yugoslav partisans during World War II or the Eritreans in Ethiopia, Afghan guerrilla warfare remains, in many respects, distinctly nineteenth-century But this has begun to change. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The conflicts remain substantially different, but some familiar patterns have emerged. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As with the French and the Americans, the Soviets have underesti- mated the resilience of a resistance force intent on gaining its inde- pendence. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The brutality and ugliness of the war are aptly illustrated by the way It Is being prosecuted by both sides. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Vivid tales of atrocities abound; some, products of the Introduction rumour mifi, others, tragically substantiated~ Entire communities have been massacred or ruthlessly ravaged by Soviet and Afghan troops, while tens of thousands of political opponents, including communists, have been, and still are, incarcerated and tortured in government jails, many of them never to emerge alive. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Estimates of the number of civilians killed since the 1978 coup d’etat vary from 250,000 to 500,000 and even a million. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Practically no such relief has gone to Iran; only in 1984 did the Tehran govern- ment permit the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to set up operations in Iran. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Overall, the real plight of the Afghan people has been quietly aban- doned by the wayside. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At that time, fighting in the provinces between troops of the Moscow-backed Kabul regime and Afghan rebels had been going on for well over a year. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As a result, the main highways leading to the capital from the principal towns of Kandahar, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif were cut by the guerrillas for days at a time. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Outwardly, the Afghan capital appeared quite normal. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Too many people Introduction ‘7 Introduction are in jail for us to forget now’, a respected Afghan university lecturer told me. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Travelling clandestinely, I later crossed back into Afghanistan with a group of mujahideen to visit a series of mainly Afghan-Baluch partisan bases hidden in the arid Chagai Hills of Helmand province. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In 1984, I travelled back to the Panjshair Valley north of Kabul with a CBS News fIlm crew to report on stepped-up Soviet attacks against Afghan civilians. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At the time of the invasion, some 50,000 troops of the defection- ridden Afghan army, many of them half-heartedly engaged in fighting the rebels, were deployed in various parts of the country. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By means of often ingenious ruses and with the aid of reli- able Afghan party members and supporters, they rendered helpless vir- tually all the potentially disruptive forces. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Similarly, both the tank- supported 7th and 8th Afghan army divisions managed never to fire a shot. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Shortly before Christmas, Amin’s own nephew and son-in-law, Assa- dullah, the Afghan security chief, was attacked and severely injured by an Afghan army officer. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
There have been numerous conflicting reports concerning the coup d’etat at Darulaman. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In a partial stupour, Amin now realised what was happening. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In any event, at 9.15 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Despite rumours of intense fighting between the Soviets and the mujahideen as well as rebellious Afghan military units, the speed with which the invaders had swept in took most of the population by surprise. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Faced with an alarming rise in Afghan army desertions, the Soviets were obliged to dis- arm certain disloyal units or, as was the case with the intransigent 26th Afghan Parachute Regiment, suppress them with force. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By early January, sporadic and sometimes major civil unrest had broken out in Kandahar, Herat and other urban centres. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A paltry group of unshaven Afghan ‘Askari’ (soldiers) in ill-fitting khaki uniforms lounged by the side of a road barrier resting their assault rifles between their legs. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A bored corporal glanced at our passports, both with visas issued by the Afghan embassy in Paris two weeks earlier. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Twice we were stopped by Afghan army control points. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Astonished at the lack of a Soviet presence, we asked about their whereabouts. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Unable to quell the rioting, the authorities called in a dozen MIG-17S of the Afghan airforce. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
it was later said that the Afghan pilots had refused to shoot at their own people. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By late afternoon, large numbers of Afghan troops were patrolling the streets. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Throughout the entire affair, the small ~ontiflgeflt of Soviet troops already at the airport had wisely remained out of sight leaving the Afghan government to handle its own ‘direct relations’ with the people. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Before leaving Kandahar, Boccon-Gibod and I managed to slip into the precincts of the airport by telling the Afghan police and soldiers manning the checkpoints that we were trying to catch the daily Bakhtar airlines flight to Kabul. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the same period, a Soviet MIG-23 and an Afghan MIG-1 7, the latter distinguished by its red, circular insignia, thundered off in the same direction. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Clashing regularly with loyal units of the 81st Afghan army, scattered mujahed forces launched night-time assaults against govern- ment installations or carried out hit-and-run daytime raids in the suburbs of Jalalabad. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Soviet ground controllers guided Afghan airforce planes to selected targets in the mountains, with pilots of the occupation forces flying some of the missions themselves. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Soviet officers, supported by their own combat units, took control of the local infantry and tank forces but left their Afghan commanders nominally in charge. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Extravagant claims of devastating Soviet losses by Afghan exile organisations across the border in Peshawar have been generally discounted. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Politically and militarily, the Afghan government was in a sorry state, its economy foundering. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By the time Moscow intervened, the truncated and demoralised army had shrunk through desertions and defections to the rebels from its original strength of roughly 100,000 tO less than half that number. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
GoverflmeT~t ~uj1diflgS, stepped-up mujahed assaults. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This included the first batch (a dozen of Soviet~Pi10ted Mi-24 helicopter gunshiPs to arrive in the country, plus 100 T-62 tanks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Amin Factor The Soviets regarded Amin with distasteful suspicion and the new Afghan president knew it. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Between 11 ~and 15 December 1979, ~~te1ligeflce sources noted un- usual con~efltrati005 of heavy transport planes in Moscow, home of the 105th Airborne division, as well as the call-UP of reservists, the deployment of motorised divisions and the stockpiling of petrol on the 25 26 The Soviet Invasion Soviet side of the Afghan border. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On 5 December 1978, the USSR signed a ‘Treaty of Friendship, Good-neighbourliness and Co-opera- tion’ with Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Were the Kabul regime to have fallen, it remains questionable whether a truly non-aligned and independent Islamic republic in Afghan istafl could ever have afforded to act inimically towards its giant neigh- bour in the north. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The ability of the guerrillas not only to survive, but to expand, evinced the Kremlin’s poor 3udgement in gauging the Afghan reaction. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘No matter what he does’, com- mented a Western diplomat in the Afghan capital, ‘Karmal will never be able to erase from people’s minds that he was put in by the Soviet army.’ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Protected by Soviet anti-aircraft guns, tanks and troops, the building was being used as Karmal’s official residence until the Presi- dential Palace, badly damaged during the takeover, could be repaired. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The outcome of the offensive, which had resulted in disastrous casualties, was a painful setback for the guerrillas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the first three years, it relied primarily on conventional military tactics such as aerial bombardments and com- bined Soviet-Afghan ground operations in its bid to crush the resist- ance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In many respects, The Soviet Strategy the failure of the Spring 1982 offensive in the Panjshair Valley 40 miles north of Kabul, which involved a force of 12,000 Soviet and Afghan government troops and daily sorties of more than 200 MIGs, SU-24s and helicopter gunships seriouSlY questioned the Kremlin’s ability to contain, let alone destroy, a tightly organised and reasonably equipped resistance front. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Having undisguisedly used the Afghan army as cannon fodder, they found themselves unable to rely on local soldiers as a dependable security force. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Certainly, the Red Army has made considerable progress in its anti- guerrilla capabilities through modifications of both tactics and equip- ment. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It was no secret that refugee camps in the Northwest Frontier and Baluchistan were not just humanitarian havens for Afghan citizens fleeing from Soviet terror. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the Amin era, Afghan government forces succeeded in temporarily suppressing the rebels in Paktya, a rugged border province of pine.forested Afghanistan: The Soviet War
hills and traditional smuggling trails. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As the war progressed, Eastern bloc defence journals regularly pub- lished accounts of battle experiences, thinly disguised as ‘training exer- cises’ but evidently gleaned from the war in Afghanistan, proposing corrective measures in the art of mountain combat, anti-sniper tactics and heliborne assaults. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan security officials set up loudspeakers in the bazaar and ordered the forced recruitment of all young men into the army. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Never- theless, mujabed guns were forcing aircraft, including armoured heli- copters, to fly high. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On 9 June at eight in the morning, a combined Soviet-Afghan armoured column of some fifty vehicles attacked the guerrilla-held village of Rokan, three miles to the south. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When the Soviets threatened to take reprisals against civilians from surrounding settlements, the guerrillas eventually agreed to hand the body over. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Concerned that the resistance might use the artillery piece against the airport, Soviet and Afghan troops with gunship support encircled and then bombarded the base. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Public sentiment, which ranged from barely disguised hatred for the ‘godless infidels’ to the expressionless cold stare, was hardly improved by the continued efforts of the Kremlin and its Afghan puppets to stifle the resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Bernard Dupaigne, the French ethnologist, who travelled around 45 46 The Soviet Strategy much of Afghanistan by bus in the late summer of 1980 on an ordinary tourist visa, reported bitter animosity and resentment wherever he went. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
There were also numerous accounts of Soviet patrols stopping passers by in the streets for body searches and then taking their money and watches. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, in mid-1982, Afghan truck drivers went on a three-day strike to protest against looting by Red Army troops. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan soldiers and civil servants who deserted from the government ranks have frequently spoken of Russian, as opposed to Central Asian, disrespect and contempt towards them. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It was situated amidst a thick growth of mulberry and tangerine groves. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In typical Afghan fashion, they immediately offered us cushions and the best positions on the worn but beautifully woven rugs before serving us with tea, sweets and cakes. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The word spread and the men began preparing their weapons, laughing and chatting loudly. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But it was the arrival of Soviet troops on Afghan soil that abruptly transformed the nation’s civil conflict into an all-out war against a foreign invader. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the early stages of this ‘people’s war’, most mujahed groups had yet to come to grips with the true and ruthless nature of the Soviet occupation. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
methods and weapons has developed in places into a formidable partisan force. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some incor- porate cross-sections of Afghan society. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Parties Since the invasion, the main Peshawar parties have split into two alli- ances, both calling themselves the ‘Islamic Unity of Afghan Mujahideen’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Reputedly descended from Genghis Khan, the Dan-speaking Hazaras have been for centuries the underdogs of Afghan society. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although the Nasr still remains a force to be reckoned with, most Iranian backing is now directed towards the more powerful Afghan Islamic Revolutionary party, the Sepah-e-Pasdara. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Created in late 1982 and modelled along the lines of Tehran’s own Revolutionary Guards (Pasdaran), who directly control the Afghan branch, its followers are trained and armed in Iran before being dispatched to Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Another, the Jabha Motahed e Melli (National United Front) included several traditionalist groupings as well as the highly effective SAMA (Sazmane Azadibakch-e Mardom-e Afghanistan — OrganisatiOfl for the Liberation of the Afghan People), itself an urban resistance move- ment composed of five different factions. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although the mujahideen had been able to augment their weaponry considerably prior to the invasion through Afghan army defectors, cap- tured materiel or purchases from the arms bazaars in Pakistan, this was hardly enough to fight what had now become a fully-fledged war. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan party officials have been shot or stabbed in the streets, while houses belonging to com- munist collaborators in the rural areas have been destroyed or taken over by the resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
if the garrison is wiped out or defects, it is replaced by another. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A highly controversial truce was concluded between the Panjshair’s Massoud and the Soviet forces in January, 1983, which, although initially condemned by other mujahed groups as a.sell-out, did in fact benefit the northern guerrillas by allowing them to consol- idate their forces, re-stock with supplies and provide the local population with a breather to cultivate their fields. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Russians have grown wise to such leaks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When this happens two or three times, it starts to play on one’s nerves? sources for much of their intelligence information expect the situation to change gradually in favour of the Soviets. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The ‘Jihad’ Trail The vast network of infiltration routes, the Ho Chi Mirth trails of the mujahideen, connecting Pakistan with the Afghan interior, are crucial to the resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The striking efficiency of this system, which also includes regular bus, jeep and truck services in the southern and western desert regitns, is due essentially to the Afghan spirit of free enterprise. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although the mujahideen organise their own supplies, Afghan merchants provide the transport, charging the guerrillas for every pound of materiel carried. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With the resurrection of the ancient caravan routes, there arrived another Afghan institution: the chaikhana, or teahouse. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although Western observers have noted a marked increase in anti- 65 66 The Guerrilla War Arms from Abroad Arms captured from the security forces or brought in by defectors represent a major supply source for the internal fronts. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
There seems little doubt that a considerable portion of the military aid making its way into Afghanistan has been procured by American help, but many of these arms tend to be of poor quality or insufficient quantity. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
No more than a smattering of party-run instruction centres, operated by former Afghan army officers or sympathetic Pakistanis, have been established in the frontier tribal zones. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some conscripts are given no training whatsoever. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to Anglo-Dutch journalist Aernout van Lynden, who accompanied Abdul Haq for eight weeks in the summer of 1981 and witnessed no fewer than five major Soviet-Afghan assaults against resist- ance positions, the guerrillas, despite being outgunned and outnum- bered, were able to inflict relatively heavy casualties through their The Resistance Fronts ‘nearly perfect deployment of men and anti-tank weapons’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The resistance has shown a remarkable ability to exploit whatever materials happen to come its way. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
War in the Cities ‘As long as the Russians have Kabul, they can say they have Afghan- istan’, observed Khalis guerrilla commander, Abdul Haq. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The mujahideen were demonstrating to both the Soviet occupation forces and the Afghan population that they were capable of bringing the war from the countryside to the cities. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan communists found them- selves living in constant fear of being killed or kidnapped. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Soviet and Afghan government patrols are becoming increasingly suspicious and thorough in their street checks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
There was greater coordination among certain fundamentalist and moderate groups. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Led by Tadjik guerrilla commander Ahmad Shah Massoud, this beautiful highland region, carved into the base of the Hindu Kush only forty miles north of Kabul, has managed to stave off eight major Soviet offensives since the invasion and has developed into one of the country’s most highly organised resistance movements. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Not to belittle his impressive organising capabilities, Massoud has encountered fewer difficulties in galvanising his people or expanding his influence than most Pushtun commanders because of the Panjshair’s non-tribal society and geographical position. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The young commander’s first attempt had obviously been too rash and unprepared. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Booty taken from convoys (Afghan trucks are simply stopped and goods confiscated in return for a receipt) furnishes the Panjshair with a substantial portion of its requirements like tea, sugar, rice and even petroleum. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Throwing in an estimated 8,000 Soviet and 4,000 Afghan govern- ment troops supported by tanks, MIGs and helicopter gunships, it looked as if sheer Soviet might would bring the Panjshaiis to their knees. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, he had, been inforthed weeks earlier by Afghan government officials and senior military officers in Kabul secretly collaborating with the resistance that a massive operation was in the offing. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The first to enter the Panjshair were Afghan army troops. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As part of 83 84 The Resistance Fronts their usual battle procedure, the Russians were sending in their surro- gates to take the brunt of the main spearhead. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Soviets immediately withdrew several Afghan contingents, putting many of the recruits under arrest. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By the end of July, the offensive had virtually petered out. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan military and administrative outposts left behind by the Soviets were falling to guerrilla harassment. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The security forces were not doing that well either. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Overriding the Afghan authorities, the Russians themselves decided to approach Massoud toward the end of December. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Massoud consulted with the valley’s religious leaders and local resistance, councils before agreeing to enter into negotiations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the mujahideen, the fact that the Soviet authorities had agreed to talk directly with a bunch of ‘bandits’ represented a de facto recog- nition of the Afghan resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It also set a precedent for direct Soviet- Afghan resistance talks should the Russians ever seriously consider leaving. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the end, it was Massoud who brought the Red Army to check, 87 5 Direct Soviet involvement with Afghanistan dates from the Soviet- Afghan Friendship Treaty of 1921 through which the USSR sought to consolidate a hold over the now fully independent Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the new Afghan king, the Soviets recognised a potentially firm ally because of his declared intention to remain neutral and to help India obtain its freedom from Britain. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Soviet Foreign 88 SOVIET INFLUENCE IN AFGHANISTAN Soviet Influence in Afghanistan Office even warned its representatives in Afghanistan ‘not to commit the serious mistake of implanting communism in this country’ - Under Stalin, the USSR continued its policy of economic, military and technical assistance to Afghanistan until the overthrow of King Amanullah in 1929, by rebel brigand Habibullah Khan, otherwise known as Baccha-i- Saqao, the son of the watercarrier. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Not being a Pushtun, however, the traditional guardians of the Afghan throne, he had little chance of holding on to his crown. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Baccha-i-Saqao, an illiterate Tadjik, proclaimed himself the new Emir. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some Comintern members considered the new monarchy part of an imperia- list plot to encircle and later attack the revolutionary mother country through the establishment of military bases in India and Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
University (which now had an active student Union) and the civil service became pivots of Afghan liberal dissidence with critics loudly con- demning the Royal Family for nepotism and corruption. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
hazard relationship that had existed in the region between the British and the Russians came to an end. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Friction was caused by repeated rejections, or offers tied to unacceptable conditions, of Afghan requests for arms. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In 1956, he signed a $25 million arms deal with Moscow. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By 1970, however, it was the USSR, which acted as the dominant power in Afghanistan’s military and economic development. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
a conservative and backward country. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
These differences were strongly reflected not only in their strategies but in the make-up of their factions. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nur Mohammad Taraki Nur Mohammad Taraki was born a member of the Pushtun Ghilzaj tribe in 1917 in Mukur, a small village situated between Kabul and Kandahar. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
His father was a small merchant. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Steadily more politically active, Taraki joined Wilk-e-Zalmaiyan in 1948 and began writing short stories and poems in his spare time. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Over the next three years, his movements remain vague; some reports say that he returned to Afghanistan via India and Pakistan, others that he also made a long trip through Europe and the USSR. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On his release, Babrak worked as a German-Dan translator, probably for the Afghan government, until he was conscripted into the army for the usual two-year stint. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan gathering of tribal, religious and political leaders representing 101 102 Soviet Influence in Afghanistan the entire country, to approve a new constitution and elect him President for the next six years. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Parcham would allow them to influence Afghan policy in a constitu- tional manner, while the ostracised Khalq had already infiltrated the armed forces, the administration and the educational system providing a cadre with the necessary organisation and clout to act against Daoud. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Six of the Parchami leaders were banished in the traditional Afghan manner by sending them abroad as ambassadors. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But such changes struck at the heart of the Afghan way of life. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Mingling in the background were also twenty Soviet advisers in Afghan uniform. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When most of the male population had been gathered in the field for the ‘jirgha’, the Afghan officers with the Soviet advisers standing be- hind began to berate them loudly for aiding and abetting the guerrillas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nabi Madez Khan, a short and stocky schoolboy who lost his fa- ther, uncle and four cousins in the massacre, described what happened during the final minutes. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some of them began praying. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Not only did this incident indicate the growing lack of security in the capital but its outcome led to a serious deterioration in Afghan relations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the rescue assault by Afghan police (in which Soviet advisers played an obscure role), the ambassador was killed in the crossfire. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It finally took a combined Soviet-Afghan government force supported by 400 armoured vehicles and heliborne troops to do the job. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For two days, screaming mobs armed with weapons plundered from government arsenals hunted down Afghan communist officials and officers and Soviet advisers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Those who refused were subsequently executed. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As under most totalitarian regimes, Afghan residents were warned not to speak to foreigners. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The uprising was planned for mid-day. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
American pilots of the PanAm-operated Ariana Afghan national airlines, who had already removed all their personal belongings from the country, said they would fly only as long as conditions permitted. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The American pilots, as well as their Afghan colleagues who seemed to defect every time a plane landed in Frankfurt, were eventually all replaced by Russians. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With travel dangerous, many United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) projects were lying idle. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
inmates during the summer of 1979 in huge, bulldozed pits. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some human rights sources in France have quoted the mass live burials of Pul.e.Charkhi Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In March 1982, the KHAD arrested Professor Hassan Kakar, a renowned Afghan historian and head of the Department of History at Kabul University. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This involves the current practice of replacing uni- versity lecturers who have been purged or have fled — more than four- fifths of the total by the end of 1983 — with Soviet advisers and usually unqualified Afghan party activists. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At human rights hearings in Paris, Geneva and in the United States, Farida provided the names of most of those responsible. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Relying øfl information furnished by KHAD infiltrators, the communists acted in reprisal against local collaboration with mujahed forces operating along the strategic Kabul-Gardez highway. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
vince, came to light, 105 Afghan civilians were asphyxiated and burned alive in an irrigation tunnel by Soviet troops. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, a sizable hardline element exists among the militia whom the Soviets consider more reliable than the defection-ridden Afghan army, particularly in frontline battle positions. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Ironically, despite close KGB management, the KHAD is not as closely controlled by the Soviets as they would like. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But Sirahang reportedly would have no truck with the regime and pointedly refused to sing eulogies of the Saur Revolution or Soviet-Afghan friendship. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Composed of twelve PDPA-run institutions representing different sectors of Afghan society such as the clergy, farmers, youth and women, the Fatherland Front has nevertheless failed to have much impact. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Kremlin still promotes the appearance of a non-aligned and sovereign Afghan- istan which invited in a limited contingent of Soviet troops to help stave off ‘outside counter-revolutionary interference’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘It is quite clear to everyone that the real power lies with Moscow and not Babrak Karmal’, noted former Afghan diplomat and UN General Assembly President Abdul Rahman Pazhwak, shortly after going into exile in 1982. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At the time of the invasion, the PDPA was a discredited political minority which had no choice but to rely on massive Soviet assistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Apart from the presence of Red Army occupation troops, Afghan- istan has undergone dramatic changes through the influence of large influxes of Soviet advisers, both military and civilian. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Compared to the 3,500-odd advisers present prior to the invasion, their numbers more than doubled within the first month of 1980. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By early 1984, they were believed to total well over 10,000 many of them living with their families in specially-guarded enclaves near the Soviet embassy or in the Russian-built suburb of Microrayon near Kabul airport. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Estimates of present strength hover between 30,000 and 45,000 with battalions experiencing desertions — up to 80 per cent in certain units — at about the same rate as arriving conscripts, some of whom have been drafted several times over. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Such pep-talks have done little to raise confidence in Soviet solid- arity. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While visiting the Panjshair in mid-1984, I regularly encountered between ten and fifteen Afghan soldiers deserting every day from government bases inside the valley. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But increased Sovietisation has itself caused some of the most able Afghan administrators to leave. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although Dost has dutifully represented his government at the UN-sponsored talks in Geneva on a political settlement in Afghanistan or delivered speeches at the General Assembly in New York, he is nothing but a pawn. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The and everyone knows that is not the case — or the Russians have 139 140 The Sovietisation of Afghanistan Soviets were conspicuously interested in original maps depicting the Durand Line, possibly preparing a legal dossier for future territorial claims against Pakistan in a resuscitation of the Pushtunistan issue. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Educating a New Society In order to enhance their influence over most sectors of Afghan life, the Soviets have tried to bring the country’s educational, cultural and social institutions into complete conformity with those found in the USSR and Eastern Europe. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Bodies such as the Democratic Organisation of Afghan Youth, the Democratic Women’s Organisation of Afghanistan and the Union of Writers and Poets have been formed, with the party and Soviet counterparts issuing guidelines on how each group should operate. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Learning a lesson from the British, whose frontier military com- manders or political agents often developed into noted scholars on The Sovietisation of Afghan istan tribal customs and behaviour, Dan and Pashto experts from the USSR arrived in the wake of the Red Army troops. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Since then, they have ransacked government files and libraries in search of information on Afghan tribal, ethnic and religious characteristics. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Former teachers or engineering students, who are respectfully addressed as ‘Mahalem Sab’ (Mr Teacher) or ‘Enginir’, lead guerrilla units into battle or run resistance administrations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The presence of Soviet teachers in Afghan schools and colleges is nothing new, of course. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Just as American, British, French, German and The Sovietisation of Afghanistan other foreign teachers have taught in Afghan educational establish- ments as part of development programmes, so have Soviet Russians, Tadjiks and Uzbeks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Textbooks printed in the USSR, including rewritten Afghan his- tories, have replaced Afghan ones, while Marxist-Leninist tracts are distributed in Pashto and Dan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Hundreds of Afghan teachers, who would logically have been involved in the programme under normal circumstances, were hounded out, beaten, imprisoned or killed for refusing to support government practices in applying the reforms. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It was only when the UN Development Programme in New York and the US and other governments protested, that UNESCO eventually backed down and a compromise agreement was reached. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the summer of 1980, some 500 Afghan citizens, most of them students, were denied permission to leave for the West instead of returning home. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Others have disappeared under more mysterious circumstances. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Kremlin has concentrated on Afghan youth as its hope for the future. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Government stations still broadcast highly popular Afghan folk- songs which are listened to avidly by much of the population, including resistance fighters. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As often as not, transistor radios among the mujahi. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
An array of communist and patriotic propaganda, they include concerts by beaming child choirs waving flags of Soviet- Afghan friendship or well-groomed soldiers singing Red Army style about loyalty to the state and homeland. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
em lliterate peasant women, are induced to mouth phrases such as ‘patriotic front’, ‘the Great April Revolution’ and its ‘irreversible’ and ‘progressive stages’.lliterate peasant women, are induced to mouth phrases such as ‘patriotic front’, ‘the Great April Revolution’ and its ‘irreversible’ and ‘progressive stages’ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Instead, the radio blithely announced that ‘victorious’ Afghan troops had ‘liberated’ the people of the Panjshalr from the ‘criminal Massoud band’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Following such offensives, the Afghan authorities have often resorted to well-publicised efforts to impose a political presence in the The Sovietisation of Afghanistan Panjshair. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan TV has also ensured thorough coverage of ‘confessions’ by captured Western journalists (three since the invasion) and, in early 1983, a French volunteer doctor. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘This type of self-criticism really demon- strates the absurdity of the communist system in Afghanistan’, he said somewhat bitterly after his return to France. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As with the Soviet press, Afghan newspapers such as the Kabul Times must be read carefully and between the lines to glean signs of what is going on. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although couched in terms of reciprocal trade agreements, it has become steadily apparent that the Soviet Union’s colonial-style exploit- ation of Afghan reserves amounts to nothing less than economic pillage. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This ranges from the import of Afghan natural gas at prices well below world prices to the takeover of irrigation water. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In March 1978, less than four weeks before the Saur Revolution, the World Bank produced a confidential two-volume report on the Afghan economy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Shortly before Daoud’s overthrow, the Afghan President had expressed his intention of opening the hitherto state-controlled mining sector to the public. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Through their overseas development company, Technoexport (used both for development and as a front for intelligence operations), the Soviets immediately stepped up mining exploration in the north. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Towards the end of 1980, Radio Kabul announced the signing of five protocols with Moscow which bound Afghanistan even closer to the Soviet Union. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to J.P. Carbonnel, head of the last French scientific mission to Afghanistan, which had to abandon its work in central Hazarajat in 1979 because of the turmoil, the Soviet oil research operation in the Mazar-e-Sharif area alone numbered 2,000 Soviet, East European and Afghan technicians. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Forming a natural barrier between the two countries, the river, ‘presumably could be developed only as joint projects’ according to the report. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, both Western intelligence and Afghan resistance sources indicate that all these projects have been deliberately designed for total integration within the Soviet Central Asian system. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
So have a cascade of hydroelectric stations on the Kunduz River. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The communist Nifto Promo Export Agency officially upgraded this to 14 mfflion tonnes in 1979. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The USSR first started importing Afghan gas in 1968 when it signed an 18-year contract at a rate to be specified every year. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
All exploitation and prospecting is officially carried out by the Afghan Petrol Company, but it is the Afghan people who must pay for all Russian ‘assistance’ ranging from geologists to equipment. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At $100.34 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As for the Afghans, they have to make do with coal and charcoal. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Initially, the post-invasion Afghan-Soviet agreements stipulated an an- nual production of 5 billion cubic metres from 1981 onwards. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
billion cubic metres exported in 1979 when the Afghan resistance was still in its infancy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although priority equipment is still flown directly to Kabul, Bagram and other airports, the bridge now permits the Soviets to deliver goods directly to the Khairaton terminal by rail, where they are then trans- ferred to lorries. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
billion rail link from Kabul to the Gulf would have significantly changed the face of Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With 159 160 The Sovietisation of Afghanistan overcrowding in the cities and guerrilla harassment along the highways, the Kabul regime has become increasingly dependent on the Soviets for wheat, cooking oil and sugar. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, such heavy Soviet economic support has failed to halt the deterioration of the Afghan economy. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
to $104.60 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Since the mid-1930s, the USSR has always bought a major portion of the Afghan crop, but much of it eventually ends up being sold to the West for hard cash at higher prices. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Not unlike their natural gas The Sovietisation of Afghanistan import practices, the Soviets paid two or three times below world prices for the cotton and deducted this from Afghan purchases of imported Soviet machinery and other industrial products. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Since 1978, the Soviets have sought to intensify cotton production in Kunduz to the detri- ment of wheat production, which forms part of the staple Afghan diet. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Villagers are finding it increasingly difficult, if not impossible, to grow their own food or raise money to purchase it in nearby bazaars. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Throwing handfuls of dried nuts and boiled sweets, the women and young girls murmured the traditional Afghan greeting: ‘Manda nabushi. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Several miles upstream there was a bridge, but it was controlled by Soviet and Afghan troops. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
My heart is in a cage which the birds have left. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Carefree and yet defiant in the spirit of the Afghan, he was riding for the pure joy of speed. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Why do you differentiate between fighters and the old men, the 163 164 The Afghan Struggle women and children?’ a village chief once asked me with a benign smile shortly after the invasion. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan opposition to communist rule and the Soviet occupation is above all a ‘people’s struggle’ with the effectiveness of the resistance measured to a great extent by the ability of the guerrilla fronts to remain on good terms with the local population. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nor are they a nineteenth century British expeditionary force sent out to punish obstinate and scheming Afghan tribesmen. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Regardless of their own losses, they seem prepared to tolerate a low degree of armed opposition lasting years if not decades, but which, they hope, wifi permit the PDPA regime to lay the foundations of a ‘new’ Afghanistan, eventually winning over its war-fatigued and dejected inhabitants. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Between 1973 and 1977, Pakistan trained an estimated 5,000 Afghan dissidents in secret military camps. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In July 1975, Afghan dissidents attacked two police stations in the Panjshair Valley and succeeded in holding most of the valley for three days. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Daoud immediately accused the The Afghan Struggle Pakistanis of orchestrating the uprising. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
An Opposition-in-Exile During the Taraki-Amin periods, Afghan dissident groups in Pakistan began to proliferate. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
One usually recognised the rebel offices by the crowds of turbaned Afghans out- side and the inevitable plainclothes men standing casually a few yards away. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The other leaders occasionally tour the interior. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nearly sixty when the Soviets invaded, Khales, a rugged Pushtun from Nangrahar Province, is the only Peshawar-based chief to return regularly to Afghanistan to fight. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Since then, this has confusingly furnished the Afghan resistance with two parties of the same name. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Despite his efforts to transfer his headquarters to Afghan soil, the Pa- kistanis, the Gulf countries (who provide much of his finance) and the other fundamentalists have pressured him into staying in Peshawar so as not to break the alliance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
He spent more than a year in prison before fleeing 169 170 The Afghan Struggle to Pakistan where he joined the other anti-leftwing dissidents. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A man of few scruples, Hekmatyar has aroused violent antagonism among his fellow compatriots. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It is often pointed out that the Kabul authorities constantly brand Hekmatyar as re- The Afghan Struggle a ‘bandit’ and an instrument of the CIA Curiously, he is the only resistance ea er t us singled out. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Mohammadi, a theologian and former 171 172 The Afghan Struggle parliamentarian, is an ardent nationalist who favours government based on the traditional Loya Jirgha (Grand Assembly) system rather than a Western-style legislature. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
He has some difficulty in polishing his image of an Afghan religious chief and looks distinctly uncomfortable when wearing tribal robes among his fol- lowers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Also condemning mullah dominance, he appears far more comprehensible to many Westerners, who quite unjustifiably tend to regard Afghan- istan’s religiously-inspired leaders as ‘Muslim fanatics’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The third of the Peshawar moderates, Professor Sibghatullah Mujadeddi, is a p~ with family links to the Nagshbandi order and is a nephew of a major Afghan Muslim figure, the Hazrat of Shor Bazaar. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A graduate of Al-Azhar University in Cairo and a highly reputed Islamic The Afghan Struggle teacher, Mujadeddi lectured in various Kabul colleges during the l960s before being imprisoned by Daoud as a religious conservative. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Most tend to be in their twenties and early thirties, high-school educated but originally from The Afghan Struggle rural rather than urban areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Kabul: Nightletters and Demonstrations The first tentative signs of open opposition to the Soviet invasion in Kabul and other towns came in the form of ‘Shabnamah’, those crudely 175 176 The Afghan Struggle printed ‘nightletters’ which had already made their appearance during the late 1960s to protest against social injustices. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Within weeks of the intervention, leaflets distributed by various underground organisations began to appear in the Afghan capital urging shopkeepers to show their ‘unanimous condemnation’ of the occupation by rolling down their shutters. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Tanks and armoured personnel carriers also The Afghan Struggle opened fIre against the crowds or buildings suspected of harbouring snipers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Strongly represented among the students and other members of the educated elite, It felt that a renewed series of strikes was vital to follow up the February and March protests. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The communist militants moved in to grab her and fighting broke. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Amid wails of anguish and anti-communist abuse, the protesters were forced to retreat. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghan police accom- panied them but did not intervene. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, despite the gunning down of demonstrators, the Parchami authorities seemed to be making an effort not to act in the same manner as the Khalqis. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the Saur regime’s fourth anniversary in April 1982, the KHAD adroitly removed all known pupil ringleaders and closed down the high The Afghan Struggle schools for several days, now a regular procedure during all important government occasions which might arouse anti-communist fervour. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As a result, no anti-government incidents marred the anniversary parade, which in Eastern bloc style included Afghan soldiers, cadets, police and party militants marching past the Afghan tricolour flanked by red flags, while MIGs and helicopters roared overhead. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Already before the invasion, the Afghan capital’s population had begun to swell with internal refugees in search of shelter, safety and jobs. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Revolution, Resistance and Local Loyalties In Soviet-occupied Afghanistan words like ‘revolution’, ‘democracy’, ‘modernisation’ and ‘progress’ are regarded with repugnance by most rural Afghans. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Within the Afghan social framework, each man considers himself bound to a ‘gawm’, a communal body, be it a village, a clan or a tribe, with traditional obligations of honour and blood vengeance often tran- scending political animosities. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Many still lack the 183 184 The Afghan Struggle necessary foresight or organising skills. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Since the early stages of the occupation, the resistance has run the valley along the lines of a semi-autonomous state. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For road controls, groups have printed special tax forms with blank spaces for the driver’s name, vehicle registration number and the amount received, usually anywhere between 50 and 100 Afghanis for one right of passage. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By the end of 1980 the mujahideen were levying taxes in all the ‘liberated’ areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Typewriters, Tape Recorders and Cameras Although rural Afghans are often wary of their urban-educated breth- ren, there is a growing politicisation among resistance communities. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Progressive fronts will not only boast of their anti-aircraft guns, mortar launchers and Kalashnikovs, but their duplicating machines, typewriters and cameras. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In many respects, the mujahideen are like children who have discovered an entirely new world of gadgetry, which, if used intelligently, could 187 188 The Afghan Struggle drastically alter their lives. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Now the VOA is maintaining that the guerrillas are by no means vanquished. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the foreign observer, the passion with which the Afghans follow events both at home and abroad is indeed striking. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Without doubt, the Western shortwave services have their short- comings. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The average Afghan has now realised that his country’s fate is not being decided solely on the battlefields of Afghanistan, but also in Washington, Moscow, Geneva, Warsaw and Managua. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Once, during the early stages of the war, three Western journalists and I visited the desert camp of a large group of partisans in southern Helmand pro- vince where we dined with the local resistance committee, about 189 I 190 The Afghan Struggle twenty men in all. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, during its intermittent existence, RFK’s broadcasts have met with an overwhelming response among the Afghan public, particularly those living in the Kabul area. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When operating properly, RFK opens its nightly transmissions (directly after the BBC and VOA news) with the compelling throbbing of a tabla similar to the haunting ‘V for Victory’ drums of the wartime BBC. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Pre-recorded tapes by major Soviet dissidents in exile have been broadcast; these include writers Vladimir Bukovsky and Vladimir Maxi- mov, mathematician Leonid Plyioutch and Marshal Grigorenko, once heralded as the ‘Hero of Stalingrad’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Claiming that RFK was founded with the assistance of the CIA, the Russians have obviously been disturbed by the presence of Soviet dissidents on the clandestine Afghan airwaves. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘The object of this subversive action, of these broadcasts, is to influence the Afghan population ideologically, to consolidate the counter-revolution, to bring into disrepute the political help of the Soviet Union to the Afghan people’, commented Izvestia in July 1982. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
According to Halter, the stations are something the Russians cannot understand. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Unlike the PLO or the South West African People’s Organisation, the Afghan resistance does not have the benefit of representation, or even observer status, at the United Nations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Bearing in mind Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, tribal and religious background, the notion of rapid political unity is unrealistic. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Political sabotage from other quarters has also had much to do with the repeated foundering of attempts at Afghan unity. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Neither the West nor the Third World, notably the Arabs, have gone out of their way, to push the Afghan issue, other than regularly condemning the Soviet invasion at the UN General Assembly. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Pakistanis, in particular, have never been very keen on a united resistance movement that might prove difficult to control. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With high hopes that the gathering might lead to genuine unity, the participants elected a 68.man Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Later in October, they backed the holding of a second Loya Jirgha, 193 I 194 The Afghan Struggle this time in Quetta. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Despite considerable opposition to the ex-King, notably among the non.tribal Afghanistan: The Soviet War
groups who regard the move as an effort to reassert Pushtun dominance, there appears to be increasingly widespread support for his The Afghan Struggle return. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But after five years of Soviet occupation, it has remained just that: co-ordination, in the northern provinces, however, co-operation among the different fronts seems to be giving rise to what could soon prove to be a firm, self-sustaining regional alliance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But most Hazaras have remained wary of working with the Pesha- war political parties because of their strong Pushtun influences. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the late summer of 1980, they burned 197 198 The Afghan Struggle the harvests and razed the bazaars of Panjaw, Yakaolang and several other communities on the northern outskirts of the Hazarajat. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Following the invasion, the Soviets made a more determined effort to bring the Hazaras to heel. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Military service normally starts with a month’s training under the aegis of former Afghan army officers, and includes sports, weapons management and guerrilla tactics. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The conscripts are then sent to local The Afghan Struggle resistance fronts known as ‘Japhas’, usually situated in the mountains overlooking vital access routes to the region. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A 1982 MSF report stated: The Hazara people. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Hazaras have always looked to Iran for inspiration. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Overall, the Iranian factor has remained a side issue in the Afghan equation, with Pakistan’s position as a ‘frontline’ state attracting far greater attention. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Clutching blankets, chickens, kettles and bundles of treasured family belongings, the refugees fled across the snow-clogged mountain pass at Safed Koh along the eastern Afghan frontier with Pakistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For many tribesmen, Pakistani and Afghan alike, the 1893 Durand Line exists only as a wallchart demarcation rather than a respected political boundary. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But most refugees find the conditions uncomfortable and too far from the Afghan border. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Certainly good news Refugees, Doctors and Prisoners for the refugees but portentous for the future, new humanitarian as- sistance programmes have sought to consolidate the basic infrastruc- tures of refugee settlements with the construction of utility buildings, access roads, schools and water supply projects. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As part of the target food basket designed by the UNHCR for a ‘non-productive’ refugee population, relief officials aim to provide each Afghan, man, woman or child, with the equivalent of 2,100-2,200 calories a day. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
s, hurch World Service, Caritas, the Pakistan Red Crescent Society, Aide Inter- nationale Contre Ia Faim, Austrian Relief Care and the International Rescue Committee have been actively involved in digging wells and installing sanitation facilities, health centres and other aid projects.hurch World Service, Caritas, the Pakistan Red Crescent Society, Aide Inter- nationale Contre Ia Faim, Austrian Relief Care and the International Rescue Committee have been actively involved in digging wells and installing sanitation facilities, health centres and other aid projects Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Pakistan claims to contribute nearly half the annual relief bill. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Officially, the authorities claim that they have only recognised the Afghan mujahed offices as a means of registering refugees and settling 207 208 Refugees, Doctors and Prisoners disputes. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some international aid organisations, which have extensive relief activities among the Afghan exiles, are prevented by their mandates from working inside Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
whereas to trans- port the same supplies from the bazaars of Kabul and other towns comes to less than thirty cents and is far safer. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Outside assistance should also be directed towards providing the training, work facilities and salaries of Afghan personnel to help over- come such deficiencies. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Many Afghan war casualties are not as lucky as Shah Mansour. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At the time of the Soviet invasion, few Afghan doctors worked in rural areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some Afghan doctors have stayed behind in Peshawar to work with the refugees, while others living in Europe or the United States co-oper- ate regularly with Afghan relief organisations. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Among the three million Hazaras, for example, there was not, a single Afghan doctor during the first year of the occupation. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Through the Swedish Relief committee, a number of Afghan doctors and medical students have gone back inside to work with the resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Because of the heavy fighting, they treated war injured from both sides, mujahideen and Afghan govern- ment soldiers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
From the Afghan point of view, the woman is queen within her own domain as delineated by the environs of her village. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Three months later, the Afghan govern- ment put Augoyard on trial, charging him with illegally entering the country, aiding and abetting the ‘counter-revolutionaries’ and smuggling out photographs and documents of strategic importance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Afghan embassy in Paris countered that ‘what is even more shocking is the way (Dr Augyard) entered Afghanistan illegally and associated with a band of murderers’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Guerrilla War and Humanitarian Rights As in most guerrilla conflicts, the present Russo-Afghan war has raised several fundamental problems regarding the humanitarian protection of civilians as well as the status of the resistance fighter as a bona fide belligerent. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, the strictness of the ICRC’s policy remains ambigu- ous. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Red Cross officials have operated inside guerrilla-controlled areas of Angola and Ethiopia without the ‘permission’ of the host govern- ment. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In addition, the ICRC has set up first aid training courses for Afghans. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Further- more, as the 1977 Geneva Protocols do not grant POW status to guer- rillas in the case of a purely civil war, international norms did not appear to apply to the Afghan conflict at this point despite its ‘inter- nationalisation’ through the presence of Soviet advisers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Concerned by repeated reports of prisoner executions ranging from captured Soviet soldiers with their throats slit to trussed-up Afghan partisans run over by Russian tanks, ICRC representatives in Peshawar had been negotiating almost from the beginning with various resistance organisations in the hope that some sort of agreement on the treatment of POWs could be reached. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Gorchniski remained only a short time on Afghan territory. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
(Khales faction again) guerrillas captured a Soviet geologist, Okrimyuk, with the complicity of his Afghan chauffeur. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On 13 January 1980, the Kabul authorities granted it the right to operate in Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Pakistan was ruled out as a possible host country, because of the pressures the Kremlin might exert were Soviet POWs interned just across the Afghan border. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A few of the more organised guerrilla fronts had established ‘prisons’ for captured Afghan communists both before and after the invasion. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
They were then to be handed back to the Soviet Union. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The lives of tens of thousands of imprisoned Afghan civilians, mujahideen, government personnel and Soviets are involved. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The ICRC is clearly concerned with finding a solution to its present unenviable predicament. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The situation has led to painful uncertainty among the Soviet pris- oners. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Further combined Soviet-Afghan offensives were also launched in the winter of 1984.85. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Soviet Union’s participation, via its Afghan surrogates, in the UN.sponsored Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Soviet refusal to consider a withdrawal so long as the present regime in Kabul cannot survive on its own also spells doom, at least for the time being, for the peace talks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Despite over-optimistic assertions by Cordovez in April 1983 that ‘95 per cent’ of an agreement had been reached, negotiations have remained deadlocked. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Cordovez has kept the door open for further talks. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While avoiding a Vietnam-style escalatioh, the Soviets are still trying to whip the Afghan armed forces into shape. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As a liberation movement, the Afghan resistance still lacks the resources and organisation to provide for those popula- tions wishing to remain inside the country. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In December 1984, the Helsinki Watch Group in New York issued the most detailed report to date on human rights violations in Afghan- istan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A compilation of accounts by Afghan victims and witnesses, French doctors, foreign relief workers, Western journalists and other outside observers, the document lists an array of atrocities by Soviet forces and their Afghan surrogates. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Furnishing outside aid should not be a matter of throwing money at the problem, but rather of dispersing it effectively, intelligently and, dare one say it, morally. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A more balanced distribution of aid has long been an indispensable prerequisite if resistance capabilities are to be improved. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
More Western aid would greatly strengthen a centrist alliance and release Rabbani and other more moderate fundamentalists from having to pander to Arab desires for a rigid, wholly artificial form of Islam that has little respect for the Afghan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the moment, the bulk of Arab support continues to be channelled toward the old ‘fundamentalist’ alliance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the time being, however, Perspectives Pakistan remains the only feasible option. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Despite its $3.2 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Political offices abroad would enable the resistance to tap the expertise of thousands of Afghan doctors, lawyers, teachers and former administrators in exile, many of whom would like to lend their support but who have been unable to find a constructive niche within the movement. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This in- 243 244 Perspectives cluded preparations to contest the right of the Kabul regime to hold the UN General Assembly seat, a move which would bring the Afghan issue out into the open and prove exceedingly embarrassing to the Soviets. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the early stages of the occupation, the Soviet media were careful to show only positive aspects. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Already in the autumn of 1981, Komos*aya Pravda, the leading Soviet youth daily, reviewed a 63-page pamphlet written by Pravda’s military correspondent, Victor Verstakov. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For reasons such as these, many editors consider the Russo-Afghan conflict too dangerous, too remote and too costly to merit dispatching a correspondent on a regular basis. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As for the years ahead, the ability of the Afghan resistance to with- Perspectives 4 -1 stand Moscow’s war of attrition will depend largely on whether it can adequately develop its organisational capabilities on the military, humanitarian and political fronts. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
47,74, 75,101,104,108-10, ll5-l8passim, 122,123,125, 130, 136,138, 139, 149,226, 227,236 Afghan Information Centre, Peshawar 141 Afghan Millat 50 agreements, A.-Soviet 26, 104, 132-3, 152, 154-5, 157; Red Cross- Soviet 230 agriculture 34, 36, 49, 86, 87, 112, 154,160-1,165,185,242 AGSA 117, 118,121,122 Ahrnad, Col Sayed Gui 118 Ahmadzai, Gen. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
197,217,220,233,237.8,243 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
173-5 passim, 183, 184, 195-201, 211-12,223,226-9 passim, 231, 233-4, 239, 240, 242;and local population 7, 35, 37, 41,44, 55, 77-9, 129,133,150, 162-a, 183-7,233,237;capabilities 10, 255 256 Index 40,434,53,58,60,64-71,84, 187,234,241,249; coordination/ organisation 10,58,60,75,76, 79-80, 195-7, 212, 234; infiltra- tion of 128-9, 201,233; revenue 184-6; weaponry 35, 43, 50, 53, 58, 64-8, 71-2, 79-80, 84, 115, 137 Muslim Brotherhood 166, 169, 171 nabi, Maulawi Mohammad 56 Nadir Shah 89-90 Naim, Mohammad 93 Najib/Najibullah, Dr 105, 124, 133 Nangrahar province 42,48,70, 168, 169,195,220,233 Nasr (Victory) Party 57, 129, 187, 199-201 passlm Nasseni, Mohammad Hussein (mujahed commander) 198 National Fatherland Front 131-2, 149 nationalism 5,90,95,207 Nayar, Kuldip 101 Nayim, Sayed (mujahed commander) 172 Neuman, Robert 94 New Times 245 news, international 188-90; see also BBC; Deutschewelle; VOA Nifto Promo Export Agency 155 Nimruz 184 non-alignment 8, 24, 25, 28; Afghan 27, 55, 92, 101, 235 Northwest Frontier 2,9, 33, 37, 67, 95,133,202,203,206 Novosti Press Agency 128 Nun, Ahmad (Interior Minister) 105 Nunistan province 33, 66, 113-14, 186,213,217-18,242 nurses 212,213, 217-18 oil 27,29, 153, 155-7 Okrimylk (Soviet geologist) 227-8 Olympic Games 40 Osman, Professor Abdullah 122 pacts, non-aggression 6 1-2; A.-Soviet (1931) 90 Padkhwab-e-Shana 127.8 Afghanistan: The Soviet War
236Sovietisation 135-61, 236-8 SSD 120, 122, 123 Stalin, Josef 89 strikes 176-8 passlm students 89, 91,92, 141-5, 147,151, 166, 177-80,218 subversion, Soviet 5,25,28, 35-6, 41-2, 187, 233, 243 Sultani Valley 9 Sunnis 10, 27,54, 196 supply routes 37-8, 634; see also caravans Sweden 211,216,242 Switzerland 229-32 passlm Tadjikistan, Soviet 116,156 Tadjiks 10, 54, 57,58, 66, 68, 133, 199,203; Soviet 145 Takhax province 2,42,66 talks, Geneva 82, 139,193,234,235; Soviet-mujahldeen 86 Tanaki, President Nun Mohammad 8,22,23,24,31,52,96-8,102, 103,105,106,110,116,117, 119,121,143,153,203 TASS 245 taxation 62,185-6, 198 Technoexport 154 Termez 15, 158, 159 Thiebolt, Mlchel 160 Third World 236,239 Tigré Relief CommIttee 212 torture 7, 117, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 128, 170, 179,223 trade 159,207 traditionalist elements 55, 129, 1834 trail, Jihad 634 trainIng 66,68,76,78,79,93, 138, 225; in Soviet Union 63, 76, 93, 124, 130, 138, 141, 142, 147-8, 154,236,237 treaty, Afghan-SovIet (1921) 88, (1978) 26, 104,244; Afghan-US 90 trials, show 125 tribal elements 5, 10, 36, 54, 58, 69-70,78,97,131-3, 141,183, 184; MInistry of 124, 131-3 truces 132-3; Soviet-mujahIdeen 85-7 Tudeh party 29, 129, 20~ Turkestan 30 Turkey 92,93,208 209 Turkmens 46, 54, 133, 203, 208 TV 148,149,151,239 UNDP 120,147 UNESCO 7,146 UNHCR 7,203-5,208-10 passlm UNITA 68, 183,212,225 United Front for the Liberation of A. United Nations 8, 82, 94, 116, 139, 146-7, 153, 192, 193, 210, 238, 239, 243,244 United States 6,21, 22,25, 28, 29, 32, 34,42,66-7, 68,90,92,93, 94, 114, 120, 151, 184, 189, 190, 208,211,223,235,23940, 242-4 passlm , 248; and aid 8, 66-7, 94-5, 101, 114, 190,240-1; and Soviet Union 8,26,28,94, 235; American Centre 145; American Aid for A. 190 uranium 29, 154 urban warfare 59-60, 72-6, 125, 180,234 University, Free Afghan 242 Uzbeks 54,57, 66, 133, 203, 208; Soviet 145,156 Vachentko, Yourl 230 Venice summIt (1980) 40 Verstakov, Victor 247 Viet Cong 53 Vietnam 6,9,25, 34, 38,42, 53, 104, 110,208,223,225, 244 visits, to Soviet Union 138-9 194 Index Voice of America (VOA) 81, 148, 188, 189, 246 volunteer agencies 7, 10, 205-6, 242 Wakhan corridor 208-9 ‘Waltan Palanzaj’ 148 war: Indochina 225; Indo-Pakistan 100; Iraq-Iran 29, 201; World II 90 Wardak province 55, 172, 184 Wardak, Col Abdul Rahim 65 Wardak, Mohammed Amin 55, 172, 196 water, irrigation 152, 154-5 Wazinstan, Northern 39 Western interest 23841 wheat 160 Wikh-e-Zalmaiyan (Enlightened Youth) 91, 92, 98 withdrawal, Soviet 6, 40, 235, 240 women 164, 218-19; Democratic — Organisation of A Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the Afghan people, Goodson, Larry P. endless war state failure, regional politics, and the rise of the Taliban / Larry P. Goodson. Afghanistan's Endless War
I was in Pakistan in 1986—1987 on a fellowship from the American Institute of Pakistan Studies to collect data for my doctoral dissertation on the relationship between the Afghan refugees, Afghan fighters, and Pakistani support for both. Afghanistan's Endless War
Peshawar was then, as it had often been before in its history, an Afghan town. Afghanistan's Endless War
Another major lesson I learned was that Afghanistan was not going to return to its prewar peaceful stability once the Soviets were gone. Afghanistan's Endless War
That the fight would be with rival Afghan factions divided increasingly along ethnic lines—not a holy war against foreign invaders—seemed not to trouble my young friend. Afghanistan's Endless War
His concern about the failure of the Afghan state to make itself both legitimate and necessary is echoed in recent work by Nazif Shahrani, who contends that the Western-inspired impe- rial state fits Afghanistan’s realities rather poorly.3 Afghanistan's Endless War
Through his numerous writ- ings he explains much of Afghanistan’s modern social and political developments in terms of the rentier state model of its economic foun- dations.5 Afghanistan's Endless War
There is also a growing body of scholarship that explores the mili- tary, humanitarian, and diplomatic role of outside actors in Afghan- istan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Perhaps inevitably, most of the literature on the recent military struggle in Afghanistan grew out of the Soviet-Afghan period of the war.9 Afghanistan's Endless War
Many of the Afghan War books of the 198os were written by journalists and provide anecdotal accounts of their little corners of the war, mixing a modicum of analysis into their tales of the perils and rig- ors of reporting from the Hindu Kush.’° Afghanistan's Endless War
To begin with, I show how Afghan- istan’s setting, especially its ethnic, religious, social, and geographic characteristics, has always limited the development of a strong Afghan state and has acquired renewed importance in the wake of the state’s demise during the 198os and early 1990S. Afghanistan's Endless War
In this book I attempt to provide an integrated framework for understanding Afghanistan today by exploring the six factors that are most influential there, each in turn. Afghanistan's Endless War
This book would never have been written without the support of numerous friends and scholars around the world. Afghanistan's Endless War
The field research on which it is based was made possible by grants from the American Insti- tute of Pakistan Studies, the American University in Cairo, Campbell University, and the Federalist Research Institute. Afghanistan's Endless War
No longer isolated in the mountain fastnesses of central Asia, it finds itself a critical geographic crossroads once again— as it has been through the ages. Afghanistan's Endless War
Even resi- dents of the government-held urban centers in the 1980S were not safe. Afghanistan's Endless War
Every region of Afghanistan has been touched by the war. Afghanistan's Endless War
Four specific features of the Afghan case make it especially worthy of analysis in relation to weak state syndrome. Afghanistan's Endless War
A fifth factor of great importance is modern Afghan history, for the process of Afghan state building has also provided a framework within which current politics must occur. Afghanistan's Endless War
Although Afghanistan became formally independent from British control after the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, it had been a largely MAP 1.1 Afghanistan's Endless War
The Pushtuns are the dominant ethnic group in Afghanistan today (indeed, they have dominated Afghan society since the mid-eighteenth century) and the largest remaining tribal society in the world.20 Afghanistan's Endless War
Approx- imately seventeen million Pushtuns straddle the Afghan-Pakistani border, living primarily in the south, southwest, center, and east of Afghanistan and in the Federally Administered Tribal Agencies (or Areas), North-West Frontier Province, and northern districts of Balu- chistan Province of Pakistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Although the Pushtunwali is a conglomerate of local tribal codes, certain primary themes have emerged. Afghanistan's Endless War
The second major factor that serves both to support the separation of Afghan society from the state and to foster divisions within society is religion, although the state successfully co-opted the religious hierarchy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in order to aid its rise over society.28 Afghanistan's Endless War
Several Sufi tariqas (brotherhoods) are still vibrant in Afghan- istan, especially the Chishtiyya, Naqshbandiyya, and Qadiriyya orders.~° Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan hosts a mélange of Islam, perhaps influenced by the eclectic blend of reli- gions found in nearby South Asia. Afghanistan's Endless War
Despite the development of a violent and unremitting jihad (reli- gious or holy war) and the rise of political Islam during the 198os in Afghanistan, and despite legends concerning the early and widespread conversion of the Afghan people to Islam, religion has only recently been of great importance there.32 Afghanistan's Endless War
The conversion process was not nearly as rapid or complete as it has traditionally been portrayed, and even now there is a blending of early animist beliefs with mainstream Islamic thought in more remote areas of Afghanistan (among the Pamiri and Wakhi people of the rugged northeast, for example, or among the Nur- istanis who were forcibly converted in the 189os). Afghanistan's Endless War
Islam and the Pushtunwali in concert do govern daily life, but they are so pervasive that they are generally taken for granted, a luxury found only in societies with a homogeneous religion. Afghanistan's Endless War
The major way in which Islam has traditionally acquired a more active role in Afghan society is by providing the ideology and driving force behind a jihad—then it can weld the tribes together into an in- tractable force against alien infidels. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan-Soviet War of 1979— 1989 is only the latest in a number of jihads in which Afghans have risen during the last 250 years; the next most recent was the Kashmir lashkar (war party) of 1947—1948.~~ Afghanistan's Endless War
Although the post-Soviet struggle in Afghan- istan is a war among factions, all of whom are composed of Muslims, the Taliban have consistently presented their fight against fellow Afghans as a jihad in order to unify and embolden their followers. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan’s ethnic groups emphasize loyalty to the local social group, which may be defined in several ways, rather than to the state. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan War has erased the position of the Afghan state by elim- inating or severely damaging most of these institutions. Afghanistan's Endless War
As traditional elites such as the ‘ulama and khans were destroyed and state structures collapsed, Afghanistan saw the rise of an unstable mixture of resurgent traditional society and nascent political elites that have contributed to the national political fragmentation. Afghanistan's Endless War
Some themes from Afghanistan’s pre-1978 history are particularly relevant to our understanding of Afghanistan today, especially those that constrained the construction of the Afghan state and shaped the development of its national political culture. Afghanistan's Endless War
From the earliest periods of Afghan and Central Asian history com lessons that are extremely applicable to the current situation there. Afghanistan's Endless War
Thi~ chapter explores four themes of Afghan and regional history that hav had special relevance in shaping Afghanistan today. Afghanistan's Endless War
AFGHANISTAN IN THE POST—COLD WAR WORLD fghanistan as a modern nation-state dates back only to 1919, but tin same people have for millennia occupied the land it now claims. Afghanistan's Endless War
3000 BCE).3 Afghanistan's Endless War
Thereafter, it is difficult to find a moment in Afghan history when some part of that country was not caught in the throes of some invasion, rebellion, or local war. Afghanistan's Endless War
The ancient lit- erature available to us reveals several themes of Central Asian warfare that the Soviet Union should have noted prior to its 1979 invasion of Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Frank Holt identified this independent spirit in his study of Alexander’s Bactrian campaigns: “Nominal control of the region the inhabitants were willing to c~ncede to the new king, but any direct interference in local \affairs was likely to arouse immediate opposition. Afghanistan's Endless War
In defense of their independence, the ancient inhabitants of the territory now known as Afghanistan were fiercely uncompromising warriors who excelled at political duplicity and guer- rilla warfare. Afghanistan's Endless War
In the course of their campaigns in Central Asia, all these great rulers and conquerors were bedeviled by the ferocious tenacity of the indige- nous hill tribes and steppe nomads who engaged them. Afghanistan's Endless War
It was Alexander’s disruption of regional socioeconomic patterns on a permanent basis that suddenly made the presence of his army unacceptable to the inhabitants of the area?’~ After an earlier campaign against the Ariaspians (perhaps forerunners of present-day Baluch or Pushtun tribes), Alexander was so impressed by their tribal assembly method of governance that he allowed them to retain sub- stantial autonomy.8 Afghanistan's Endless War
Its terrain and wide ethnic diversity combine to reinforce a powerful sense of isolation and “separateness” of often small and discrete groups. Afghanistan's Endless War
Although the Persian empire declined after the Safavid period, throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth cen- turies both the Russian and British empires pushed in on Afghanistan in their quest for territorial expansion.’~ Afghanistan's Endless War
Even after Ahmed Shah DuS~rrani brought the Durrani tribe into power in 1749, Afghanistan continued to suffer from foreign encroach- ment and internal upheaval. Afghanistan's Endless War
The light solid line marks Afghanistan’s present-day border. Afghanistan's Endless War
Reproduced with permission from Asta Olesen, Islam and Politics in Afghanistan, 1995, p. 20. Afghanistan's Endless War
Thus, from the nineteenth-century period of anarchy in Afghanistan there developed an increased ethnic consciousness—although not an ideology of nationalism—that l~id the foi~ndation for ethnic relation- ships in Afghanistan today. Afghanistan's Endless War
These social changes did not occur in a vacuum, however, for there were tremendous political pressures from external sources as well. Afghanistan's Endless War
Reproduced with permission from Louis Dupree, Afghanistan, 1973, p. 342. Afghanistan's Endless War
Thus, the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878—1880) began as the first did, over British concerns about Russian intrigues in Afghanistan.44 Afghanistan's Endless War
In the process he forged the administrative machinery of the modern Afghan nation-state and solidified its international borders.~~ Afghanistan's Endless War
From 1901 to 1919 Abdur Rahman’s son, Habibullah, ruled as amir. Afghanistan's Endless War
Certainly, their tactical sophistication can be considerable; they have always specialized in hit-and-run attacks, ambushes, and similar tactics Military Adaptation imposed by the terrain. Afghanistan's Endless War
This probably stems from their repeated exposure to invasion by the leading practitioners of warfare throughout history. Afghanistan's Endless War
Second, economic penetration of the region, AFGHANISTAN AND THE SOVIET UNION IN CENTRAL ASIA begun when the tsars first conquered the Central Asian khanates, made possible the use of blockades, famines, and similar tactics to undermine support for the nationalist movement. Afghanistan's Endless War
The new Soviet government proved its capability and resilience in Turkestan in the face of substantial Afghan concern. Afghanistan's Endless War
Soviet strategy was simple: profess support for the independence of Khiva and Bukhara to defuse international concern while dividing and crushing the inde- pendence movements there. Afghanistan's Endless War
Diplomatic pressure limited Afghan support for the Basmachis (although Afghan “volunteers” did partici- pate),87 who nonetheless frustrated Soviet aims toward Central Asia for over a decade. Afghanistan's Endless War
For example, because various components of the Basmachi movement differed ideologically, the Basmachis never achieved suffi- cient unity to successfully prosecute a conventional war against the larger, combat-hardened Soviet armies. Afghanistan's Endless War
The warfare, famine, and disease combined to produce hundreds of thousands of refugees who crossed into northern Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
These people strengthened the minority populations already living there, as well as introducing the karakul sheep, which became a major new industry for Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
This effort derived from the historical competition between Britain and Russia for Central Asia, the even older Russian drive south toward warm waters, and the still older animosity between Russians and Turkic Mus- lims. Afghanistan's Endless War
Democratic experiment 6. Afghanistan's Endless War
The new government in Moscow under Lenin was the first to recognize Afghanistan’s independence and establish diplomatic relations. Afghanistan's Endless War
HISTORICAL FACTORS SHAPING MODERN AFGHANISTAN Afghanistan and the USSR signed two more major treaties before The swift pace of Amanullah’s reforms and efforts at modernizing 47 48 HISTORICAL FACTORS SHAPING MODERN AFGHANISTAN Although all the methods used by the Soviets to influence Afghan- istan were tied at least indirectly to the diplomatic process, in the early years of Afghanistan’s independence the USSR had to rely most heavily on diplomacy to achieve its ends. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan remained neutral during World War II, despite its ties to both Allied and Axis powers. Afghanistan's Endless War
World War II so altered the balance of power in Central Asia, however, that the JJSSR was able to step up its program for acquiring influence~in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Furthermore, the Soviets concentrated loans in certain economic sec- tors, rescheduled loan repayments, and increased the number of their advisers in Afghanistan until by 1978, “the Soviet economic presence and influence on the formulation of Afghan planning and policy became pervasive.”~ Afghanistan's Endless War
This was quite intentional. Afghanistan's Endless War
value of Afghanistan if and when a Soviet occupation should take place. Afghanistan's Endless War
The great expansion of Soviet involvement in Afghan society occurred under the first rule of Mohammad Daoud (1953—1963), first cousin to King Zahir Shah. Afghanistan's Endless War
As prime minister, Daoud, like Amanullah in the 192os, courted the Soviets in part because of his difficulties with Pakistan to the south and the relative neglect of the United States. Afghanistan's Endless War
However, because of Soviet penetration of the mi1itary~ (especially the officer corps among armored units and the air force) and government workers, key military elements were under communist control and able to attack Daoud in the 1978 coup. Afghanistan's Endless War
Within two years it had split into two bitterly antagonistic factions—the Khalq (Masses) and the Parcham (Banner)—that never really reunited (except for a brief period in 1977 and 1978 prior to the coup). Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan War began with the communist coup d’etat by officers in the army and air force on April 27, 1978. Afghanistan's Endless War
In July 1978, after a rap- prochement of one year, Khalq and Parcham split again. Afghanistan's Endless War
In mid-March there was a general uprising in Herat. Afghanistan's Endless War
In April Afghan govern- ment forces with Soviet advisers massacred 1,170 men and boys of Kerala village in Kunar, near the border with Pakistan.12 Afghanistan's Endless War
On December 17 there was an assassination attempt on Amin’s life, possibly with Soviet com- plicity. Afghanistan's Endless War
By January i, 1980, the Soviets had nearly eighty-five thousand soldiers in Afghan- istan. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Soviets’ “rubbleization” tactics, . Afghanistan's Endless War
Refugees had fled Afghanistan since the mid-197os in small numbers; by the time of the invasion some four hundred thousand were already in Pakistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
This would become the most significant division among the Afghan mujahideen, culminating in their struggle for control of Kabul in the mid-199os. Afghanistan's Endless War
Its strongest bases of support were in northeastern Afghanistan and among the Afghan refugee population in Pakistan.bo Afghanistan's Endless War
A Kharruti Pushtun like both Hekmat- yar and Hafizullah Amin, Sayyaf had strong ties to the Arab supporters of the mujahideen but very few Afghan mujahideen or commanders. Afghanistan's Endless War
The northern provinces bordering the Soviet Union underwent especially rigorous 63MODERN WAR IN AFGHANISTAN 64 MODERN WAR IN AFGHANISTAN pacification campaigns. Afghanistan's Endless War
In short, stage two was characterized by the widening of the war to every area of the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became the new Soviet general secretary. Afghanistan's Endless War
The spilover into these countries—Pakistan especially—took several forms: air strikes, artillery attacks, terrorist explosions, assassinations, manipulation of politically disaffected tribes, and sabotage and disruption. Afghanistan's Endless War
Increasing domestic discontent over the Afghan War found more open expression in the press and finally, with Gorbachev’s February 1986 “bleeding wound” speech, received official countenance. Afghanistan's Endless War
After Gorbachev acquired power in March 1985, Soviet policy toward Afghanistan began to change. Afghanistan's Endless War
The critical question revolved around the possibility of Afghan- istan’s peaceful transition to legitimate national government given continued Soviet involvement and pressure. Afghanistan's Endless War
In fact, the mujahideen were unable to defeat the Najibullah regime until April 1992 for two major reasons. Afghanistan's Endless War
After their withdrawal the Soviets also infused their standard policy of blaming the West for the Afghan conflict with new vigor. Afghanistan's Endless War
A major disinformation and propaganda campaign aimed at Western media and STAGE FIVE: HIGH-INTENSITY CIVIL WAR (1989—1992) policymakers subtly altered perceptions. Afghanistan's Endless War
The second major reason for the continuation of the Afghan conflict was the inability of the Afghan resistance to mount a credible alter- native. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan Interim Government (AIG) formed in February 1989 was a failure, doomed by the perpetual bickering of the Peshawar party leaders who were its primary participants. Afghanistan's Endless War
In the absence of Zia and his most important generals, killed with him in August 1988, Pakistani support for the mujahideen became uncertain. Afghanistan's Endless War
Despite the Khost victory and the earlier Jalalabad campaign, this stage of the war was characterized more by events outside of Afghan- istan—albeit inspired, at least in part, by the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989—than by the struggle for military supremacy on the ground. Afghanistan's Endless War
Kandahar was ruled by a regional council with a strong repre- sentation of supporters of Sayed Ahmed Gailani’s Mahaz-i-Milli and Hekmatyar’s Hezb-i-Islami. Afghanistan's Endless War
In the summer and autumn of 1993, fighting in Kabul was pri- marily between the Iranian-backed Shia party Hezb-i-Wahdat and the MODERN WAR IN AFGHANISTAN 75 76 MODERN WAR IN AFGHANISTAN Saudi-supported fundamentalist Sunni party of Abdul Rasoul Sayyaf, Ittehad-i Islami. Afghanistan's Endless War
Despite continual negotiations between representatives of various elements within Afghan society, there was little success in forming a national government during this stage. Afghanistan's Endless War
Pakistan’s refusal since 1992 to accept Afghan refugees without visas forced most of the people displaced by this fighting to flee to Jalalabad or other locations within Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Taliban were Afghan refugees and war veterans based in rural Pakistani and Afghan madrarahs, or Islamic religious schools. Afghanistan's Endless War
Their arrival on the Afghan~stage marked the end of the period of intra-mujahideen civil war and the beginning of stage seven in the Afghan War. Afghanistan's Endless War
Some eight thousand Taliban troops, supported by tanks and ar- mored personnel carriers, drove through Faryab in July and overran Dostum’s headquarters at Shiberghan in early August. Afghanistan's Endless War
The rise of the Taliban movement introduced significant changes to the political landscape of Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Most importantly, the Taliban absorbed other major Pushtun players (for example, Mohammadi and Khalis) or drove them off the Afghan stage (for example, Hekmatyar and Sayyaf). Afghanistan's Endless War
Moreover, an unprecedented leap in opium production showed that the Taliban were making no serious inroads in curbing the narcotics traffic, and their reported training of Islamist fighters led to renewed fears of “Talibanization” of neighboring countries and territories such as Pakistan, Kashmir, Uzbekistan, and Chechnya.83 Afghanistan's Endless War
The new Pakistani government almost immediately tightened bor- der controls with Afghanistan in order to crack down on smuggling, which drove up Afghan wheat prices and caused the Afghan currency (the afghani) to fall sharply. Afghanistan's Endless War
In response, relations between the Taliban and Iran thawed quickly, and in late November 1999 the Afghan-Iranian border was reopened for trade at Islam Qala, west of Herat. Afghanistan's Endless War
April 2000 marked the end of twenty-two years of continuous war in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Despite the recent downward spiral in combat inten- sity in Afghanistan, the ethnic foundations for continuing violence there make it difficult to feel certain that stage eight will be the last stage of the Afghan War. Afghanistan's Endless War
(p. Afghanistan's Endless War
MODERN WAR IN AFGHANISTAN 87 TABLE 3.1. Afghanistan's Endless War
After the Soviet withdrawal in 1989, the conflict began to decline in intensity, and much of the country began to have periods of peace. Afghanistan's Endless War
From its localized beginnings in Kabul, the war grew in intensity throughout the 198os. Afghanistan's Endless War
Transition from the current conflict to peace can occur only if the United States and interested regional powers exercise sufficient leverage on their Afghan clients to put in place and maintain a broad-based gov- ernment. Afghanistan's Endless War
For this to happen, the outside actors would have to agree to curtail support for their Afghan proxy forces, and a mechanism for power sharing between intransigent groups would have to be devised —both daunting prospects. Afghanistan's Endless War
A surge of Islamic fervor, an important unifying force for the otherwise fractious mujahideen, also bore a stiff price. Afghanistan's Endless War
Furthermore, sociocultural traditions in Afghanistan atrophied dur- ing the war years as children grew up in refugee camps and mine fields rather than in villages and wheat fields. Afghanistan's Endless War
Last, throughout the years of war, the geographic and demographic 4/Impact of the War on Afghan State and Society 91 T he destructiveness of modern war is widely understood, but the war in Afghanistan has been uniquely and comprehensively destructive. Afghanistan's Endless War
92 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY factors discussed in chapter 1 helped isolate Afghanistan from the influ- ence of the rest of the world and make resolution of its conflict a diffi- cult matter. Afghanistan's Endless War
To understand the future of Afghanistan and the region, we must first understand how the Afghan War has affected the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
ical destruc- tion, economic and political disarray, the rise of the aliban (especially as it has affected Afghanistan’s ethnic and religious balance), and socio- cultural change.itical disarray, the rise of the Taliban (especially as it has affected Afghanistan’s ethnic and religious balance), and socio- cultural change Afghanistan's Endless War
Current population estimates vary widely (17—23 million IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 93 94 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY persons), but at 22 million that would mean 682,000 persons wounded in the war. Afghanistan's Endless War
In short, the direct effect of the Afghan War on the Afghan popula- tion has been stunning. Afghanistan's Endless War
Although all figures are estimates, some rougher than others, it is clear that more than 50 percent of Afghanistan’s pop- ulation has been directly harmed by the war through death, injury, or displacement. Afghanistan's Endless War
Finally, Afghanistan has attracted significant attention from out- side actors during its more than two decades of war, but most of that attention has come in the form of military aid, consumption-oriented economic aid, and refugee relief. Afghanistan's Endless War
As of early 2001, Afghanistan was a country reduced by the technology of modern war to a premodern level of existence. Afghanistan's Endless War
It stems from a con- scious effort on the part of various combatants, especially the Soviet- DRA forces, to depopulate the country by making it uninhabitable. Afghanistan's Endless War
First, the war has destroyed the prewar elites and the social system that supported them, leading to the development of new political elites (mujahideen and Taliban) that are founded on a newly prominent role for youths and Islamist ideologues. Afghanistan's Endless War
Three major changes can be noted. Afghanistan's Endless War
Land reform and the air war IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 97 ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DISARRAY 98 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY policy of “rubbleization” eliminated the traditional source of the khans’ power, and their failure to protect their supporters from the govern- ment eroded their authority.22 Afghanistan's Endless War
In the absence of the Durranis and khans, new groups entered the picture, such as the non-Durrani resistance leaders mentioned by Tarzi. Afghanistan's Endless War
Prior to the Afghan War, most rural Afghan men possessed weapons, but generally the most advanced were Lee Enfield .303 Afghanistan's Endless War
The end result of all this has been not only the destruction of the Afghan physical infrastructure (for example, more than fifteen hundred SCUD missiles were used in Afghanistan as compared with fewer than one hundred in the Gulf War) but also the dissemination of modern weapons to people living in a segmentary social system with a cultural tradition of violence.29 Afghanistan's Endless War
IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 99 100 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY Kalashnikovization has been even worse in Afghanistan, where it has come to stand for war fought at a level of technology inconsistent with national development. Afghanistan's Endless War
The widespread dissemination of weapons also helped destroy the Afghan military, which essentially ceased to exist in all but name. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan Army had been a key institution in Afghanistan’s state-building process since the late nineteenth century, but the Soviet phase of the war saw it shrink in size and effectiveness until, by the early 199os, it had been transformed into a number of ethnic-based militias. Afghanistan's Endless War
After long years of war, killing has become a way of life in Afghan- istan, as is suggested by the massacre of captured Taliban soldiers in northern Afghanistan in the fall of 1997, the retaliatory massacre of eight thousand or more ethnic minorities (especially Hazara) by the Taliban upon their military successes in north and central Afghanistan in August—November 1998, and the ethnic cleansing by Taliban forces north of Kabul during their July—September 1999 offensives. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan, like most of South Asia, has a long history of opium production, but the cultivation of opium poppies has increased tre- mendously since the beginning of the Afghan War, and local process- ing of heroin is entirely a post-1980 phenomenon. Afghanistan's Endless War
million addicts consumed some 55 tons of heroin, only i8 tons of which were produced domestically. Afghanistan's Endless War
The rest came from Afghanistan’s poppy fie1ds.~8 Afghanistan's Endless War
It is less clear who fostered the growth of the opium sector during the Afghan War, but it became a source of income for both the mujahideen (and now the Taliban) and those farmers whose regular means of livelihood were disrupted by the war.42 Afghanistan's Endless War
As we have seen, the Afghan War has brought about at least three major changes in Afghanistan’s socioeconomic and political institu- tions. Afghanistan's Endless War
IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 103 104 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY When this is coupled with the destruction of popu:lation and the physical infrastructure described in the preceding section, it becomes clear that Afghanistan is a country on the edge of collapse, or at least profound transformation. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan War’s comprehensive impact on Afghan society has put special pressure on the fragile ethnic and religious balance there. Afghanistan's Endless War
The structure and bases of support for thai movement empowered the Islamist factions among the Afghan resis- tance such that throughout the war the more “fundamentalist” groups and leaders (such as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and his Hezb-i-Islami fac- tion) received the most support, especially as Pakistan under Zia ul- Haq in the 198os was undergoing its own Islamization. Afghanistan's Endless War
By the fall of 1994, Afghanistan had been free of commun- ist rule for more than two years, but from almost the beginning of the post-Najibullah era, squabbling among contenders had degenerated into IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY bc io6 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY violence. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Pakistani government grew increasingly frustrated with the law- lessness and political instability of Afghanistan, which showed itself in the increased impact on Pakistan of both the narcotics traffic and Kal- ashnikovization, in the slow and incomplete repatriation of Afghan refugees from Pakistan, and in Afghanistan’s inability to develop trade routes to the emerging markets and primary resources of Central Asia. Afghanistan's Endless War
Given the resurgent regional aspirations of Iran and even Turkey in the post-USSR political environment that Afghanistan had helped to usher in, Pakistan felt compelled to attempt to stabilize the Afghan situation once and for all. Afghanistan's Endless War
If the relative youth of the Taliban leadership represents an impor- tant generational change in Afghan affairs, their origins also represent a change, but of a different sort. Afghanistan's Endless War
The key leaders of the Taliban (all of the Inner Shura and most of the Supreme Shura) are Kandahari Pushtuns, and many are Durranis, the tribal group of Afghanistan’s royal family and national leadership.55 Afghanistan's Endless War
The original core Taliban received religious instruction in rural madrasahs located in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)~ Baluchistan Province, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 107 io8 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY (FATA) of Pakistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Taliban first conducted an operation in Afghan- istan in October 1994, when they captured the southern border town of Spin Buldak and then “rescued” a Pakistani trade convoy near Kan- dahar. Afghanistan's Endless War
The next two factors in explaining the rise of the Taliban are interre- lated. Afghanistan's Endless War
These are their emphasis on religious piety and the war-weariness of the Afghan civilian population. Afghanistan's Endless War
Whether they were intended from the outset to be Pakistan’s militia in the ongoing Afghan civil war or were merely another recipient of Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI) largesse is not yet entirely clear. Afghanistan's Endless War
But their spectaculai rise quickly eliminated other possible clients for Pakistan, so that today they represent Pakistan’s only real client of significance in Afghanistan~ Of course, Afghan history is replete with examples of politically defunct leaders being resurrected to play new roles in national politics, often being restored to the throne by the very power that brought them down earlier. Afghanistan's Endless War
It is now known that the Taliban received significant Pakistani assistance from the very beginning, including help in recruitment and training, weapons and ammunition, logistical support, financial assistance, and even the direct involvement of Pakistani military intelligence officers and regular forces (firing across the border in support of the Taliban’s attack on Spin Bul- dak in October 1994).72 Afghanistan's Endless War
Thus, most of their foreign support is related in one way or another to that aspect of their program. Afghanistan's Endless War
Pakistan’s military assistance to the Tal- iban hs run the gamut, from direct involvement of their own forces in Afghanistan to the training of Taliban soldiers in Pakistan.s run the gamut, from direct involvement of their own forces in Afghanistan to the training of Taliban soldiers in Pakistan Afghanistan's Endless War
Perhaps of even greater significance, Pakistan has been the primary recruiter for the Taliban, to the point that today the move- ment’s rank-and-file soldiers include more than ten thousand Pakista- nis.~~ Afghanistan's Endless War
A notable Pakistani example of such an actor is the transport “mafia” centered in Quetta, which provided financial support (through both customs duties and special collections prior to major offensives) and much of the initial impetus for the rise of the Taliban.82 Afghanistan's Endless War
Arab terrorist financier Osama bin Laden, US oil company Union Oil Company of California (Unocal),83 and Pakistani and Afghan drug barons are or have been other important private actors in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Many of the organizations just mentioned have contributed mone- tary aid to the Taliban in addition to whatever other support they provided, but there are also private individuals and nongovernmental actors who have contributed only money to the Taliban cause. Afghanistan's Endless War
Since 1994, Pakistan has, in numerous ways and through numerous actors, fostered the rise of the Taliban militia to power in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
The rise of the Taliban to power may be somewhat artificial, and thus their appearance on the Afghan stage may be transitory, precisely because key elements are missing that could make their role more nat- ural and permanent. Afghanistan's Endless War
They are a mixture of former small-unit military commanders and madrasah teachers. Afghanistan's Endless War
Prior to that decree, the Taliban maintained that they were merely an interim government, holding power only until the Afghan people could have the opportunity to select a permanent gov- ernment. Afghanistan's Endless War
Their formal military structure was somewhat loose at first,~~ and as late as 1997 Taliban leaders seemed to IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 117 118 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY divide their time between a nominal ministerial and/or shura role and a more serious combat duty. Afghanistan's Endless War
As essentially a tribal militia engaged in a military struggle that now finds itself at the helm of a government, the Taliban devote most of their attention to waging the war. Afghanistan's Endless War
Numerous Taliban edicts address this area of women’s lives and collectively provide the greatest impact on their standard of living. Afghanistan's Endless War
Under the Taliban women have also been denied access to adequate health care. Afghanistan's Endless War
The transformation of the position of women in Afghanistan over the last two decades of the twentieth century is an excellent illustration of the profound changes that have occurred in Afghan society during that period. Afghanistan's Endless War
Other notable social policies target urban men and also provide indicators of the Taliban’s intent to Islamize Afghan society. Afghanistan's Endless War
Growing frustration with the Taliban restrictions, especially on women, has led many international relief and reconstruction organi- zations to close their Afghan operations or to consider doing so.”4 Afghanistan's Endless War
The disagreement between the Taliban and foreign aid organizations came to a head in July 1998, when the Taliban ordered all foreign NGOs in Kabul to close their operations and leave, nominally over their refusal to be relocated to a dilapidated dormitory in Kabul.”~ Afghanistan's Endless War
All foreign relief personnel, including those with UN agencies, were evacuated after American cruise missile strikes against Afghanistan on August 20, 1998, led to the killing of a UN military adviser in Kabul. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Taliban have complained that they can do little to rebuild Afghanistan so long as the fighting continues and outside powers fail to recognize their government. Afghanistan's Endless War
They do have revenue, but it appears to be spent primarily on the continuation of their military struggle. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Taliban hope to revive their moribund economy through tradi- tional rentier means. Afghanistan's Endless War
Their hope is to acquire international recognition so that the Central Asia Gas Pipeline Ltd. Afghanistan's Endless War
Popular opinion of the Taliban among Afghans today depends on IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 123 124 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY whom you ask. Afghanistan's Endless War
Nonetheless, even those who respect them recognize that the Taliban are incapable of governing the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Taliban leaders are too inexperienced and uneducated in government and politics to rule effec- tively, and they may be too committed to their ideology to compro- mise. Afghanistan's Endless War
Third, the Taliban have capped a thirty-year movement to Islamize IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 125 126 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY Afghan society and, in the process, introduced generational change into the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
The significance of this generational change must be emphasized. Afghanistan's Endless War
In addition, three facets of this regional-international environment may prove especially significant to the Taliban movement. Afghanistan's Endless War
Much attention has been paid to the effects that Afghanistan’s long conflict has had on the country’s demographic profile, physical infra- structure, and political-economic development.129 Afghanistan's Endless War
Intellectuals were targeted by the Soviets and Afghan communists in the early years of the war, and the subsequent destruction and dispersion of this tiny group dealt a blow to Afghanistan’s educational system from which it has yet to recover.’32 Afghanistan's Endless War
An important caveat must be introduced here. Afghanistan's Endless War
The attack on the Afghan educational system, first by the commu- nists and later by the Islamists, has led to curriculum changes, school closings, a decline in teacher quality, and a host of other ills that have combined to lower literacy rates in Afghanistan, especially among females. Afghanistan's Endless War
Indigenous publishing is IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY 129 130 IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY virtually nonexistent today. Afghanistan's Endless War
reas calling for uprising against the Afghan commnists and their Soviet comrades and were instrumental in provoking, for example, the bloody February 1980 riots in Kabu1.’~6nists and their Soviet comrades and were instrumental in provoking, for example, the bloody February 1980 riots in Kabu1.’~ Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan is a country that has been severely damaged by its pro- tracted war. Afghanistan's Endless War
That damage has been most apparent in its physical and property manifestations, but it extends into every corner of national life and has had a profound effect on Afghan society and culture. Afghanistan's Endless War
Yet there are some who do not see the destruction and decay as all bad. Afghanistan's Endless War
A linchpin In this chapter I examine the regional environment in which Afghan- Regional Environment 133 134 THE CHANGING REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT The most significant post—Cold War change in Afghanistan’s neighbor- hood has occurred in Central Asia. Afghanistan's Endless War
The very existence of the five new Central Asian states (Kazakhstan and THE END OF THE COLD WAR AND THE NEW CENTRAL ASIA MAP 5.1 Afghanistan's Endless War
Pakistan is also extremely interested in Turkmenistan’s gas reserves, and this may well be a decisive factor in shaping Pakistan’s policy toward Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
First, the Afghan War has provided superpowers, regional powers, and small neighboring countries alike the opportunity to engage in geostrategic maneuvering in the region. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan War began as a peasant rebellion; it could not have grown larger and continued without substantial support to both sides from outside actors. Afghanistan's Endless War
The involvement and influence of actors has changed over time. Afghanistan's Endless War
The most important of au the outside actors was the Soviet Union, which propped up the Afghan communist government directly and indirectly from 1978 to 1992 and averaged 150,000 troops in Afghanistan THE INFLUENCE OF OUTSIDE ACTORS ON AFGHANISTAN from 1980 to 1989. Afghanistan's Endless War
Pakistan, too, has had a critical influence on the conflict by providing sanctuary for over four million Afghan refugees and sup- port for the mujahideen in the 198os and early 199os, and more recently by aiding the Taliban. Afghanistan's Endless War
More recently, however, Iran has actively backed the northern Afghan minority groups in their struggle against the Taliban. Afghanistan's Endless War
China provided weapons and training to the mujahideen and diplo- matic support for Pakistan during the Soviet phase of the Afghan War. Afghanistan's Endless War
Many other states provided some assistance to either the Afghan refugees, the mujahideen (or now Taliban), or the Pakistani government in connection with the Afghan crisis during the 198os; these included the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Belgium, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Italy, Kuwait, the Sudan, Canada, Aus- tralia, South Korea, and Japan. Afghanistan's Endless War
In particular, Egypt provided weapons and training for the mujahideen early in the Afghan War. Afghanistan's Endless War
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, former Soviet republics including Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine have also become embroiled in the Afghan conflict, pri- marily through military assistance or arms sales to various factions. Afghanistan's Endless War
Many other international and nongovernmental organizations have also been involved with the Afghan refugees and mujahideen in various ways. Afghanistan's Endless War
Looking more closely at the military and economic assistance pro- vided by the first of three important outside actors—the USSR, Paki- stan, and the United States—we have already seen that during stages two through five of the Afghan War the USSR was heavily committed in Afghanistan militarily, economically, politically, and diplomatically. Afghanistan's Endless War
During the 198os the USSR dom- inated the Afghan economy so thoroughly that observers referred to the process as the “Sovietization” of the Afghan economy. Afghanistan's Endless War
By 1984, Soviet-Afghan trade was worth $i.i Afghanistan's Endless War
billion, which represented 70—80 percent of all Afghan trade.’6 Afghanistan's Endless War
From 1986 to 1989, numerous Afghan provinces signed individ- ual agreements with Soviet republics and lower administrative units. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Soviet Union was the Kabul government’s closest friend during the 198os and early 199Os. Afghanistan's Endless War
Pakistan played an important role as an outside actor beyond its position as host to four million Afghan refugees. Afghanistan's Endless War
They were then moved to mujahideen party arms depots near the Afghan border.~° Afghanistan's Endless War
diers or drug traffickers, were sold in the arms bazaars of the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas I (FATA), or were stockpiled for later use.32 Afghanistan's Endless War
Although US commitment to humanitarian assistance for the Afghan refugees was solid from the beginning, US policy over military aid to the mujahideen took longer to develop. Afghanistan's Endless War
For a combination of reasons, some of which are still unclear, the CIA was slow to involve the US in provid- ing meaningful levels of support to the Afghan rebels. Afghanistan's Endless War
billion aid package (50 percent military and 50 percent economic) over six years beginning in October souRcEs: Robert Pear, “Arming Afghan Guerrillas: A Huge Effort Led by US?’ New York Times, i8 April 1988; David B. Ottaway, “US Widens Arms Shipments to Bolster Afghan Guerrillas?’ Washington Post, 21 September 1987; Ottaway, “Soviets, Afghan Rebels Pressure US or~Arms?’ Washington Post, 2 October 1988; Carl Bernstein, “Arms for Afghanistan?’ New Republic, 18 July 1981, 8—10; Henry S. Bradsher, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, 1985, 277—278; interview with Theodore Mataxis, field director, Committee for a Free Afghanistan, December 1989. Afghanistan's Endless War
TABLE 5.2. Afghanistan's Endless War
The three major outside actors during the 1980s (Pakistan supported by the US against the USSR) fought each other indirectly over Afghan- istan, which provided the arena for their struggle. Afghanistan's Endless War
In the process, the USSR became embroiled in a major war in Afghanistan that destroyed the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Soviet Union used a full military occupation of Afghanistan, in conjunction with its political dominance over and overwhelmingly close economic rela- tionship with the Kabul government, to project its influence south toward the warm waters of the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf. Afghanistan's Endless War
With the Soviet withdrawal in 1989, the United States lost interest in Afghanistan, and American aid rapidly dried up. Afghanistan's Endless War
The second major way in which outside actors have influenced Afghanistan has been through the response of numerous states and several hundred nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to the human- itarian crisis caused by the protracted Afghan War. Afghanistan's Endless War
This crisis was most consistently apparent in the Afghan refugee diaspora. Afghanistan's Endless War
million registered Afghan refugees, but there were so many unregistered refugees that this num- ber was probably io to 20 percent too low.~~ Afghanistan's Endless War
million Afghan refugees in Iran, the second largest refugee population in the world. Afghanistan's Endless War
At its peak, Afghanistan’s combined international refugee popula- tion far exceeded any other group of refugees; indeed, in 1990 almost 42 percent of all refugees in the world were Afghan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Because this was done primarily through Pakistan, the following dis- cussion of humanitarian assistance focuses on that country and the Afghan refugees there. Afghanistan's Endless War
Today 1.2 Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghan refugees in Pakistan came from every province and ethnic group in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Villages in Afghanistan often numbered no more than ioo families, whereas refugee camps in Pakistan averaged more than i,ooo families, with 7,000 to io,ooo people per camp.56 Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan population in the refugee camps comprised 24 percent men, 28 percent women, and 48 percent children.~8 Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghan refugees received tents, some materials for the construction of mud dwellings, some clothing, cash maintenance allowances ($3.00 Afghanistan's Endless War
Pakistan assumed an enormous burden in caring for the Afghan refugees, but its efforts were bolstered by substantial outside aid. Afghanistan's Endless War
In 1987 the overall daily expenditure for the upkeep of 3 million Afghan refugees was $1.13 Afghanistan's Endless War
Although a surface examination of the relief effort emphasizes its multilateral characteristics, the United States provided a substantial portion of the funding, for it saw the Afghan crisis of the early 1980s as a golden opportunity to sting the Soviet Union at little cost to itself. Afghanistan's Endless War
From 1980 through 1987, US contri- butions to Afghan relief totaled $534.8 Afghanistan's Endless War
Because the Afghan refugees provided the basis of the Afghan resis- tance movement, the international humanitarian assistance program to the refugees had the additional consequence of making the continued war possible during the 198os. Afghanistan's Endless War
Participation in the economic life of Pakistan and resi- dence in refugee villages were widely understood to be temporary mea- sures for most Afghan refugees. Afghanistan's Endless War
Faced with the variety of challenges discussed earlier, some of which come out of Afghanistan, the newly emergent countries of Central Asia have been drawn into Afghan affairs. Afghanistan's Endless War
Their primary mode of involvement has been through providing support for factions involved in the Afghan fight- ing, although both Tajikistan government troops and Russian forces in Tajikistan have fought into northeastern Afghanistan, where opposition elements in the Tajikistan civil war periodically took refuge during the early and mid-199os. Afghanistan's Endless War
Subnational organizations have also become increasingly involved in Afghanistan in the last few years. Afghanistan's Endless War
Certainly, many of the Pushtun officers involved in crafting the ISI’s Afghanistan policy would favor having a friendly, Pushtun-led gov- ernment in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
In 1998 he allegedly supplied significant financial support for the successful Tal- iban offensive in northern Afghanista~, following his marriage to a daughter of Mullah Omar’s. Afghanistan's Endless War
In sum, numerous outside actors have shaped previously isolated Afghanistan over the past two decades. Afghanistan's Endless War
Without them, the Afghan War could never have occurred and been maintained at such high intensity for so long. Afghanistan's Endless War
Several mechanisms promoted its development, but especially important was Pakistan’s willingness to have its territory used as a staging, training, and supply area for the mujahideen. Afghanistan's Endless War
For the majority Pushtun tribes, there were strong ethnic relationships with the Pakistani Pushtuns. Afghanistan's Endless War
Peshawar has been a Pushtun city for centuries, and it naturally became the focal point of the resistance leadership. Afghanistan's Endless War
Not only was Pakistan the logical choice for most Afghan refugees by virtue of its proximity and cross-border ethnic ties with Afghanistan’s Pushtun population, but it was also made invit- ing by Pakistan’s Zia ul-Haq, who hoped to use the refugee-mujahideen population to pursue several interlocking foreign policy goals. Afghanistan's Endless War
Thus, in the 198os Pakistan became home to the world’s greatest refugee population and, correspondingly, patron to the world’s greatest refugee-based insurgency.~° Afghanistan's Endless War
These problems were rectified in the Afghan- Soviet War. Afghanistan's Endless War
Most telling of all was the Kurdish case of the mid-197os. Afghanistan's Endless War
Without infusions of weapons, ammunition, and other necessary items, the Afghan factions would be unable to continue to fight, at least with any great intensity. Afghanistan's Endless War
Since 1992, outside support has remained critical to the continuation of the war in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
First, the overlapping of ethnolinguistic and religious identity groups, permeable national borders, and weak state governments throughout the region make possible ongoing ethnic con- flict. Afghanistan's Endless War
Most of those consequences are related to Pakistan’s past role as host to the largest segment of the Afghan diaspora and its contin- ued role as power broker to competing groups within Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan refugees ruptured the flimsy social fabric of Pakistan and directly contributed to the Kalashnikovization of the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
A complex interplay of Pakistani Islamist organizations and institutions gave rise to the Ta!- Afghanistan's Endless War
The new militancy and vibrancy of Islamism in Pakistan has been most pronounced in the Pushtun areas that lie along the Afghan bor- der, especially in the FATA. Afghanistan's Endless War
This campaign reached an especially dangerous level in August 1999, when Maulana Fazlur Rehman, leader of the JUT, threatened to harm Americans in Pakistan if the US attacked Osama bin Laden. Afghanistan's Endless War
Iran, too, has aspirations toward Central Asia. Afghanistan's Endless War
million Uzbeks, while adjacent Uzbekistan has nearly 15 million, and the same international border divides nearly 4 million Afghan Tajiks from nearly 5 million of their cousins in Tajikistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
So far the war and the activities it has promoted, such as arms trafficking and drug smuggling, have been the primary ways in which Afghanistan and its neighbors have influenced each other. Afghanistan's Endless War
That prominence came at a tremendous cost in death, destruc- tion, and despair, affecting every Afghan and impinging deeply upon the national psyche. Afghanistan's Endless War
Never a strong state, Afghanistan was weakened to the point of governmental collapse and national fragmentation by the long war.2 Afghanistan's Endless War
In addition to the widespread physical destruction it produced, the war altered and transformed Afghanistan, adding some new factors to the traditional divisions present there. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan today is a country suffering from severe state failure. Afghanistan's Endless War
The destruction of the institutions and authority of the central government, constructed only with great difficulty over the last century, and the rise of an altered society—or the resurgence of traditional rural society8—have created a situation of great fluidity in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghans are now basing their identity on qawm and/or ethnicity, and Afghan national identity has become essentially a barren concept. Afghanistan's Endless War
As Afghanistan’s protracted war has dragged on and the qawm has reemerged as the basis for identity and governance, conflict has occurred increasingly along ethnolinguistic and sectarian lines. Afghanistan's Endless War
Obviously, the Afghan state cannot reassert itself, nor can there begin to be a reintegration of the Afghan nation, so long as various eth- nic militias refuse to cede control over their local areas to a national government run (at least in part) by members of another ethnolinguis- tic, religious, or ideological group. Afghanistan's Endless War
Regardless of what agreements major powers may broker in Afghanistan, no ceasefire is likely to hold for long, because the Afghan fighters are too independent to be controlled even by their own leaders. Afghanistan's Endless War
In the short run, legitimacy might also be claimed by a charismatic ruler, but there is no individual political actor currently on the Afghan scene who is acceptable to everyone who possesses substantial personal cha- risma. Afghanistan's Endless War
Halting the fighting would slow or even stop the process of national fragmentation, but it would not by itself provide the basis for reinte- gration in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Again, this can be achieved only if outside actors pressure their Afghan clients to adopt a view of Afghan politics as a variable-sum game. Afghanistan's Endless War
In short, a legitimate Afghan government must implement policies that revitalize economic and social life there and return Afghanistan to normalcy. Afghanistan's Endless War
As with the other two requirements for reintegration, the key to re- creating normal conditions in Afghanistan is the role of outside actors. Afghanistan's Endless War
Most of the region wants a peaceful and stable Afghanistan, but to achieve the long-term stability that accompanies reintegration, these actors must not only cut off their Afghan client militias but also provide them with positive inducements for reintegration as well. Afghanistan's Endless War
Achieving the three conditions for reintegration of the Afghan state will be extremely difficult under current circumstances. Afghanistan's Endless War
It is difficult to imagine a short-term future in Afghanistan that does not involve continued fighting among various contenders for power. Afghanistan's Endless War
Since the Afghan conflict i”noved into its Taliban phase, a clear pattern of conflictual and cooperative behavior has emerged. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Taliban are essentially a Pushtun group and are unpopular out- side of the Pushtun areas. Afghanistan's Endless War
Continued outside support for Afghan proxies is essential for either the disintegration or the fragmentation scenario to occur. Afghanistan's Endless War
Hence, the recent renewal of American and UN interest in resolving the Afghan conflict has been based on two important elements for success. Afghanistan's Endless War
Thus, the outside actors continue to arm their Afghan proxies in order to maintain enough battlefield parity to deny their opponents victory, while the ruggedness of the terrain and the long military experience of the combatants make outright victory elusive. Afghanistan's Endless War
The continued fragmentation scenario is similar to the national disintegra- tion scenario in that it, too, emphasizes the autonomy of various por- tions of the country at the expense of Kabul. Afghanistan's Endless War
Thus, it is worth considering under what conditions Afghan- istan could be made whole again, under either a Taliban government that controlled a peaceful country or a broad-based government built on local community autonomy. Afghanistan's Endless War
Every major Afghan leader has had to face this threat, especially given the widespread availability of weapons and general situation of strife in the country. Afghanistan's Endless War
Throughout the 1990S the prospects for this scenario were always dismal, but recent changes in the geopolitical framework in which Afghanistan exists may have given the scenario life at last. Afghanistan's Endless War
Second, and thought by most people to be possible only if the first change were to occur, neigh- boring countries would have to agree to a “negative symmetry” arrange- ment in supplying arms to their respective Afghan clients. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Ashkhabad negotiations had the full backing o~ the United States, as did the subsequent Tashkent meeting. Afghanistan's Endless War
Failure to put Afghanistan back together again may delay development in these regions for years to come and will certainly mean decades of continued neglect for Afghan- istan. Afghanistan's Endless War
• Drawing to a close, it is perhaps worthwhile to consider Afghanistan in a broader context. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Afghan case suggests that certain characteristics of weak states are especially important in explaining their propensity for various state failure dysfunctions, including political disintegration, fragmentation, and collapse, or government failure even as the state and society con- tinue to exist and even appear to function (as, for example, in Kenya and Nigeria at present). Afghanistan's Endless War
The variable of state strength can be divided into two subvariables: political institutionalization and political pene- tration. Afghanistan's Endless War
First, I hypothesize that the stronger the state, the less likely is its probability of state failure. Afghanistan's Endless War
What will be the future of Afghanistan? The Afghan experience since 1978 demonstrates that war and political violence can be extremely harmful to national development, even leading to the disintegration of the state. Afghanistan's Endless War
More than two centuries of slow and painful progress toward THE FUTURE OF AFGHANISTAN 187 188 THE FUTURE OF AFGHANISTAN the development of a viable Afghan state that was an important part of Afghan society were destroyed in just a few years of intense conflict. Afghanistan's Endless War
It is unclear how this damage will be repaired. Afghanistan's Endless War
Harakat-i Inqilab-i Islami (Movement of the Islamic Revolution). Afghanistan's Endless War
It acquired a large following in the early 198os, especially in the south and among madrasah teachers and students. Afghanistan's Endless War
Hezb-i-Islami (Islamic Party, Hekmatyar faction). Afghanistan's Endless War
191MAJOR ACTORS IN MODERN AFGHAN HISTORY 192 APPENDIX Amin, Hafizullah (1929—1979). Afghanistan's Endless War
Khalqi communist president of Afghan- istan in late 1979, he was assassinated by Soviet special forces during the 1979 Soviet Christmas invasion. Afghanistan's Endless War
Daoud, Mohammad (1909—1973). Afghanistan's Endless War
INDIVIDUALS Mojaddidi, Sibghatullah. Afghanistan's Endless War
He is a Pushtun who has often been a com- promise choice as leader of the squabbling mujahideen governments. Afghanistan's Endless War
i, February 1992, ~ Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan (New Haven, CT: Yale Univer- sity Press, 1995); and Rubin, “The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghan- istan:’ Online Center for Afghan Studies, www.afghan-politics.org, Afghanistan's Endless War
See among others, Richard S. Newell and Nancy Peabody Newell, The NOTES 195 196 NOTES 1987); P. J. O’Rourke, “Bizarre Bazaar,” Rolling Stone, 20 April 1989, 87—92, 109; and Robert D. Kaplan, Soldiers of God (Boston: Houghton Muffin, 1990). Afghanistan's Endless War
Quddus, Pathans, 101.23. Afghanistan's Endless War
38. Afghanistan's Endless War
Ibid.; Afghanistan's Endless War
65. Afghanistan's Endless War
Rosanne Klass, “Afghanistan: The Accords,” Foreign Affairs 66, no. Afghanistan's Endless War
86. Afghanistan's Endless War
96. Afghanistan's Endless War
The splintering of the Afghan resistance movement is best documented Amstutz, Afghanistan: The First Five Years, 13o; Bradsher, Afghanistan and Newell and Newell, Struggle for Afgha’nistan, 86. Afghanistan's Endless War
Bradsher, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, 163—164, 178; Kakar, Afghan-17. Afghanistan's Endless War
US Committee for Refugees, World Refugee Survey, 1991. Afghanistan's Endless War
Abdur Rashid, “The Afghan Resistance: Its Background, Its Nature, and31. Afghanistan's Endless War
47. Afghanistan's Endless War
See Rubin, Fragmentation of Afghanistan, 132—134. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan Report, nos. Afghanistan's Endless War
53. Afghanistan's Endless War
76. Afghanistan's Endless War
79. Afghanistan's Endless War
87. Afghanistan's Endless War
89. Afghanistan's Endless War
CHAPTER 4. Afghanistan's Endless War
IMPACT OF THE WAR ON AFGHAN STATE AND SOCIETY Several journalists with experience covering the Vietnam War told me ini. Afghanistan's Endless War
22. Afghanistan's Endless War
32. Afghanistan's Endless War
40. Afghanistan's Endless War
Marvin G. Weinbaum, “The Politics of Afghan Resettlement and Reha- Interviews in Herat and Kabul, Afghanistan, and Peshawar, Pakistan, July Isby, Russia’s War in Afghanistan; Urban, War in Afghanistan, 1991. Afghanistan's Endless War
Weinbaum, “Politics of Afghan Resettlement.” Afghanistan's Endless War
57. Afghanistan's Endless War
Davis, “How the Taliban Became a Military Force,” 43—54.71. Afghanistan's Endless War
74. Afghanistan's Endless War
92. Afghanistan's Endless War
125. Afghanistan's Endless War
Also see Nake M. Kamrany, The Six Stages in the Sovietization of Afghanistan (Boulder, CO: Economic Institute for Research and Education, 1983); and Alam Payind, “Soviet-Afghan Relations from Cooperation to Occupation,” Interna- tional Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 21, 1989, 107—128. Afghanistan's Endless War
27. Afghanistan's Endless War
29. Afghanistan's Endless War
37. Afghanistan's Endless War
The direct involvement of Pakistani “volunteers” in combat in Afghani- The Military Balance 198 9—199o (London: International Institute for Stra- Bradsher, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union; Girardet, Afghanistan: The For example, I interviewed a mujahid instructor near Chitral in June Girardet, Afghanistan: The Soviet War; Yousaf and Atkin, Bear Trap; I observed the transport and unloading of weapons in Peshawar, Kurram Major arms depots included sites I visited or learned of near Chitral, Pesh- Numerous sources report the leakage and diversion of weapons: for Girardet, “Corrupt Officials Reap Spoils”; Rupert, “Afghanistan: New Bradsher, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, 277; Carl Bernstein, “Arms Pear, “Arming Afghan Guerrillas.” Afghanistan's Endless War
51. Afghanistan's Endless War
54. Afghanistan's Endless War
6o. Afghanistan's Endless War
6i. Afghanistan's Endless War
69. Afghanistan's Endless War
70. Afghanistan's Endless War
82. Afghanistan's Endless War
See Tim Weiner, “Blowback from the Afghan Battlefield:’ New York Time591. Afghanistan's Endless War
A Pushtun tribe located in eastern Afghanistan and near Peshawar, Pakistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
First published in 1900. Afghanistan's Endless War
References Cited 237 238 REFERENCES CITED _____• The New Great Game in Muslim Central Asia. Afghanistan's Endless War
Asghar, Raja. Afghanistan's Endless War
missionerate for Afghan Refugees, 15 February 1987. Afghanistan's Endless War
Chief Commissioner for Afghan Refugees, Government of Banuazizi, Ali, and Myron Weiner, eds. The New Geopolitics of Central Asia and Its Borderlands. Afghanistan's Endless War
Dupree, Louis. Afghanistan's Endless War
Edwards, Mike. Afghanistan's Endless War
Dubuque, IA: Wm. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Fall of Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
“Afghan War Spillover into Pakistan?’ Frontier Review 1, no. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan: The Soviet War. Afghanistan's Endless War
in Ibrahim Arafat, ed., Afghanistan's Endless War
Gunston, John. Afghanistan's Endless War
“Periodicity and Intensity in the Afghan War.” Afghanistan's Endless War
Paper pre- “Refugee-Based Insurgency: The Afghan Case.” Afghanistan's Endless War
“Pak-Afghan Drug Trade in Historical Perspective.” Afghanistan's Endless War
Harrison, Seig S. “Inside the Afghan Talks?’ Foreign Policy 72, Fall 1988, 31—60. Afghanistan's Endless War
Hauner, Milan, and Robert L. Canfield, eds. Afghanistan and the Soviet Union: Heathcote, T. A. The Afghan Wars. Afghanistan's Endless War
Jones, Allen K. Afghan Refugees: Five Years Later. Afghanistan's Endless War
Kakar, Hasan Kawun. Afghanistan's Endless War
London: Pan Books, 1987. Afghanistan's Endless War
Mechám, Michael. Afghanistan's Endless War
Merriam, John G. “Arms Shipments to the Afghan Resistance.” Afghanistan's Endless War
Moshref, Rameen. Afghanistan's Endless War
“Long-Term Soviet Economic Interests and Policies in Afghanistan.” Afghanistan's Endless War
Ottaway, David B. “Soviets, Afghan Rebels Pressure US on Arms.” Afghanistan's Endless War
_____ “US Widens Arms Shipments to Bolster Afghan Guerrillas.” Afghanistan's Endless War
Pakistan, Chief Commissioner for Afghan Refugees. Afghanistan's Endless War
Islamabad: Humanitarian Assistance Programme for Afghan Refugees in Pakistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Chief Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees, July 1984. Afghanistan's Endless War
Pear, Robert. Afghanistan's Endless War
“The Afghan Resistance: Its Background, Its Nature, and the Problem of Unity?’ In Rosanne Klass, ed., Afghanistan's Endless War
“Back with a Vengeance: Proxy \~~ar in Afghanistan?’ The World Today, March 1996, 60—63. Afghanistan's Endless War
Rashid, Ahmed. Afghanistan's Endless War
February 1994. Afghanistan's Endless War
Found at Online Center for Afghan Studies, www.afghan-politics.org. Afghanistan's Endless War
“Afghan Rivals Said to Agree on Gas Pipeline Plan.” Afghanistan's Endless War
London: Robert Hale, 1962. Afghanistan's Endless War
2, October 1988. Afghanistan's Endless War
Asian Survey 31, no. Afghanistan's Endless War
Peshawar, Pakistan: Afghan Refugee Commissionerate, January 1987, December 1985. Afghanistan's Endless War
See also Soviet Union, invasion/occupation of Afghanistan Iran: Afghan exile parties, 63, 75, 147; Afghan refugees, 60—61, 148, 149, 156—57; anti-Taliban aid, 8o, 81, 141, 165; gas pipeline, 138; post—Cold War opportunities, 139; Soviet incur- sions, 68; Taliban relations, 77, 8o, 83, 112, 165 Iraq, 156, 158 Islam: Afghan tradition, 12, 17—19; regional resurgence, 135, 160; Russian Revolution and, 40, 41—42. Afghanistan's Endless War
See also rubbleization tactics Inpex, 138 intelligentsia, losses, 128—29 Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (151), Pakistan, 6i, 112, 144, 153—54 invasion history: Basmachi-Soviet conflict, 44—45; imperial, 34, 37—38; pre-imperial, 23—27, 29. Afghanistan's Endless War
See also Taliban movement Islamabad Accord, 74 Islam Qala, 83 Islam Renaissance Party, i6o Ismail Khan, 62, 75, 77, 84 Itochu Corporation, 138 Ittehad-i-Islami Bara-yi Azadi Afghanistan, 62, 76, 148 Jaji, Soviet fighting, 65 Jalalabad: civil war period, 70, 75, 76; Soviet-mujahideen fighting, 57, 59; Taliban control, 78 Jamiat-i-Islami, 61—62, 148, 154, i6i Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islami, io8, 113, 154, 161 Japan, 138 Jebha-i-Milli Nejat, 62 jirga system: Alexander’s response, 25; role of, i6, i~ war impact, 98 Kabul: civil war fighting, 72,73,74—76,95, 118; economic activity, 122; night let- ters, 13o; Soviet-mujahideen fighting, 59, 6~ Taliban control, 77, 78, 110, 117 Kabul Museum, 130 “Kalashnikovization,” 97, 99—100, 103, 131, 144—45, i6o Kandahar: bombing by Soviets, 6~ civil war period, 72, 75, 95; economic activity, 122; opium cultivation, 1o2; Soviet-mujahideen fighting, 59; Taliban control, 77, 110 Kaplan, Robert, ii, 183 Karmal, Babrak, 55, 58, 67 Kazakhs, 135, 136 Kazakhstan, 134—37 Kerala village massacre, 57 Khalidi, Noor Ahmed, 93 Khalili, Karim, 77, 78, 86 Khalili, Khalilallah, 129 Khalis, Maulavi Yunus, 62 Khalq faction, 52, 55, 63, 107, 112—13 Khalq government: coup d’etat, 52—53, 55; rebellion beginnings, 56—57; reforn~’po1icies, 55—56; Soviet support/control, 57—58 khans: authority, 17—18, 19~ war impact, 97—98 khels, defined, 14 Khiva, Soviet conflict, 41—43 Khokand, Soviet conflict, 41 khols, defined, 14 Khost: civil war fighting, 72; Soviet- mujahideen fighting, 65, 66 Kipling, Rudyard, 27 kors, defined, 14 Kunar province: Kerala village mas- sacre, 57; opium cultivation, io2; resistance beginnings, ~6 Kunduz: Massoud-Dostam rivalry, 75; Taliban fighting, 78, 81, 82 Kurdish rebellion (1975), 158 Kyrgystan, 135—37 land reform, 97—98 Lashkargah, 77 Lenin, Vladimir, 41, 46 life expectancy, 89—90, 120 literacy levels, 128—29 literature, 129—30 Mahaz-i-Milli Islami-yi Afghanistan, 62—63, 75 Majrooh, Sayed Bahouddin, 129 Maley, William, io8 Malik, Abdul, 78, 79, 84, 86 maliks, traditional role, 18, 19 Masher, Mullah, 118 massacres: civilian-led, 78; as conflict justification, 8i, 86—87, 100, 124—25, 132; Iranian diplomats, 8o, 165; listed, 175; Soviet-led, 57; Taliban-led, 77, 79, 8o, 81, 120—21 Massoud, Ahmed Shah: acceptability as national leader, 171—72; Hekmatyar rivalry, 71, 72; international support, 8o, 81; Kabul fighting, 74—75, 76, 77; Northern Alliance formation, 78; INDEX 259 maternal mortality rates, 120 Mazari, Au, 77, 120 Mazar-i-Sharif: civil war period, 75, Mestiri, Mahmoud, 76, 142 “migratory genocide’ 61 military aid: cessation proposal, 171, military forces, Afghan: dissolution, mines, 5, 71, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96 Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue missiles: communist regime uses, 7o; Moghul empire, 26, 28 (map) Mohammad, Haji Din, 62 Mohammadi, Maulavi Mohammad Mohseni, Asif, 63 Mojaddidi, Sibghatullah, 62, 73, 77, mujahideen-led fighting: anti-Soviet, political party association, 62; Soviet conflicts, 38, 59, 64, 65, 66; Taliban fighting, 78, 79, 82, 84, 124—25, 159; viability, 85—86 78—80; Soviet-mujahideen fighting, 6o; Taliban fighting, 120 181—82; communist regime, 63, 70, 99; “Kalashnikovization” process from, 97, 99—100, 103, 131, 144—45; mujahideen, 6i, 68, 70, 99, 143—45; Pakistan from U.S., 146—47, 152—53; pre—coup d’etat, 47, 49, 51; role in maintaining civil war, 158—59; Tal- iban movement, 82—83, 84, 107, 111—13 100; modernization, 39—40, 51; mutinies, 57; tribal-based tradition, 36—39 and the Prevention of Vice (Amr bil- Maroof wa Nahi An il-Munkir), 117, 123 Gulf War use compared, 99; mujahideen uses, 65, 66, 68, 145, 146 Nabi, 62, 75 175—76 r 260 59—60, 64—68; civil war period, 70, 71—72, 74—76, 95, 105—6; faction rival- ries, 61—62, 69, 71, 72—73; origins, 56—57; Pakistan-based activities, 6i, 143—44. Afghanistan's Endless War
Bartered brides is a detailed study of marriage among the Maduzai, a tribal society in Afghan Turkistan. Bartered Brides
(Cambridge studies in social anthropology) 1. Bartered Brides
This book is a social anthropological analysis of marriage in an Afghan tribal society, drawing on both male and female perspectives, extended case studies, and historical and statistical materials. Bartered Brides
xvi The study is based on fieldwork done jointly with my husband, Richard Tapper(RLT), in the early 1 970s in Afghan Turkistan among the Maduzai, a sub- tribe of the Ishaqzai, one of the major tribes of the Durrani Pashtuns. Bartered Brides
The Maduzai live in Afghan Turkistan, a region which is ethnically very mixed and where members of many different tribal and language groups are in fierce competition for scarce resources. Bartered Brides
Much of the time, a woman’s interests coincide with those of the household in which she lives. Bartered Brides
Preface F Acknowledgements My debts to Richard Tapper (RLT) are limitless, ranging from the knowledge that, had I been alone, the Afghan Government would not have given me per- mission to do the kind of fieldwork on which this study is based (indeed the very fact that I was ‘accompanying’ RLT initially made official support more difficult to obtain); to the fact that an important part of the argument I present here depends on economic and other data which were collected and collated by RLT; and to his assistance in many, smaller matters, including the translation of German texts. Bartered Brides
Thanks are also due to the support we had from members of the Afghan Foreign Ministry, particularly Abdul Ghafur Rawan Farhadi. Bartered Brides
I also thank the many friends with whom we shared our Afghan experience: among them members of the British legation and of the French, German and British Institutes of Afghan Studies in Kabul, and particularly, Jon Anderson, Veronica Doubleday and John Baily, Micheline Centlivres-Demont and Pierre Centlivres, Nancy and the late Louis Dupree, M. Hasan Kakar (the first Afghan I ever met, who has only recently been released after seven years in an Afghan prison for supporting academic freedom in his country), Laurence LeBrun and Pierre Lacombe, Pribislav Pitoeff, Greta and Mark Slobin. Bartered Brides
Other Afghan friends and numerous people in Jouzjan and Faryab gave us assistance, but it would be inappropriate now to list their names; we remember them all with thanks. Bartered Brides
All men and nearly all women of the group were bilingual in Afghan Persian (Dari), the lingua franca of northern Afghanistan, and Pashtu, their mother tongue. Bartered Brides
We left the Maduzai in September 1972, never dreaming that we might not easily return again. Bartered Brides
The ethnogra- phy is specific and concerns a particular Afghan community. Bartered Brides
The western part of Afghan Turkistan, falling within the two provinces of Faryab 3 The regional background: the Durrani of Saripul and Jouzjan, is both fertile and ethnically diverse (see Map 2).’ Bartered Brides
In this respect the geography and the social milieux of Afghan Turkistan are of direct relevance to this study, but as the wider contexts of Durrani ethnicity and other questions of social identity have already been discussed by RLT (1983, 1984b, 1988 and forthcoming a and b)and myself(l979, 1982), my concern here is to describe social identity and ethnicity from the Durrani point of view and to relate these to the ideology and practices of marriage as found within the Maduzai subtribe. Bartered Brides
e steppe and sandy deserts of low elevation near the Soviet frontier, the land rises in bess hills southwards towards the Band-i Turkistan mountains, the northwest spur of the Hindu Kush, rising to nearly 3,500 m. Higher mountain chains lie further to the south in the provinces of Bamyan and Ghor.s and sandy deserts of low elevation near the Soviet frontier, the land rises in bess hills southwards towards the Band-i Turkistan mountains, the northwest spur of the Hindu Kush, rising to nearly 3,500 m. Higher mountain chains lie further to the south in the provinces of Bamyan and Ghor Bartered Brides
The Tajiks in western Afghan Turkistan appear to be a residual category of Persian-speakers with no other tribal or ethnic affiliations. Bartered Brides
Pashtun immigration to the north began on a large scale with the pacification of the area and its inclusion within a unified Afghan state under Amir Abd al-Rahman in the late l880s. Bartered Brides
The Amir was anxious to colonize the heavily depopulated and fertile tracts of Afghan Turkistan and the northwest, and also to bulwark the frontiers against possible incursions from Russia and Bokhara. Bartered Brides
The Nazarzai Khans conduct extensive pastoral activities, but base their power partly on control of immense areas of farmland and partly on privileges granted them by successive Afghan governments. Bartered Brides
Contexts Table 2. Bartered Brides
The traditional rivalry central to the history of the Afghan state, between the Durrani and the Ghilzai confederacy to the east, sharpened the boundary between Durrani and all other Pashtu-speakers, including Ghilzai, in such a way that ‘Pashtun’, for Pashtu-speakers themselves, is a category which often has limited cultural content. Bartered Brides
Pashtu-speakers commonly call themselves ‘Pashtun’, while speakers of other languages in Afghanistan almost always call them ‘Afghan’ (colloquially ‘Aughan’) and their language ‘Afghani’ (‘Aughani’). Bartered Brides
We were told, Social groups and marriage Now if a person is a long way from their tent, and if the women see that person from a long distance, they will put down the flaps of the tent from shame. Bartered Brides
People said that, though Toryaley’s household will not be forced to leave the subtnbe, nonetheless, even if Kaftar is recovered, the family has been ruined and may leave the area out of shame. Bartered Brides
In this respect these cases tell us a great deal about the nature of interethnic politics in Afghan Turkistan and the political role of marriage among Durrani themselves. Bartered Brides
Soon after the Maduzai had established a pastoral base in the area, Afzal Khan died and was succeeded as head of Lineage A and the Maduzai by his half- brother, Janshah. Bartered Brides
That is, he goes to live with his father-in-law (at which time the nikah marriage ceremony may be performed) and works for him over a period of years. Bartered Brides
The boy’s side should initiate a marriage do so if he is in dire economic circumstances, laugh; it is not an Afghan [Durrani] custom daughter.’ Bartered Brides
Whoever receives such a gift is obliged to return a small present — soap or a small piece of jewellery — at the time of the push (seep. Bartered Brides
The accepted sanction for incest, fornication and adultery (all of which are included in the single Islamic notion of zina) is death to both parties. Bartered Brides
Afghan family law recognizes this fundamental right of all Muslims, and, other things being equal, if a woman appears in court and states that a certain man is her husband, this will be officially recognized. Bartered Brides
The fierce competition between ethnic groups in Afghan Turkistan encourages Durrani, when considering relations among themselves, con- tinuously to shift perspective between the alternative values of hierarchy and equality. Bartered Brides
In this respect, the struc- ture and process of Maduzai marriage as I have described it can be understood in terms of the relation of population to resources as refracted through three further cultural biases: first, the ego-centred networks of kin and affines which derive from non-exogamous lineage organization; second, the fragmentation of land- holding which is associated with the rules of Islamic inheritance; and third, the tendency to social differentiation as expressed in marriages for bndeprice. Bartered Brides
It also depends on the ideology of patrilineal descent and its relation to both customary inheritance patterns and the actual constitution of political groups. Bartered Brides
In this respect, household autonomy is more apparent than real and the ideologically distinct unit of the ‘household’ owes its existence to external demographic, economic and political considerations. Bartered Brides
Other anthropological studies of Turkistan have been done by Davidov (1976), Dupaigne (1978), Rao (1988), Shalinsky (1979), Stucki (1978) and R. and M. Poulton (1979). Bartered Brides
Barfield has published a study of Arab nomads in the northeast (1981), while Azoy’s fascinating monograph on the game of buzkashi (1982) is relevant to many aspects of Afghan culture. Bartered Brides
However, I consider the constructed relation between tribes and the Afghan state (cf. Bartered Brides
1978. Bartered Brides
Afghan Turkistan’. Bartered Brides
‘Marriage preferences and ethnic relations among Durrani Pashtuns of Afghan Turkestan’. Bartered Brides
Forthcoming b. ‘Golden tent-pegs: settlement and change among nomads in Afghan Turkistan’. Bartered Brides
1984b. Bartered Brides
persons who helped him in preparing the manuscript for publication. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
INTRODUCTION V enlightened Afghans, and Afghans themselves are devel- oping new and interesting forms of social organization, cultural and ideological foci. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
of students, scholars, educators, government officials, businessmen, private and public agencies, and those who are personally interested in the history, society, and ethnic variety of Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
tan, “Land of the Afghan,” has an area of about 250, 000 square miles and a population of approxi- mately 16 million. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
80 00 00 10 50 50 70 F 4. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
BAKHTAR AFGHAN AIRLINES ALAQADARI. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
He died in 1901 A. D. and is buried in an elaborate tomb in Kabul. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The eastern and southern boundaries of Afghanistan (the Durrand Line) were unilaterally imposed on the Amir by the British AMIR AMANULLAH KHAN (1890-1960). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Son of Amir Colonial Government, and the Amir, more con- cerned with stability than with boundary demarcation, agreed--but conditionally. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The boundaries of modern Afghanistan are, to a large extent, the result of conditional agreements he signed with the governments of Colonial-British India, Iran, and Russia. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
His first term was interrupted by the first Anglo-Afghan War during which the British Colonialists in India installed Shah Shuja, a member of the Saddozai branch of the Durrani Dynasty, as the ruler of Afghanistan (1839-1842) for his second term. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
AMIR HABIBULLAH KHAN. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Son of Amir Abdul Khan, he AMIR AMIR SHER ALl KHAN. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A composite of archaeological sites (Aq AQCHA. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
In 1878, the British, under the pretense of ANJUMAN PASS see GEOGRAPHY (Central Highlands) AQ KUPRUK. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The third Anglo-Afghan War (1919) came 11 Anjuman Pass Arab ARAB. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A small ethnic group, primarily located in west ARBAB see MALIK ARCHAEOLOGY. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Although in architecture nothing orig- and northwest Afghanistan, which claims to be de - scended from the Muslim-Arabs who introduced Islam into Afghanistan in the 7th century A. D. however recent, has substantially increased our knowledge of Afghan pre -history and history. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The architecture of dwellings is generally 12 ARDEWAN PASS see PAROPAMISUS MOUNTAINS ARG. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
An abundant tributary of the Hel - ARGHASTAN RIVER. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
about 100 miles east of Qandahar, flows westward for about 170 miles. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
the Hindu Kush, this forest is the center of much of Afghanistan’s forestry production. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Industrial plants in the province are located 19 Baghlan Baihaqi BAIHAQI. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The domestic airline BAKTASH see RABIA BALKHI BALA HISSAR. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
chalcolithic sites dating from the fourth to the first millennia B. C. have been excavated in Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
city and townsmen in the cold season. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
province of Fariab is the home of most of the best buzkashi horsemen. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
See also GAMES AND SPORTS. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Nancy Dupree has been of much help to the Afghan Tourist Organization in the agency’s efforts to stimulate tourism throughout Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
See also QAYYUM, NAWABZADA ABDUL. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
They belong to the sunni sect of Islam. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Jews: large cities. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Be - low the black strip is the red color (symbolizing the valor and the sacrifices of the people of At ghan- istan) which appears in the same proportion as the black strip. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
nects Kabul with the Afghan-Russian border port of Qizil Qala on the Amu Darya. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
the Afghan provinces. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
59 History History 60 depictions of the great deeds of the ancient kings. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
IMAM. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
JESHN (CELEBRATION OF AFGHAN INDEPENDENCE). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Jam Minaret65 I Jews 66 JEWS see ETHNIC GROUPS JINN. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
It extends from the Amu Darya in the north to the Hindu Kush in the south. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The museum also has extensive ethnographic displays depicting the variety of ethnic and cultural tradi- tions in Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
to the poor during the ceremonies and parties at the various post-burial ceremonies. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Afghan historian, known primarily for a definitive historic work which he completed during the late 1960s. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Along its 200-mile flow, it provides the necessary water for several im- portant agricultural areas, especially near Zebak and Faizabad. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Kush west of Chitral. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Afghanistan is rich in lapis lazuli, LASHKAR GAH. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
New residential and government buildings and a modern hotel have recently been built. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The town is built around the Helmand Arghandab Valley Authority (HAVA). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
MASJID. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Other cities in Iran and in Iraq make similar claims. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Rising in the center of the city is the impressive shrine of Hazrat-i-Ali, son-in-law and cousin of the Prophet Mohammed. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
MINERALS. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
AFGHAN WARS has done much original research on the languages of Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
gious leaders. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Wooden clogs worn by many Afghan countrymen NAHOOR RIVER see GHAZNI BASIN NAIZA BAZI. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
This is a special form of hospitality and NANGARHAR (PROVINCE). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
is made of unleavened whole wheat or barley. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The holiday falls on the first day of Hamal , the first month of the Afghan solar year. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Thus the patriarch of an Afghan family makes the important decisions about the status and well-being of the family. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A most prominent cultural value con- social, and cultural life of the Afghan society. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
After the revolution of July 17, 1973, when Afghan- istan was proclaimed a republic, the national revo- lutionary council elected him to the presidency of the Afghan Republic, as well as to the posts of premiership and foreign minister of Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
QALAI BOST. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Raisins as well as grapes are exported. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
105 Radio Afghanistan Republic of Afghanistan 106 REPUBLIC OF AFGHANISTAN. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Progressive social, cultural, and judicial reforms, serving the aspirations and needs of the Afghan people, have been proposed and implemented. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Cultural, commercial, and diplomatic relationships with friendly nations are maintained. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
landlocked. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
the composition of which is attributed to the sec - ond half of the millennium. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Robertson109 Sated Koh 110 SAFED KOH MOUNTAIN RANGE (EASTERN). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A large plateau located about one mile SAYR. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
An Afghan title equivalent to “Sir” or SHAH FULADI PEAK see KOHE BABA MOUNTAIN SHAH RUKH. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
SEISTAN LAKE see SEISTAN BASIN SHAFI’AI see HANAFI SHAGHALAY. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Muslim religious mystics found throughout Afghan- Iranian border in Southern Afghanistan which is 4,262 feet in elevation. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The eastern extension of this range separates the Indus Basin from Afghan territory. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The town is a major trans -shipment center of the Taloqan117 Tazi (Afghan Hound) TAZI (AFGHAN HOUND) see GAMES AND SPORTS TEKNONYMY. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A system of naming children in Afghan- TIMUR SHAH DURRANI see DURRANI DYNASTY TIMURE LUNG. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Afghan children are not given uniform names when they are born into the same family. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Nevertheless, the best way to identify an Afghan is to ask whose child he or she is. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The Afghan Tourist Organization, with offices in Kabul and at points of entry, provides information, brochures, pamphlets, etc. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
for those who wish to visit Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The son of Kajula Kadphises (q. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
KADPHISES (KADPHISES II). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
YURT. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
tinue in Afghanistan. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A descendant of ZAKAT. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
ZAHIRUDDIN MOHAMMED BABUR. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Afghan Legends . Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Biddulph, C. E. Afghan Poetry of the Seventeenth Cen Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Brockelman, Carl. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
“A Cervin, Vladimir. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Edinburgh University Press, 1963. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The Pathans . Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Bibliography129 Bibliography Caroe, Sir Olaf. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Afghan Tourist Organization, 1971. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
24, No. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
132 t I ________ Gibb, H. A. R. The Arab Conquests in Central Asia. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Bibliography133 Bibliography 134 Hambly, Gavin. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Function in Transformational Processes in Afghan- istan.” Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Structure of Afghan Life,” Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society , Vol. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
485-494. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Life of the Ameer Dost Mohammed Khan Lumsden, Peter. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Afghan rnpire in Idia, 137 Bibliography Bibliography ________ Pehrson, Robert (Compiled from his notes by Fredrik Penzil, Herbert.India, 137 Bibliography Bibliography ________ Pehrson, Robert (Compiled from his notes by Fredrik Penzil, Herbert Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
A Journal of Disasters in Afghan Hove, England: Key Press, 1954. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
of the New State of Pakhtunistan . Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Yate, Charles Edward. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
“The Blood Groups of the Wulff, Hans E. The Traditional Crafts of Persia. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
An Afghan mujahid mentioned him, and I opened a file. Inside Bin Laden
Osama bin Laden’s name first came to my attention around 1981. Inside Bin Laden
At that time he was still an active “Afghan.” Inside Bin Laden
Immediately after the Soviet invasion, outrage ran throughout the Muslim world. Inside Bin Laden
Soviet forces were poised on the Afghan border, over- looking the Persian Gulf and an Iran in turmoil. Inside Bin Laden
In the spring of 1980 fear and caution became the main characteristics of Arab policy toward the Soviet Union and the Afghan question. Inside Bin Laden
Within a few days after the Soviet invasion bin Laden, who was gen- uinely and selflessly committed to the cause of all-Islamic solidarity, went to Pakistan to assist the Afghan mujahideen. Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden’s early Afghan years brought him into contact with Sheikh AbdAllah Yussuf Azzam, who was key in establishing what is today the In- ternational Legion of Islam—the highly proficient and dedicated hard core THE RADICALIZATION OF AN ENGINEER of international Islamist terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
But the Pakistani and Afghan lead- ers in the jihad urged him to resume teaching rather than take part in bat- tle. Inside Bin Laden
In Peshawar, Sheikh Azzam founded the Bait-ul-Ansar, which received and trained the first Isiamist volunteers pouring into Pakistan to partici- pate in the Afghan jihad. Inside Bin Laden
Bait-ui-Ansar also provided specialized services for the Afghan jihad and the mujahideen. Inside Bin Laden
Although bin Laden was urging all-out support for the Afghan jihad, Riyadh had other priorities and plans for the well-connected young mili- tant. Inside Bin Laden
Osama bin Laden’s enthusiasm, commitment, and efficiency in running the Yemeni endeavor were not lost on the Saudi Court. Inside Bin Laden
Despite the efforts of the Afghan mujahideen, the impact of Afghan- istan on the Muslim world grew only in the mid-198os, when media expo- sure increased and organized transportation, originated by Osama bin Laden, was institutionalized. Inside Bin Laden
But in 1985 hundreds of Arabs, predominantly Islamists, began joining the ranks of the Afghan mujahideen. Inside Bin Laden
These foreign volunteers were easily absorbed into the Muslim environ- ment in Pakistan because of the all-Islamic ideological character of the Afghan resistance. Inside Bin Laden
In the mid-198os the Iranian analyst Amir Taheri eluci- dated the nature of the resistance: “The Afghan resistance movement has not confined itself to a minimum program of securing the nation’s inde- pendence and territorial integrity, but openly advocates the creation of an Islamic society. Inside Bin Laden
By the mid-198os Afghanistan had become a magnet for militant Is- lamists from all over the world. Inside Bin Laden
15 i6 THE RADICALIZATION OF AN ENGINEER against India. Inside Bin Laden
In 1985 and 1986, as the quantity and quality of weapons provided by the ISI improved, Sikh terrorism and subversion in the Punjab and throughout Ind radicalization. and radicalization Inside Bin Laden
Among the novelties of the revived terrorist campaign were sophisticated bomb-making techniques identical to those being used by the Afghan mu- jahideen. Inside Bin Laden
The training camps, however, did not belong to the Afghan mu- jahideen—they were the ISI’s own installations. Inside Bin Laden
Starting in the early 198os, Islamabad decided to capitalize on the growing support—political, mili- tary, and financial—Pakistan was now receiving from the West to promote the Afghan jihad and thereby bolster its own strategic requirements. Inside Bin Laden
The ISI had initially perfected this process of manipulation and creation of a national mujahideen organiza- tion in the early 197os with the Hizb-i Islami of Gulbaddin Hekmatiyar, a ruthless Afghan thug who had contacts with both the 151 and Soviet intelli- gence. Inside Bin Laden
The ISI developed commanders and leaders it could control and empow- ered them in their respective movements. Inside Bin Laden
All this time the Afghan jihad was gaining support in Washington, and more money was being appropriated for covert and not-so-covert support for the Afghan mujahideen. Inside Bin Laden
Brigadier Mohammad Yousaf, then head of the IS! Inside Bin Laden
Brigadier Yousaf pointed out that “from the start,” the 151 leadership “successfully resisted” all American efforts to be directly in- volved in the support for the Afghan mujahideen. Inside Bin Laden
THE RADICALIZATION OF AN ENGINEER I~ i8 . Inside Bin Laden
The main reason the ISI decided to keep the CIA out of the camps was the extent of the training and support non-Afghan “volunteers” and others were getting in these camps. Inside Bin Laden
In addition, thousands of Islamists from all over the Arab and Muslim world were routinely trained in the camps originally designed for the train- ing of Afghan mujahideen. Inside Bin Laden
“He not only gave his money, but he also gave himself. Inside Bin Laden
In Afghanistan and Pakistan the Islamist resistance organizations were clearly espousing the global message of their foreign “volunteers.” Inside Bin Laden
The prevailing popular sentiment in Indian Kashmir had sud- denly become “Islam is in danger,” and that sentiment, rather than nation- alism, began motivating the Kashmiri youth. Inside Bin Laden
With the war in Afghanistan slowing down, the vast network of training camps for Afghan mujahideen all over Pakistan was being transformed by the IS! Inside Bin Laden
Throughout the 198os the availability of weapons, primarily from sup- plies to the Afghan resistance, turned Karachi into a center for Islamic in- ternational terrorism involving Palestinians and “a large number of people from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Afghanistan, Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Africa who live in Karachi as ‘Muslims,” lamented Dr. Yasin Rizvi, a leading Pakistani journalist. Inside Bin Laden
Arab Islamist terrorist organizations. Inside Bin Laden
Convinced by Pak. Inside Bin Laden
The turning point was the major offensive on Jalalabad in March 1989, just a month after the Soviet withdrawal. Inside Bin Laden
Azzam’s most potent message was his call for the revival of the old spirit of the Afghan jihad, which envisioned a defiant struggle based on utopian theological guidelines, a message now contradictory to the ISI’s priority of maintaining control in handling the Afghan, Kashmiri, and all other mujahideen-cum-terrorists. Inside Bin Laden
The camps of the Afghan resistance in Pakistan actually became the center of radical Islamist terrorism, with Sunni Islamists constituting the majority of the fighters. Inside Bin Laden
In the quest for Islamist violence the camps of the Islamist Afghan re- sistance in Pakistan became to Sunni !slamist Inside Bin Laden
terrorism what Lebanon had been for radical leftist terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
THE RADICALIZATION OF AN ENGINEER . Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden described Islam’s great triumphs against the infidel super- power, arguing that the Afghan jihad demonstrated that nothing and no- body could stop the Muslim Nation once it was committed to the righteous practice of Islam. Inside Bin Laden
Run by Pakistanis and largely financed by rich Gulf Arabs, the BCCI was notorious for provid- ing “special services” in support of worthy causes—from laundering money for terrorists, Muslim intelligence services, and mujahideen; to clandestinely funding deals for conventional weapons, weapons of mass destruction, and other sensitive strategic technologies; to shipping around and laundering huge sums embezzled by corrupt leaders throughout the developing world. Inside Bin Laden
Riyadh, Islamabad, and other capitals also used the BCCI’s unique way of doing business for their own covert operations. Inside Bin Laden
The Pakistani-Afghan terrorist infrastructure for the international Is- lamist movement increased in importance in early 1991 in the aftermath of the international pressure and consequent sanctions on Libya because of Muammar al-Qaddafi’s support for international terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
Qaddafi pointed out in ecember 1991, “Afghanistan is open to anyone who wants to train.”in December 1991, “Afghanistan is open to anyone who wants to train. Inside Bin Laden
The “Afghans” were the spearhead and core of the new International Islamist Legion that was now sending its “Afghan” veter- ans—all of them commanders and key experts—all over the Muslim world to support, expedite, incite, and facilitate what they consider Islamist liber- ation struggles. Inside Bin Laden
In the early 1990s, as the Afghan war was winding down, many of these “Afghans” continued to receive support from the “humanitarian organi- zations” established, run, and funded by bin Laden and his allies. Inside Bin Laden
“Afghans” in Pakistan in 1992 and the expertise they acquired testify to the quality of training and preparations received by other “Afghan” Islamists as well. Inside Bin Laden
While this network of “Afghan” terrorists was being established, Tehran was making special efforts to align the leading Sunni organizations with the Tehran-led terrorist establishment. Inside Bin Laden
Tehran agreed to provide advanced training in Iran, mainly in Mashhad (in eastern Iran, near the Afghan border), for about 8oo Egyptian “Afghans” then in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Inside Bin Laden
The several thousand Arabs who had fought in Afghanistan, initially in the ranks of Gulbaddin Hekmatiyar’s Hizb-i Islami, constituted the core of these “Afghan” forces. Inside Bin Laden
Many brought their personal weapons and other “contributions’ from their Afghan brethren back to their native countries. Inside Bin Laden
By mid-1993 the core ofthis new Islamist force—the “Afghan Arab Mujahideen”—included 8oo Egyptians, 700 Algerians, 400 Tunisians, 370 Iraqis, 300 Yemenis, 200 Libyans, i~o Sudanese, ioo Persian Gulf Arabs, and 70 Europeans. of this new Islamist force—the “Afghan Arab Mujahideen”—included 8oo Egyptians, 700 Algerians, 400 Tunisians, 370 Iraqis, 300 Yemenis, 200 Libyans, i~o Sudanese, ioo Persian Gulf Arabs, and 70 Europeans Inside Bin Laden
The efficiency of the support system, a system organized and largely run by Osama bin Laden, earned him recognition from “Afghan” commanders. Inside Bin Laden
In the mid-198os Iran had drafted and trained a large number of Afghan refugees as terrorists and saboteurs under the supervision of the IRGC. Inside Bin Laden
This “Afghan” elite force established bases in the Saadah area in the al-Maraqishah Mountains, Yemen. Inside Bin Laden
and early 1993 “Afghans” associated with these Ira- nian al-Quds Forces were deployed to several sites in the Horn of Africa— from Sudan to Yemen, including Somalia and the Ogaden—pending an escalation. Inside Bin Laden
In reality, it was the baptism by fire of the “Afghan” forces. Inside Bin Laden
De- spite the damage to facilities, Somali militia put up a stiff resistance. Inside Bin Laden
From June 13 to 15 the United States conducted several air strikes. Inside Bin Laden
Hassan al-Turabi was now functioning as the senior leader, with Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abdallah Jaweed (an Afghan Islamist), and Qamar al-Din Dharban (an Algerian) serving under him and directly responsible for the military activities. Inside Bin Laden
In fall 1993 Zawahiri was already in Somalia, operat- ing as the on-site commander in charge and field coordinator. Inside Bin Laden
For the main infiltration of experts and sophisti- cated equipment, Abdallah Jaweed and Osama bin Laden recruited several ex-DRA Afghan military pilots, all veterans of the massive resupply efforts into besieged DRA garrisons, to fly small transport planes into isolated air- fields in Somalia at night. Inside Bin Laden
Heavier equipment was smuggled nightly into Somaliland by bin Laden’s flotilla of small fishing boats operating out of neighboring countries, mainly Yemen and Kenya. Inside Bin Laden
87 88 . Inside Bin Laden
TRIUMPH OVER THE PAPER TIGER . Inside Bin Laden
To ensure Pakistan’s actual control over this vital road, the ISI began giving local leaders and chieftains weapons and money and providing out- lets for the drugs they grew in the Helmand Valley in southwestern Afghan- istan. Inside Bin Laden
Both Tehran and Islamabad now accepted the reality of the collapse of the Afghan state. Inside Bin Laden
By EMIR BIN LADEN . Inside Bin Laden
Most Taliban came from Sunni madrassas in Pakistani Baluchistan, particularly from the Afghan refugee camps established in the mid-198os by the ISI to alter the demographic character of Baluchistan. Inside Bin Laden
By early 1995 the Taliban forces~were deployed at the gates of Kabul. Inside Bin Laden
Hassan al-Turabi and the Islamist international movement recognized the worth and effectiveness of senior “Afghans,” most notably Zawahiri and bin Laden, and gave them great EMIR BIN LADEN • 99 100 . Inside Bin Laden
The participants closely reviewed the situation in the Arabian Penin- sula and the status of their forces, primarily the Iranian-sponsored forces, both Shiite and Sunni “Afghan.” Inside Bin Laden
and the Green Beret.erets Inside Bin Laden
By early 1995 it was impossible for the rest of the world to ignore these intensive activities, and the governments that would be threatened began to take note. Inside Bin Laden
The main subject was the nature of cooperation in areas of intelligence and terrorism between Pak- istan and Iran. Inside Bin Laden
Arab governments became increasingly apprehensive about the growing Islamist threat in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Inside Bin Laden
In late March and early April 1995 Osama bin Laden attended these meetings in Khartoum. Inside Bin Laden
The list of participants reflected the importance and magni- tude of the undertaking. Inside Bin Laden
INCITING THE REVOLUTION 12.5 Inside Bin Laden
Saudi Islamist opposition sources specified that Saudi expert bomb makers “trained by the CIA and Pakistan’s military intelligence” were now provid- ing expertise to the “Afghan” networks in the Middle East and Bosnia. Inside Bin Laden
Pakistani and Afghan sources in Peshawar also divided the network into a Saudi-based infrastructure and a quality core made up of “Afghans.” Inside Bin Laden
These Pakistani and Afghan sources stressed, however, that Saudi foreign policy, rather than oppression by the House of al-Saud, was the primary reason for the confrontation. Inside Bin Laden
The Armed Islamic Movement, especially its Pakistan-based Islamist “Afghan” forces, moved to take credit for the Riyadh operation only after the Saudi entities had had ample time to advo- cate their justification. Inside Bin Laden
In principle, it would not have been difficult for the Egyptians to carry out the Islamabad operation from any of these facilities. Inside Bin Laden
Another reason for the growing agitation and fury in the ranks of the ISI and military high command was that the hypocrisy of the purge insti- gated by Bhutto was fully exposed. Inside Bin Laden
They also warned Bhutto that among wide segments of the mid- and upper-level officers and officials there was a growing apprehension about the “reported sell-out of our security and commercial interests” to the United States. Inside Bin Laden
The reverberations of the blast were felt through the corridors of power in Bhutto’s Islamabad, delivering a delicate “mes- sage” from the 151 and military high command. Inside Bin Laden
The series of developments leading to the June z~ explosion in Dhah- ran were all phases in the intensifying struggle for the shape of a post-Fahd THE COMMITTEE OF THREE • 159 r6o . Inside Bin Laden
The partic- ipants met in a huge tent at the edges of the biggest training camp for Arab “Afghans,” close to the Pakistani border town of Konli. Inside Bin Laden
The conference resolved “to use force to confront all foreign forces sta- tioned on Islamic land.” Inside Bin Laden
These power centers included power generators, satellite tele- phone and television equipment, workshops for printing secret bulletins, and huge quantities of modern weapons, ranging from weapons supplied to the Afghan mujahideen during the 198os to recently acquired, more modern systems delivered via Pakistan. Inside Bin Laden
The patronage of Qazi Hus- sein Ahmad ensured active support for the Islamist terrorists from his followers throughout the Pakistani defense establishment. Inside Bin Laden
The Taliban’s perception of a global, boundary-free Islam is also largely identical to that of the Islamists. Inside Bin Laden
It is not clear whether bin Laden attended or sent a trusted emissary. Inside Bin Laden
The le~aders of the “Afghan” or- ganizations from the Gulf States urge~’d the launching of a wide-scale ter- rorism campaign against all aspects of the American presence in the region. Inside Bin Laden
In late January 1997 bin Laden participated in a meeting in Tehran along with senior officials of VEVAK and an Afghan delegation headed by Ahmad Shah Massud’s lieutenants. Inside Bin Laden
An early 1997 report from Egyptian intelligence about the growing Is- lamist subversive threat noted that “Osama bin Laden is working behind closed doors preparing a new group of Arab ‘Afghans’ under the cover of the Afghan Taliban Movement, with the aim of creating fundamentalist or- ganizations in a number of Arab and Islamic countries.” Inside Bin Laden
Atwan said that “the base has a small generator, computers, modern reception equipment, a huge data base on computer disks, and other information kept in the traditional way. Inside Bin Laden
By August significant preparations were already evident in the Islamist camps in Sudan when Osama bin Laden arrived for an inspection tour. Inside Bin Laden
Again the list of participants was impressive: Imad Mughaniyah and Abdul-Hadi Hammadi, both leaders of HizbAllah Special Operations; Ayman al- Zawahiri and another Egyptian “Afghan” commander who arrived from London; Ahmad Jibril, chief of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine—General Command (PFLP-GC); Osama Abu-Hamdan and Imad al-Alami of the HAMAS; Ramadan al-Shalah, chief of Palestinian Islamic J ihad; and three commanders representing branches of HizbAllah in the Persian Gulf States. Inside Bin Laden
prepares people for operations in the West) and Afghanistan (mainly the Khowst and Qandahar areas) for advanced training and preparation “to activate their operations against Arab and Is- lamic targets in the Middle East.” Inside Bin Laden
han” networks in Milan, Bolgna, and other Italian cities. Bologna, and other Italian cities Inside Bin Laden
Tehran continued to actively prepare for the new campaign of spectac- ular terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
This was not the first meeting between Abu-Umar al-Amriki and Zawahiri. Inside Bin Laden
February 2.0 Inside Bin Laden
In 1990 the PLO sent him for training in Afghan- istan. Inside Bin Laden
The first was Mustafa Mahmud Said Ahmad, an Egyptian “Afghan” born in Zaire and a graduate of al-Azhar University. Inside Bin Laden
He is an Egyptian and a veteran Arab “Afghan.” Inside Bin Laden
Because of the lingering impact of al-Rashidi’s death, the buildup of the Islamist networks did not resume until fall 1996, and then it resumed primarily in the relative safety of Somalia. Inside Bin Laden
The remaining principals of both operations—led by Odeh and Fadhil— vacated their respective scenes on the eve of the actual bombing. Inside Bin Laden
An Islamist source told al-Hayah that this kind of claim was issued in order to spare bin Laden, Zawahiri, and their Afghan hosts “embarrassment.” Inside Bin Laden
SAUDI ARABIA has been second only to Pakistan in the extent of its sup- port for the Taliban. Inside Bin Laden
Saudi funds have been instrumental in the Taliban’s rise to and hold on power. Inside Bin Laden
On August 20 the U.S. Navy launched seventy-five to eighty cruise mis- siles at the training-camp complexes in the Khowst area of Afghanistan. Inside Bin Laden
Pakistani security sources told al-Ha yah that “some moves ha[d] been detected among bin Laden’s Arabs between their headquarters in Qandahar and Jalalabad and their strong- hold in the mountain province of Paktia.” Inside Bin Laden
Other sources within the Afghan-based terrorist movements concurred, noting that key ISI officials and instructors evacuated the camps in eastern Afghanistan during the week preceding the strikes. Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden, Zawahiri, and the terrorist elite were not there. Inside Bin Laden
Bin’ Laden’s Arab “Afghans” also have assumed a dominant role in training the Kosovo Liberation Army. Inside Bin Laden
Two days later Riyadh announced the withdrawal of al-Umari from Kabul for security reasons and the concurrent expulsion of the Afghan chargé d’affaires from Riyadh. Inside Bin Laden
The council resolved that because bin Laden had been made an Afghan citizen and granted an Afghan passport, only an Afghan Is- lamic court should determine his guilt or innocence. Inside Bin Laden
Specifically this would be an interaction between the re- ligious authorities of both countries—and thus a snub to official Riyadh. Inside Bin Laden
On October z8 the Taliban announced the convening of a special Mus- lim court directly under Higher Court Judge Mowlawi Nur Mohammad HUMILIATING THE ENEMY . Inside Bin Laden
Recently Osama bin Laden has embarked on his most ambitious Afghan project yet—the reconstruction and rejuvenation of Qandahar, which was destroyed by ceaseless fighting between the mid-197os and the rise of the Taliban in the mid 199os. Inside Bin Laden
The rebuilding of Qandahar, the only such effort in a major Afghan city since the mid-197os, is a huge project that in- cludes the construction of military infrastructure for both the Taliban and bin Laden’s own strategic needs as well as the reconstruction and rejuvena- tion of the city. Inside Bin Laden
Ac- cess to this seemingly unrelated group of states was made possible through bin Laden’s building of relations with the Russian Mafia, in particular the branches operating in Qatar and to a lesser extent Cyprus. Inside Bin Laden
In the aftermath of the resounding support for the idea of the Islamic Front throughout the Muslim world, many clandestine organizations joined without, adding their name to the original fatwa of February 1998. Inside Bin Laden
According to Arab sources, U.S. intelligence briefed conservative Arab governments that the bin Laden organization—the Islamic Front—”is an in- formal coalition of former Afghan Mujahideen of various nationalities, in- cluding Egyptians, Jordanians, Palestinians, Lebanese, people hailing from the [Persian] Gulf, Algerians, Pakistanis, and Afghans, among other Muslims from elsewhere, including the United States itself.” Inside Bin Laden
Since September 1998 the anticipated escalation in the Pakistan- sponsored Islamist terrorism in Kashmir has been associated with bin Laden. Inside Bin Laden
But most of the assets raided by the security forces all ovet the world were related to the support networks, such as al-Qaidah and the U.S.-based al-Kifah, which were established during the 198os in conjunction with the Afghan jihad. Inside Bin Laden
OSAMA BIN LADEN has already completed backup plans if the Taliban renege on their promise of hospitality. Inside Bin Laden
This was confirmed by Ahmad Salamah Mabruk, a prominent commander of Zawahiri’s Islamic Jihad, who was captured in Azerbaijan and extradited to Egypt in September 1998. Inside Bin Laden
gave them two tons of Afghan hroin worth about $70 million in Afghanistan and at least ten times that on the streets of Western Europe and the United States.an heroin worth about $70 million in Afghanistan and at least ten times that on the streets of Western Europe and the United States Inside Bin Laden
The transformation of the Hub of Islam was recently explained by re- tired lieutenant general Asad Durrani of Pakistan. Inside Bin Laden
Many more unofficial Taliban “schools” exist, with a student body of about two million. Inside Bin Laden
Washington cannot offer Islamabad any- thing that would be worth provoking a major confrontation with the Pak- istani Islamists. Inside Bin Laden
These rumors included covert attempts by Arab and Afghan mercenaries to assassinate bin Laden, with several of the attackers caught and summarily executed by the Tal- iban; Western Europeans caught by bin Laden’s Arab bodyguards spying on behalf of the CIA; several police raids in Pakistan, mainly in Lahore and Is- lamabad, in an attempt to capture the visiting bin Laden; and even deploy- ments of CIA-FBI special forces to Pakistan and Tajikistan in preparation for raids into Afghanistan. Inside Bin Laden
Despite rumors of plans for his capture, bin Laden’s visits to Pakistan continued. Inside Bin Laden
Because of his unique standing among all Islamists and his diverse, intimate rela- tionship with all of the region’s powers, bin Laden has emerged as a trou- bleshooter and mediator of key disputes. Inside Bin Laden
In the first half of December bin Laden and Zawahiri arrived in Pe- shawar, Pakistan, to chair a periodic meeting of the Arab “Afghan” leaders THE BIN LADEN PLANS . Inside Bin Laden
THE TERRORIST LEADERSHIP was laying the ground for the implemen- tation of the “bin Laden plans” when the December U.S.-Iraqi crisis oc- curred. Inside Bin Laden
These Arab “Afghans” are being trained by Iraqi intelligence within the context of an alliance Baghdad struck with what Kuwaiti intelli- gence described as “a front comprising six militant organizations whose ranks include former fighters in the Afghan war effort”—a euphemism for bin Laden’s World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and Crusaders. Inside Bin Laden
The extent of the international reach of HAMAS was demonstrated through the activation of its support resources in Lebanon and Pakistan. Inside Bin Laden
Islamabad introduced a sense of urgency to the process. Inside Bin Laden
At least three of the kidnappers were killed, including an Egyptian “Afghan” known as Osama al-Masri. Inside Bin Laden
The building momentum for a major strike put bin Laden’s Afghan and Pakistani patrons and defenders in a bind. Inside Bin Laden
Mullah Mohammad Tayyib, a member of the Tal- iban leadership, admitted, “It seems that [bin Laden] is still on Afghan ter- ritory.” Inside Bin Laden
But the buildup of Islamist terrorist forces in Chechnya, including Arab, Afghan, and Pakistani mujahideen sup- ported by bin Laden, has continued unabated. Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden’s Islamist forces continue to patiently consolidate their capa- bilities and further their preparations for spectacular strikes. Inside Bin Laden
In early April, Harakat Jihad Islami already had active forward headquarters in Burma, Bangladesh, Palestine, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Eritrea, Chechnya, and Bosnia, which is also re- sponsible for Albania and Kosovo. Inside Bin Laden
Another terrorist commander, Sharif Hazza, told his interrogators that “after bin Laden settled in Afghanistan and set up the camps which included elements of all trends and inclinations, it was logical that bin Laden would impose on these newcomers the rules and conditions which he had agreed with the Afghan Taliban movement and which stipulated that he would be responsible for all the Arabs, and that there should be no disagreements or conflicts between them that would undermine security, otherwise they [the Taliban] would be forced to expel them all.” Inside Bin Laden
This unity was not limited to the Islamist terrorists operating in Afghanistan, Hazza noted, but included “groups in the Afghan, Yemeni, Sudanese, or even Albanian arenas. Inside Bin Laden
The master of Pakistani religious academies noted that “Osama bin Laden is an ultimate hero” for “each of the thousands of Pakistani and Afghan Taliban” study- ing in his higher schools. Inside Bin Laden
40~ 408 . Inside Bin Laden
417 Index Abbasi, Zaheer ui-Islam, Major General, ar- Abdailah bin Abdul-Aziz, Crown Prince Afghan “cause” aided by, 14 Hashemi-Rts with (1998), Saudi-Iranian rapprochement initiated struggle for Saudi throne, i6o—i6z, at summit in Damascus (1996), 165 Abdallah, Taseer, Sheikh, 309 Abd-al-Qadir Forces, 386 Abdul-Alim, Isam Abdul-Tawwab, arrest of, Abdul-Bari.i meets with (1998), Saudi-Iranian rapprochement initiated struggle for Saudi throne, i6o—i6z, at summit in Damascus (1996), 165 Abdallah, Taseer, Sheikh, 309 Abd-al-Qadir Forces, 386 Abdul-Alim, Isam Abdul-Tawwab, arrest of, Abdul-Bari Inside Bin Laden
289—290 Taliban warned of, 287—288 terrorist escalation threatened after, 292—294 terrorist evacuation before, 284—286, 288—289 U.S. justification efforts, 285 U.S. support for jihad, 17 al-Quds Forces, 73, 74, i66, 176 financial support for, 49 as global unifying factor, 52—53 international nature of, 51, 52 with Islamic Liberation Party 236—237 Kosovo Liberation Army trained by, 298—299 Mubarak assassination planned by, 125—126 Peshawar coordination of, ~o—~i, 52. Inside Bin Laden
London Islamists’ reaction to, 293 Saudis’ foreknowledge of, z86—z88, 290 seen as proof of U.S. duplicity; 290—291 supposed terrorist summit and, 285, 2.88, Inside Bin Laden
Baloch, Naib Amir Liaqat, 355 Banjashiri, Abu-Ubaydah al-. Inside Bin Laden
See also Financial Bank of Credit and Commerce International Banshiri, Abu-Ubaydah al-. Inside Bin Laden
Terrorists. Inside Bin Laden
A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library. Taliban
Why Afghanistan? Anyone who has been touched by an Afghan or visited the country in peace or in war, will understand when I say the country and the people are amongst the most extraordinary on earth. Taliban
Their story and their character involve immense contradictions. Taliban
By then the Afghan saga had taken me to Moscow, Washington, Rome, Jeddah, Paris, London, Ashkhabad, Tashkent and Dushanbe. Taliban
If there was another abiding interest, it was my conviction as early as 1982 that Islamabad’s Afghan policy would play a critical role in Pakistan’s future national security, domestic politics and create an Islamic fundamentalist backlash at home. Taliban
In 1981 when Najibullah was head of the notorious KHAD, the Afghan communist secret service modelled on the KGB, he personally interrog- ated me after KFIAD officers arrested me for reading a banned copy of Time magazine at Kabul’s Post Office. Taliban
And many times I have been caught in the contradiction of crossfires, between Afghan communist troops and the Mujaheddin, between rival Mujaheddin warlords and between the Taliban and Ahmad Shah Masud’s tank-gunners. Taliban
Over the years the UN agencies and the non-governmental aid organ- izations have provided a home for me all over Afghanistan and have given me ideas, information and support. Taliban
It was March 1997 and for two and a half years Kandahar had been the capital of the fierce Taliban Islamic warriors, who had conquered two-thirds of Afghanistan and were now battling to conquer the rest of the country. Taliban
The Taliban, drawn from the majority Pashtun ethnic group which AFGHANISTAN’S HOLY INTRODUCTION: WARRIORS Q n a warm spring afternoon in the southern city of Kandahar, Afghan shopkeepers were pulling down their shutters in prepara- tion for the weekend. Taliban
Abdullah Afghan, a young man in his early 20s had allegedly stolen medicines from Abdul Wali, a farmer who lived in their common village near Kandahar. Taliban
Since the end of the Cold War no other political movement in the Islamic world has attracted as much attention as the Taliban in Afghanis- tan. Taliban
For a year I had been trying to discover what Interests an Argentinean company, unknown in this part of the world, had in investing in such a high-risk place as Afghanistan. Taliban
For Afghanistan to be at the centre of such conflict is nothing new. Taliban
Many years ago a wise old Afghan Mujahed once told me the mythical story of how God made Afghanistan. Taliban
Until the 1970s nomadism — the grazing of goats and the fat-tailed Afghan sheep — was a major source of livelihood and the Kochi nomads travelled thousands of miles every year in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan in search of good pasture. Taliban
Although the war against the Soviets destroyed Kochi culture and liveli- hood in the 1980s, animal herding is still vital in sustaining impoverished farmers. Taliban
For the next 300 years the eastern Afghan tribes periodically invaded India, conquering Delhi and creating vast Indo-Afghan empires. Taliban
The Afghan Lodhi dynasty ruled Delhi from 1451 to 1526. Taliban
This series of invasions resulted in a complex ethnic, cultural and reli- INTRODUCTION: AFGHANISTAN’S HOLY WARRIORS 9 10 TALIBAN gious mix that was to make Afghan nation-building extremely difficult. Taliban
Western Afghanistan was dominated by speakers of Persian or Dan as the Afghan Persian dialect is known. Taliban
In 1709, Mir Wais, the chief of the Flotaki tribe of Ghilzai Pashtuns in Kandahar rebelled against the Safavid Shah. Taliban
By 1761 Ahmad Shah I)urrani had defeated the Hindu Mahrattas and captured the Delhi throne and Kashmir, thereby creating the first Afghan empire. Taliban
Considered the father of the Afghan nation, Ahmad Shah Durrani was buried in an ornate mausoleum in his capital Kandahar, where Afghans still come to pray. Taliban
The feuds amongst the ruling Durranis which were fuelled by British intelligence officers ensured that Afghan kings remained weak and dependent on British largesse to make up for their inability to raise rev- enues. Taliban
After the second Anglo-Afghan war, the British supported Amir Abdul Rehman’s claim to the throne. Taliban
Although these moves integrated Afghans of all ethnic groups and solidified the Afghan state as never before, much of the subsequent ethnic tensions in northern Afghanistan and the inter-ethnic massacres after 1997 can be traced back to the Iron Amir’s policies. Taliban
Nevertheless the fact that two Afghan kings were assassinated and that there were periodic tribal revolts demonstrated the difficulties rulers faced in turning a multi- ethnic tribal society into a modern state. Taliban
The jihad took on a new momentum as the USA, China and Arab states poured in money and arms supplies to the Mujaheddin. Taliban
For commanders in the south party loyalty depended on which Pesh- awar leader would provide money and arms. Taliban
The ulema valued the histor- ical ideals of eanly Islamic history and rarely challenged traditional Afghan tribal structures like the Jirga. Taliban
The fact that the Durranis from Kandahar were to create the Afghan state and rule it for 300 years gave the Kandaharis a special status amongst the Pashtuns. Taliban
‘We selected Mullah Oman to lead this movement. Taliban
The Hotaki chief Mir Wais, had captured Isfaban in Iran in 1721 and established the first Ghilzai Afghan empire in Iran only to be quickly replaced by Ahmnad Shah Durrani. Taliban
He quickly progressed to higher things such as communicating with visiting foreign diplomats and aid agency officials, travelling to meet Taliban commanders and meeting with Pakistani officials. Taliban
Pakistan’s Afghan policy was in the doldrums. Taliban
However, before that meeting a major event had shaken the Kandahar warlords. Taliban
On 12 October 1994 some 200 Taliban from Kandahar and Pakistani rnadrassas arrived at the small Afghan border post of Spin Baldak on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border just opposite Chaman. Taliban
The transport mafia was ecstatic and in December the first Pakistani convoy of 50 trucks carrying raw cotton from Turkmenistan arrived in Quetta, after paying the Taliban 200,000 rupees (US$5,000) in tolls. Taliban
They were soon followed by Pakistani volunteers from JUl madrassas, who were inspired by the new Islamic movement in Afghanistan. Taliban
In the first three months after capturing Kandahar, the Taliban had broken the stalemate in the Afghan civil war by capturing 12 of Afghanis- tan’s 31 provinces and had arrived at the outskirts of Kabul to the north and Herat in the west. Taliban
They said that since the capture of Kandahar some 20,000 Afghans and hundreds of Pakistani madrassa students had streamed across the border from refugee camps in Pakistan to join Mullah Omar. Taliban
Many had spent their lives in refugee camps in Baluchistan and the NWFP provinces of Pakistan, interspersed with stints at imbibing a Kor- anic education in the dozens of madrassas that had sprung up along the border run by Afghan mullahs or Pakistan’s Islamic fundamentalist par- ties. Taliban
These boys were a world apart from the Mujaheddin whom I had got to know during the 1980s — men who could recount their tribal and clan lineages, remembered their abandoned farms and valleys with nostalgia and recounted legends and stories from Afghan history. Taliban
The death of Mazari, accidental or intentional, was to forever condemn the Taliban in the eyes of the Afghan Shias and their main patron Iran. Taliban
Ismael Khan was an officer in the Afghan army when the Russi- ans invaded Afghanistan and he had strong Islamic and nationalist lean- ings. Taliban
Hundreds of Russians were killed. Taliban
It was the biggest gathering of mullahs and ulema that had ever taken place in modern Afghan history. Taliban
Everyone outside the country also realised that the Taliban were at a crossroads. Taliban
No Afghan had adopted the title since 1834, when King Dost Mohammed Khan assumed the title before he declared jihad against the Sikh kingdom in Peshawar. Taliban
We want to recreate the time of the Prophet and we are only carrying out what the Afghan people have wanted for the past 14 years,’ he added.3 Taliban
Russia sent technical help to upgrade Bagram airport facilities for the regime while Russian transport planes from Russia, Tajikistan and Ukraine delivered Russian arms, ammunition and fuel to Kabul. Taliban
The extent of outside interference worried the Americans: after a lapse of four years they were once again beginning to take an interest in trying to resolve the Afghan conflict. Taliban
In early March, Congressman Hank Brown, a member of the Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Relations for South Asia, became the first American elected representative in six years to visit Kabul and other power centres. Taliban
Starting on 19 April 1996, Raphel visited the three power centres of Kabul, Kand- ahar and Mazar-e-Sharif and later three Central Asian capitals. Taliban
The US moved on other fronts. Taliban
Several visited Wash- ington, starting with General Dostum who met US officials in Wash- ington on 11 April 1996. Taliban
This proved even more embarrassing for Islamabad when, in May, 1,000 of Hikmetyar’s troops arrived in Kabul to support the government and defend the front line against the Taliban. Taliban
The Taliban launched their surprise offensive on Jalalabad on 25 August 1996. Taliban
Small units stayed behind to delay the Taliban advance and blow up ammuni- tion dumps, while Masud escaped northwards with the bulk of his armour and artillery. Taliban
Najibullah had been staying in a UN diplomatic compound in central Kabul since 1992, when a UN peace plan to setup an interim government fell apart. Taliban
There were only three frightened Afghan guards employed by the UN on duty inside the compound and they fled as they heard the guns of the Taliban on the outskirts of the city. Taliban
There was widespread international condemnation of the murder, par- ticularly from the Muslim world. Taliban
It won’t work because the Afghan people have always been independent and free,’ he added. Taliban
Kabul, the capital of Afghan Pashtun kings since 1772 which had been lost for the past four years to Tajik rulers, was back in the hands of the Pasbtuns. Taliban
Yet when the Taliban offensive finally came in May, nobody expected the bloody drama of betrayals, counter-betrayals and inter-ethnic blood- shed which was astounding even by Afghan standards and would send the entire Central Asian region into a tailspin. Taliban
Famous Afghan singers and dancers who could no longer perform in Kabul moved to Mazar. Taliban
Mullah Omar gave an urgent call for students in Pakistan to come and help the Taliban. Taliban
For the Central Asian states the bloodshed on their doorstep created a paranoid reaction as they considered the spectre of the war crossing into their territories and the thousands of Afghan refugees fleeing across their porous borders. Taliban
Russia and Kazakhstan organized an emergency meeting of the Ct~mmonwea1th of Independent States (CIS) to discuss the crists, where Russian Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov promised ‘very tough and effective actions by Russia’, if the Taliban advanced fur- ther. Taliban
The country was now virtually split along north-south lines and also along Pashtun and non-Pashtun lines. Taliban
Nor was Holl able to put pressure on regional countries to stop arming the factions. Taliban
They were convinced that the UN, in league with Western powers, was conspiring against Islam and their imposition of Sharia law. Taliban
At the end of Sep- tember, heads of three UN agencies in Kandahar were ordered to leave the country after they protested that a female lawyer for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was forced to talk to Taliban offi- cials from behind a curtain so her face would not be visible. Taliban
Powerful US feminist groups lobbied Washington on behalf of Afghan women. Taliban
Braharni hoped that this forum would encourage Iran to talk to Pakistan as well as re-engage Washington in a search for peace. Taliban
‘The Afghan leaders refuse to rise above their factional interests and start working together for national reconcili- ation. Taliban
We detest the Taliban, they are against all civilization, Afghan culture and women in particular. Taliban
They have given Islam and Afghan people a bad name,’ Dr Humera Rahi, who taught Persian literature at the univer- sity and had emerged as a leading poet of the resistance, told me. Taliban
International Women’s Day on 8 February 1998 was dedicated to the plight of Afghan women under Taliban rule. Taliban
A hearing in the US Senate on the Afghan gender issue attracted widespread publicity, as did condem- nation of the Taliban’s policies by such luminaries as Hillary Clinton. Taliban
Part of these preparations involved a fresh escalation with the UN. Taliban
The Saudi intelligence chief Prince Turki al Faisal visited Kandahar in mid-June, after which the Saudis provided the Taliban with 400 pick-up trucks and financial aid. Taliban
On 6 February 2000 the Taliban came under renewed international pressure after distraught Afghan civilians hijacked an Afghan Airlines passenger plane and flew itto London where they asked for asylum. Taliban
Islam and the Part 2 Taliban Ramadan or giving zakat — an Islamic contribution to the poor — few Muslim peoples in the world observe the rituals and the piety of Islam with such regularity and emotion as the Afghans. Taliban
But no Afghan can insist that the fellow Muslim standing next to him prays also. Taliban
Traditionally Islam in Afghanistan has been immensely toler- ant — to other Muslim sects, other religions and modem lifestyles. Taliban
CHALLENGING ISLAM: FUNDAMENTALISM OF THE NEW-STYLE THE TALIBAN After 1992 the brutal civil war destroyed this age-old Afghan tolerance and consensus. Taliban
The minority sects were few and scattered along the fringes of the country. Taliban
In medieval times Herat was the centre of Afghanistan’s rnadrassa system but from the seven- teenth century Afghan scholars travelled to Central Asia, Egypt and India to study at more renowned madrassas in order to join the ranks of the Islam was also deeply rooted in Afghanistan because Sharia law gov- erned the legal process until 1925, when King Amanullah first began to introduce a civil legal code and the state took on the role of training NEW STiLE FUNDAMENTALISM OF THE TALIBAN -~ 83 I slam has always been at the very centre of the lives of ordinary Afghan people. Taliban
The Sunni Hanafi creed is essentially non-hierarchial and decentral- ized, which has made it difficult for twentieth-century rulers to incorpor- ate its religious leaders into strong centralized state systems. Taliban
Leaders of these orders were equally prominent. Taliban
In the early stages of the war, the Saudis sent an Afghan long settled in Saudi Arabia, Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, to set up a Wahabbi party, the Ittehad-e-Islami, Islamic Unity, in Pesbawar. Taliban
Thanks to the CLA—ISI arms pipeline, the engine of the jthad was the radical Islamic parties. Taliban
They favoured women’s education and participation in social life. Taliban
Nevertheless these radical Islamicists, as compared to the Taliban, were relatively modem and forward-looking. Taliban
The Afghan Islamicists’ political failure and their inability to produce reality-based theories of change is a widespread phenomenon in the Muslim world. Taliban
They fitted nowhere in the Islamic spectrum of ideas and movements that had emerged in Afghanistan between 1979 and 1994. Taliban
The Deobandis aimed to train a new generation of learned Mus- lims who would revive Islamic values based on intellectual learning, spir- itual experience, Sharia law and Tariqah or the path. Taliban
In the early twentieth century, the Afghan government sought co- operation with Deoband to expand its own attempt to build modem, state controlled madrass~s. Taliban
[Jiema from the Deoband madrassa visited Kabul in 1933 for\King Zahir Shah’s coronation and said that Deoband would, TALIBAN ‘prepare such ulema in the changed circumstances of the period that they may co-operate fully with the aim and purpose of the free governments in the world of Islam and prove sincere workers for the state’.” Taliban
During the 1980s Pakistan’s Afghan policy was conducted with the help of the Jamaat-e-Islami and Hikmetyar’s Hizb-e-Islami, who were also the main rivals of the JUl inside Pakistan. Taliban
The ISI’s connection with the Jamaat-e-Islami was an important policy instrument in the distri- bution of aid to the Mujaheddin. Taliban
However, the JUl used this period to set up hundreds of madrassas along the Pashtun belt in the NWFP and Baluchistan where it offered young Pakistanis and Afghan refugees the chance of a free education, food, shel- ter and military training. Taliban
Most of these rnadrassas were in rural areas and Afghan refugee camps and were run by semi-educated mullahs who were far removed from the original reformist agenda of the Deobandi school. Taliban
In February 1999, the madrassa had a staggering 15,000 applicants for some 400 new places making it the most popular madrassa in northern Pakistan. Taliban
The JUl were to benefit immensely from their Taliban protégés. Taliban
The Taliban are poorly tutored in Islamic and Afghan history, know- ledge of the Sharia and the Koran and the political and theoretical devel- opments in the Muslim world during the twentieth century. Taliban
There is no Taliban Islamic manifesto or scholarly analysis of Islamic or Afghan history. Taliban
As a consequence many left Peshawar for foreign countries, adding to the dias- pora of Afghan professionals. Taliban
The Taliban also completely rejected Afghan intellectuals and technocrats, as they considered them the spawn of a Western or Soviet-style educational system which they detested. Taliban
At the same time, they refused to evolve a mechanism by which they could include the representatives of the non-Pashtun ethnic groups. Taliban
The military structure of the Taliban is shrouded in even greater secrecy. Taliban
Forced conscription has increased the Taliban’s unpopularity and forced them to draw more upon recruits from Pakistani madrassas and Afghan refugees settled there. Taliban
0 the building. Taliban
Women working in the medical sector should not sit in the seat next to the driver. Taliban
Half the population never will anyway, because the Maulvi does not alenter 106 TALIBAN from working, but it now also banned them from working for Western humanitarian aid agencies, except in the medical sector Taliban
However the plight of Afghan women and Afghan society as a whole began well before the Taliban arrived. Taliban
The Afghan people’s desperate plight was largely ignored by the outside world. Taliban
She was a widow who led a group of young women who prepared nan, the unleavened baked bread every Afghan eats, for widows, orphans and disabled people. Taliban
It is not the Afghan way. Taliban
TALIBAN I The plight of Bibi Zobra’s children and other kids was even worse. Taliban
In Mullah Omar’s village women had always gone around fully veiled and no girl had ever gone to school because there were none. Taliban
Afghan Pashtuns in the east, heavily influenced by Pakistani Pashtuns, were proud to send their girls to school and many continued to do so under the Taliban, by running village schools or sending their families to Pakistan. Taliban
Their recruits — the orphans, the rootless, the lumpen proleteriat from the war and the refugee camps - had been bought up in a totally male society. Taliban
The Taliban’s uncompromising attitude was also shaped by their own internal political dynamic and the nature of their recruiting base. Taliban
Simply put, the Taliban did not recognize the very idea of culture. Taliban
It is called tor, the substance which lubricates the finances of all the Afghan warlords, but particularly the Taliban.’ Taliban
We cannot be more grateful to the Taliban,’ said Wali Jan, a toothless, elderly farmer as he weeded his fields. Taliban
Meanwhile the Taliban crackdown against hashish, a staple part of Afghan truck-drwers diets was extremely effective — demonstrating that any crckdown on opium could be just as strictly implemented. Taliban
By 1997, UNDCP and the US HIGH ON HEROIN: DRUGS AND THE TALIBAN ECONOMY 119 120 estimated that 96 per cent of Afghan heroin came from areas under Tali- ban co~itrol. Taliban
The Taliban had done more than just expand the area available for opium production. Taliban
Central Asia was the hardest hit by the explosion in Afghan heroin. Taliban
The Russian mafia, with ties to Afghanistan established during the Soviet occupation, used their networks to move heroin through Central Asia, Russia, the Baltics and into Europe. Taliban
The explosion in heroin production began ironically not in Afghanis- tan but in Pakistan. Taliban
It was only after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan that US and Western pressure began to mount on Islamabad to curtail the production of opium in Pakistan. Taliban
I saw heroin being openly sold outside five-star hotels in Ashkhabad, the capital of Turkmenistan, and inside the hotels flashy Turkmen and Russian mafioso with their even flashier girlfriends, spoke of their trips to the Afghan border ‘to do business’. Taliban
By 1999, Turkmenistan, with its conciliatory policy with the Taliban had become the principle route of export for Afghan heroin with corrupt Turkmen officials benefit- ing from the trade.’° Taliban
After six months of secret negotiations UNDCP concluded an agreement with the Taliban in October 1997. Taliban
Alongside the drugs trade, the traditional Afghan smuggling trade from Pakistan and now the Gulf states, expanded under the Taliban and cre- ated economic havoc for neighbouring states. Taliban
The Afghan Transit Trade (ATT), described in detail in Chapter 15, is the largest source of official revenue for the Taliban and generates an estimated US$3 billion annually for the Afghan economy. Taliban
The paucity of official funds can be judged by the fact that in 1997 the Finance Ministry had set a budget of the equivalent of US$100,000 for the entire country’s administration and development programmes for the Afghan financial year — February 1997—January 1998. Taliban
‘Before we took control of the south there was no factory working in the country. Taliban
Only a few Pakistani and Afghan transport-traders based in Peshawar and Quetta, who are already involved in either smuggling or the lucrative illegal timber trade from Afghanistan, appear to be taking an interest in projects such as mining. Taliban
These included Afghan and Pakistani traders who built regular petrol pumps in Kandahar and along the route to Herat. Taliban
A staggering 13 percent of all Afghan families has had a relative killed or crippled in mine accidents and over 300 people are killed or maimed every month. Taliban
Salaries for those Afghan surgeons who have not fled Kabul is the equivalent of US$5 a month. Taliban
Although there are still 1.2 Taliban
‘The level of suffering experienced by the Afghan people is literally horrendous,’ said Alfredo Witschi-Cestari, the UN Co-ordinator for Afghanistan until 1998. Taliban
Between 1982 and 1992 some 35,000 Muslim radicals from 43 Islamic countries in the Middle East, North and East Africa, Central Asia and the Far East would pass their baptism under fire with the Afghan Mujaheddin. Taliban
Tens of thousands more foreign Muslim radicals came to study in the hundreds of new madrassas that Zia’s military government began to fund in Pakistan and along the Afghan border. Taliban
But no pampered Saudi Prince was ready to rough it out in the Afghan mountains. Taliban
During the 1980s Azam had forged close links with Hikmetyar and Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, the Afghan Islamic scholar, whom the Saudis had sent to Peshawar to pro- mote Wahabbism. Taliban
His father backed the Afghan struggle and helped fund it, so when Bin Laden decided to join up, his family responded enthusiastically. Taliban
He brought in his company engineers and heavy construction equipment to help build roads and depots for the Mujahed- din. Taliban
‘My jihad fac- tion did not have good relations with the Arab-Afghans during the years of jihad. Taliban
His organization, focused around supporting veterans of the Afghan war and their families, maintained contacts with them. Taliban
To the long list of mentors during his youth were later added Dr Aiman al-Zawahiri, the head of the banned Islamic Jihad in Egypt and the two sons of Shaikh Oman Abdel Rehman, the blind Egyptian preacher now in a US jail for the World Trade Centre bombing and who had led the banned El Gamaa Islamiyya in Egypt. Taliban
More than 80 Islamic militants were arrested in a dozen different coun- tries. Taliban
After the Africa bombings the US launched a truely global operation. Taliban
Support for Bin Laden by elements within the Pakistani establishment was another contradiction in Pakistan’s Afghan policy, explored fully in Chapter 14. Taliban
The Arab-Afghans had come full circle. Taliban
I had first visited Central Asia in 1989 during President Mikhail Gorba- chov’s perestroika reform programme. Taliban
The territory comprising modern day Tajikistan, southern Uzbekistan and northern Afghanistan was one contiguous territory for centuries, ruled intermittently by amirs or kings in Bukhara or Kabul. Taliban
These rebels were called Basmachis by the Bolsheviks, a derogative term meaning bandit. Taliban
Well before Soviet troops withdrew from Afghanistan, Moscow and Tashkent were cultivating Afghan Uzbeks to create a secular Uzbek- controlled ‘cordon sanitaire’ in northern Afghanistan that would resist any Mujaheddin takeover. Taliban
Many of these Uzbek militants studied secretly in Saudi Arabia and Pakistan or trained in Afghan Mujaheddin camps in the 1980s. Taliban
As Niyazov saw his economy crumble he sought alternative export routes. Taliban
Neutrality also allowed Ashkhabad to avoid taking sides in the Afghan conflict, which angered Moscow and Tashkent as Turk- menistan refused to join the anti Taliban alliance Ashkhabad had pro- vided the communist regime in Afghanistan with diesel fuel until Kabul fell in 1992 It proceeded to do the same for Ismael Khan who controlled 3 Herat until 1995 and later the Taliban. Taliban
Turkey had backed the Afghan Mujaheddin in the 1980s, but its role remained limited. Taliban
Even though Pakistan did not recognize Israel, the ISI had developed links through the CIA with Mossad during the Afghan jihad. Taliban
Ultimately the security needed to build pipelines from Central Asia to South Asia rested on ending the Afghan civil war. Taliban
‘Fear is the realization by these new and still fragile countries that the Afghan conflict cannot be contained for ever within its borders. Taliban
The USA now wants stability, for it is concerned about the repercus- sions of the continuing Afghan war on its own policies in Central Asia. Taliban
‘Throughout Central Asia, leaders are on edge about instability in Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Taliban
In January 1992, Bridas was awarded the Yashlar block in eastern Turkmenistan close to the Afghan border and north-east of the massive Daulatabad gas field discovered by the Soviets. Taliban
This was particularly appealing to the Afghan warlords as Afghanistan had gas fields in the north, which once supplied Uzbekistan but had been shut down. Taliban
Buigh- eroni arrived to woo the Afghan warlords. Taliban
That month, Bulgheroni signed a 30-year agreement with the Afghan government, then headed by President Burhanuddin Rabbani, for the construction and operation of a gas pipeline by Bridas and an international consortium which it would create. Taliban
Unocal set up the CentOas consortium holding a 70-per-cent stake, giving Delta 15 per cent, Russia’s state owned ~ gas company Gazprom 10 per cent and the state-owned company Turk- ~ menrosgaz 5 per cent. Taliban
Those sent out to the region were, with a few exceptions, interested in the job rather than the political environment they were living in. Taliban
Unocal was a huge corporation which hired executives to run its global oil business. Taliban
Just a few weeks earlier Unocal had announced it would give humanitarian aid as ‘bonuses’ to the Afghan warlords, once they agreed to form a joint council to supervise the pipe- line project. Taliban
Its gas and oil fields in Turkmenistan were blocked. Taliban
We made it clear to all parties from the beginning that the ability to obtain financing for the project was critical, that the Afghan factions would have to get together and develop a functioning government that was recognized by lending institutions before the project could succeed,’ said John Imle.25 Taliban
In their discussions with the Taliban, Bridas made much of their strong links to Prince Turki. Taliban
Babbani had already agreed. Taliban
Bridas actually began to negotiate a contract with the Taliban. Taliban
It took weeks of painstaking work through the summer for three Bridas executives to negotiate the ~.50-page document with 12 Taliban mullahs, who had no tech~nical experts amongst them apart from an engineering graduate, AND THE USA AND THE TALIBAN 1997—99 13 who had never practised engineering. Taliban
Delta’s role also increased external suspicions. Taliban
Oakley had played a critical role in providing US support to the Mujahed- din in the 1980s, but that did not endear him to the Afghans as the USA subsequently walked away from Afghanistan. Taliban
For a US corporation to hire ex-US government officials or academics was not unusual. Taliban
‘We want the pipeline. Taliban
The opportunity to transport Caspian oil and gas through Iran made an unpredictable Afghan pipeline even less viable. Taliban
At its annual shareholders’ meet- ing in June 1998, some shareholders objected to the project because of the Taliban’s treatment of Afghan women. Taliban
It was clear that no US company could build an Afghan pipeline with issues such as the Taliban’s gender policy, Bin Laden and the continuing fighting. Taliban
After providing billions of dollars’ worth of arms and ammunition to the Mujaheddin, the USA began to walk away from the Afghan issue after Soviet troops completed their withdrawal in 1989. Taliban
Washington allowed its allies in the region, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, free rein to sort out the ensuing Afghan civil war. Taliban
In such a situation, the State Department surmised, the USA could not ROMANCING THE TALIBAN 2:1997-99 -~ 177 178 TALIBAN hope to have a coherent policy towards Afghanistan. Taliban
There was another problem. Taliban
‘The Taliban con- trol more than two-thirds of the country, they are Afghan, they are indi- genous, they have demonstrated staying power. Taliban
At the same time, Unocal’s policy of political neutrality was well known to the US Govern- ment,’ Unocal President John Imle told me.22 Taliban
The USA and Unocal were essentially faced with a simple question in Afghanistan. Taliban
The only positive spin from the trip was that it convinced Iran that the USA now saw Tehran as a dia- logue partner in future Afghan peace talks, thereby reducing US—Iranian tensions over Afghanistan. Taliban
As with Raphel’s initiatives in 1996, the USA appeared to be dipping its fingers into the Afghan quagmire, but wanted no real responsibility. Taliban
Afghan women activists such as Zieba Shorish-Shamley had persuaded the Feminist Majority to spear- head a signature campaign to mobilize support for Afghan women and force Clinton to take a tougher stance against the Taliban. Taliban
The US rejection of the Taliban was largely because of the pressure exerted by the feminist movement at home. Taliban
With Leno’s help, the Feminist Majority organized a massive star- studded party after the 1999 Oscars to honour Afghan women. Taliban
PAKISTAN’S AFGHAN WAR the two ministries and the Prime Minister’s Secretariat with bulging briefcases full of files that needed signatures from various ministers. Taliban
In such a situation, the State Department surmised, the USA could not ROMANCING THE TALIBAN 2: 1997-99 -~ 177 178 TALIBAN hope to have a coherent policy towards Afghanistan. Taliban
trol more than two-thirds of the country, they are Afghan, they are indi- genous, they have demonstrated staying power. Taliban
He wanted to free Afghan policy from the IS!. Taliban
During Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto’s second term of office (1993— 96), the retired Interior Minister General Naseerullah Babar promoted the Taliban. Taliban
Both Bhutto and Babar were deeply suspicious of the ISI’s power and resources, which it had used to fuel discontent against Bhutto in her first term in office, leading to her removal in 1990. Taliban
In January 1996 the Director General of the Afghan Trade Development Cell travelled by road from Quetta to Turkmenistan accompanied by offi- cials from Civil Aviation, Pakistan Telecom, PIA, Pakistan Railways, Radio Pakistan and the National Bank of Pakistan. Taliban
Throughout Afghan history no outsider has been able to manipulate the Afghans, something the British and the Soviets learnt to their cost. Taliban
by enlisting the help of government minis- MASTER OR VICTIM: PAKISTAN’S AFGHAN WAR 185 186 TAUBAN ters or the transport mafia. Taliban
Increasingly, the Kashmir issue became the prime mover behind Pakis- tan’s Afghan policy and its support to the Taliban. Taliban
To many, the concept of ‘strategic depth’ was riddled with fallacies and misconceptions as it ignored obvious ground realities that political stability at home,~economic development, wider literacy and friendly rela- tions with neighbours ensured greater national security than imaginary mirages of strategic depth in the Afghan mountains. Taliban
The military assumed that the Taliban would recognize the Durand Line — the disputed boundary line between the two countries created by the British and which no Afghan regime has recognized. Taliban
The ISI’s micro-management of the Afghan jihad was only possible because under a military regime and with lavish funding from abroad, the ISI was able to subdue political opposition at home. Taliban
But by now the IS! Taliban
Pakistan reacted by lashing out at its critics including the UN which was now openly critical of all external support for the Afghan factions. Taliban
The smuggling trade to and from Afghanistan became the most devastating manifestation of these losses. Taliban
The goods they carry have no invoices. Taliban
On a good day, some 300 trucks pass through. Taliban
Truck drivers, Pakistani customs officials and Taliban mix in a casual, friendly way guzzling down endless cups of tea, as long lines of trucks wait to cross. Taliban
The fall of Kabul in 1992 coincided with new markets opening up in Central Asia and the need for foodstuffs, fuel and building materials as Afghan refugees returned home — a potential bonanza for the transport mafias. Taliban
The Central Board of Revenue (CBR) estimated that Pakistan lost 3.5 Taliban
This nexus extended to politicans and cabinet ministers in Baluchistan and the NWFP. Taliban
The transport mafia also smuggled in electronic goods from Dubai, Sharjah and other Persian Gulf ports while exporting heroin hidden in Afghan dried fruit and seasoned timber — on Ariana, the national Afghan airline now controlled by the Taliban. Taliban
The transport mafia’s smuggling of fuel and other goods from Iran to Afghanistan and Pakistan led to revenue losses, crippled local industry and corrupted people at the highest level of gov- ernment. Taliban
In the 1980s the fall-out from the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan had created ‘the heroin and kalashnikov culture’ that undermined Pakistan’s politics and economy. Taliban
The backlash from Afghanistan added fuel to the spreading fire of instability in Pakistan. Taliban
As early as 1995 Maulana Sufi Mohammed had led his Tanzim Nifaz Shariat-i-Mohammedi in Bajaur Agency in an uprising to demand Sharia law. Taliban
Outsiders increasingly saw Pakistan as a failing or failed state like Afghanistan, Sudan or Somalia. Taliban
A failed state is not necessarily a dying state, although it can be that too. Taliban
During his visit to Kabul in April 1998, US Ambassador Bill Richardson had already signalled that the USA saw Iran as a dialogue partner to help resolve the Afghan crisis. Taliban
Ostensibly both Iran and Saudi Arabia were on the same side in the Afghan conflict. Taliban
Dollar for dollar, Saudi aid matched the funds given to the Mujaheddin by the US. Taliban
The Saudis gave nearly US$4 billion in official aid to the Mujaheddin between 1980 and 1990, which did not include unofficial aid from Islamic charities, foundations, the private funds of Princes and mosque collections.2 Taliban
In March 1990, the Saudis came up with an additional US$100 million for Hikmetyar’s Hizb-e-Islami party who were backing an abortive coup attempt from within the Afghan army against President Najibullah by Hikmetyar and General Shahnawaz Tanai in KabuL4 After 1992 the Saudis continued to provide funds and fuel to the Mujaheddin govern- ment in Kabul. Taliban
Due to the estranged relations between Iran and the USA, the Afghan Mujaheddin groups based in Iran received no international military assist- ance. Taliban
Nor did the two million Afghan refugees who fled to Iran receive the same humanitarian aid which their three million counterparts in Paid- stan received. Taliban
Iran’s initial support to the Mujaheddin only went to the Afghan Shias, in particular the Hazaras. Taliban
It was the era in which Iran’s Revolutionary Guards funded Shia militants worldwide — from Lebanon to Pakistan. Taliban
But when Riyadh asked these Islamic groups for a payback and to lend support to Saudi Arabia and the USA led coalition against Iraq, the majority of them backed Saddam Hussein, including Hikmetyar and most Afghan groups. Taliban
Ironically only the moderate Afghan groups, whom the Saudis had ignored, helped out the Kingdom in its hour of need.5 Taliban
As the Afghan war intensified between 1992 and 1995, so did the rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia. Taliban
The Iranians had also become more pragmatic, backing not just the SHIA VERSUS SUNNb IRAN AND SAUDI ARABIA -~ 199 200 -~ TAUBAN Afghan Shias but all the Persian-speaking ethnic groups who were res- isting Pashtun domination. Taliban
Also between 1989 and 1993, Russia provided Iran with US$10 billion worth of weapons to rebuild its military arsenaL Iran improved its standing in the region by forging links with other non-Muslim former Soviet states such as Georgia, Ukraine and Armenia. Taliban
The ulema play a leading advisory role to the Saudi monarch in the Council of the Assembly of Senior Ulema and four other state organizations. Taliban
However, for Tehran the real fall-out with Afghanistan was internal. Taliban
Boroujerdi, who ran Afghan policy for more than a decade was a smart diplomat. Taliban
The collapse of the Afghan state increased Iran’s own insecurity by creating a massive influx of drugs and weapons. Taliban
Its spokesmen from Iran’s Turkmen, Baluchi and Afghan minorit- ies, claimed that their aim was to overthrow the Shia regime in Tehran and impose a Taliban-style Sunni regime. Taliban
The Taliban were incensed with Iran’s support for the alliance. Taliban
‘The Taliban are Pushtuns and cannot sideline all the other ethnic groups from the political scene without sparking continuing resistance. Taliban
In 1998 the ICRC reported that the number of Afghan families headed by a widow had reached 98,000, the number of families headed by a disabled person was 63,000 and 45,000 people were treated for war wounds that year alone. Taliban
If President Khatami were to push forward his reform agenda at home, the Iranian regime would increasingly desire and need a peace settlement SHIA VERSUS SUNNI: IRAN AND SAUDI ARABIA 205 206 TAUBAN in Afghanistan - to end the drain on its resources from funding the anti- Taliban alliance, stop the drugs, weapons and sectarian spillover from Afghanistan and move towards a further rapprochement with the USA. Taliban
The Afghan Mujaheddin contributed to the demise of the Soviet Union, the Soviet empire and even communism itself. Taliban
While the Afghans take all credit for this, the West has gone the other way, barely acknow- ledging the Afghan contribution to the end of the Cold War. Taliban
In the 1980s the USA was prepared ‘to fight till the last Afghan’ to get even with the Soviet Union, but when the Soviets left, Washington was not prepared to help bring peace or feed a hungry people. Taliban
The Afghan refugees would return, easing the financial burden of sustaining them and Pakistan could begin to reas- sert some control over its dilapidated state institutions and borders. Taliban
There is no common ground between the two states on a solution to the Afghan civil war and even more ominously both states are funding proxy wars between Shias and Sunnis in each other’s countries as well as in Afghanistan, increasing the likeithood of a major sectarian explosion in the region. Taliban
The genius of early Muslim-Arab civilization was its multi-cultural, multi-religious and multi-ethnic diversity. Taliban
The stunning and numerous state failures that abound in the Muslim world today are because that original path, that intention and inspiration, has been abandoned either in favour of brute dictatorship or a narrow interpretation of theology. Taliban
At the same time, the Taliban refuse to define the Afghan state they want to constitute and rule over, largely because they have no idea what they want. Taliban
It seems that the only effective Afghan NGO is based on organized smuggling and the drugs trade. Taliban
Peace in Afghanistan would pay enormous dividends across the entire region. Taliban
China would feel more secure and be able to carry out a more effective economic development programme in its deprived Muslim province of Xinjiang. Taliban
18 February. Taliban
4 September. Taliban
1997 24 May. Taliban
28 February. Taliban
Taliban capture Kandahar. Taliban
cuss joining Bridas for Afghan pipeline. Taliban
President Niyazov in New York signs Afghan pipe- line agreement with UnocalfDelta. Taliban
Bridas signs agreement with Afghan government for construction of pipeline. Taliban
US Assistant Secretary of State Robin Raphel visits Afghanistan and Central Asia. Taliban
President Niyazov and Unocal/Deka sign agreement giving them exclusive rights to form consortium for Afghan pipeline. Taliban
Bridas signs agreement with Taliban and General Rashid Dostum to build pipeline. Taliban
Appendix 5 Glossary of Afghan terms 244 TALIBAN MuIlah. Taliban
Appendix 6 Bibliography 246 Dupree, Nancy Hatch, A Historical Guide to Afghanistan, Afghan Tourist Organization, Kabul 1970. Taliban
Chapter 1 1. Taliban
Chapter 2 1. Taliban
Chapter 5 1. Taliban
Chapter 6 1. Taliban
Chapter 8 1. Taliban
Chapter 12 1. Taliban
Chapter 13 1. Taliban
Chapter 14 1. Taliban
Chapter 16 1. Taliban
province 59 Sarobi 43,48—9 Saudi Arabia 5,44—5,48, 50,54, 58, 72,89—92, 116, 198, 200—5 Afghan conflict 197 aid for Hikmetyar’s Hizbae-Islami Arab-Afghans 137 Bin Laden 77, 211 Central Asian Republics 200—1 Council of the Assembly of Senior foreign policy 199, 211 funds to Mujaheddin 197 Intelligence Service 48, 130—1, 170 Iran relations 196—7, 199, 206 madrassas funds 90 Red Crescent 131 relations with Central Asia 200—1 Royal Family 75, 133—4, 138—9, 168, Talibans 77, 176, 179—80,201—2, 211 ulema 133 US relations 179, 182 Wahabbi creed 85 Save the Children 65, 109, 113 Sayyaf, Abdul Rasul 85, 131—2,199 Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Rela- Sergeyev, Igor 78 Sestanovn 156 Sevan, Benon 49 Shad, Queen Gowhar 38, 112—13 Shaflq, Mohammed Musa 84 Shah, King/ex-King Zahir 82,85,88 Shah, Taimur 11 Shah, Zahir 85 Sharia 90, 93, 107,115—16 law 58,64, 83, 88, 102, 106, 194 Sharif, Prime Minister Nawaz 61, Afghan cease-fire 204 government (1990—93)90 Muslim League 121 Talibans 188 Sharjah 120, 192 Sheikh, Najmuddin 169 party 198 Ulema 201 201,211 tions for South Asia 45 137—8, 168, 173, 180 Sher, Ahmed 69—70 Shevardnadze, Eduard 200 Shias 57,69,74 Afghans 197 Hazaras 34,45,62—4,69, 139 Iran 74 Islams 83 Muslims 68, 132 Persia 88 and Sunnis war 211 Shiberghan 56, 63, 70, 72, 74 Shiism 83 Shindand 36—7 Shomali valley 62,64 Shorish-Shamley, Zieba 183 Sikhs 82—3 Silk Route 9,56, 68, 190, 192,207 Simmons, Tom 165 Sind 20 Sipah-e-Sahaba party (SSP) 74,92 Sonderberg, Nancy 78 Sony 193 South Asia 7 Southern Afghanistan 21 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) 11, Red Army 1 Spetsnatz (Special Forces) 18 Union 200,208 withdrawal (1989) 175, 208 Special Services Group 28 Spin Baldak, Afghanistan 27—9, 189 Sri Lanka 68 Stalin, Joseph 147 Stanakzai, Sher Mohammed 101,202 Starobin, Paul 175 State Bank of Afghanistan 124 Stevenson, Robert Louis, Treasure Island 17 Sudan, National islamic Front 136 Sufism 84—5 Sunni Arabia 194 fundamentalism 205 Hanafis 83, 85, 88 Islams 74,88 Pashtuns69, 197, 199 84-5,197,208 Supreme Council for the Defence of the Motherland 52—3 Sureda, Jose Louis 158 Swedish Committee 110 Tacitus (Roman historian) 74 Taggert, Chris 166 Taimur (Tamerlane) 9, 112 Tajikistan, Soviet Socialist Republic of 44,60,93 Afghanistan border 60,77 CIA attack 129 conflict 209 heroin addiction 122 Masud6l, 148 Pashtun alliance 52 Tashkent meeting 77 Uzbek-Hazara alliance 69 Tajiks 7, 21,35,49, 5 1—3, 61—2,64, 68—9, 73—4, 83, 101,208 Takhar province 59 Talbott, Strobe 161—2, 164—5, 179, 181 Talibans 1—8, 20, 23—4,31,34—6, 40—6,48—62,64—5,67—8,70, 75—7, 85 airforce and airport operations 184 Ashkhabad talks 78 casualties 77 control of Afghanistan 211 culture 105—16 flefdoms 213 gender policies 105—16, 175, 180 government 212 governors 99 international relations 79, 118 Islamics 1,87,93, 111, 176 Kunduz expeditionary force 99 leaders 125, 139, 191 meeting with anti-Taliban Alliance mullahs 170—1 origins of 17—30 pipeline 159 political and military organisation prisoners 64 religious police 65, 105—6 Shuras 60 71 95—104 INDEX — 277 INDEX — 278 Talibans (continued) Sunni fundamentalism 205 Supreme Court 4 see also anti-Taliban alliance; Bin Tanai, General Shahnawaz 103, 198 Tanzania, US embassy bombing?, 75, 131, 134, 136, 138—9, 181, 209 TAP Pipelines 167 Taraki, President Nur Mohammed 13 Tariqah 88 Tarinkot (Urozgan province) 23—4 Tashkent 77,85 Tashkhorgan 62 Tazim Nifaz Shariat-i-Mohammedi in Bajaur Agency 194 Tehran 66,70 see also Iran Tehrik-i-Tuleba (Movement of Ta!-n 156 Sevan, Benon 49 Shad, Queen Gowhar 38, 112—13 Shaflq, Mohammed Musa 84 Shah, King/ex-King Zahir 82,85,88 Shah, Taimur 11 Shah, Zahir 85 Sharia 90, 93, 107,115—16 law 58,64, 83, 88, 102, 106, 194 Sharif, Prime Minister Nawaz 61, Afghan cease-fire 204 government (1990—93)90 Muslim League 121 Talibans 188 Sharjah 120, 192 Sheikh, Najmuddin 169 party 198 Ulema 201 201,211 tions for South Asia 45 137—8, 168, 173, 180 Sher, Ahmed 69—70 Shevardnadze, Eduard 200 Shias 57,69,74 Afghans 197 Hazaras 34,45,62—4,69, 139 Iran 74 Islams 83 Muslims 68, 132 Persia 88 and Sunnis war 211 Shiberghan 56, 63, 70, 72, 74 Shiism 83 Shindand 36—7 Shomali valley 62,64 Shorish-Shamley, Zieba 183 Sikhs 82—3 Silk Route 9,56, 68, 190, 192,207 Simmons, Tom 165 Sind 20 Sipah-e-Sahaba party (SSP) 74,92 Sonderberg, Nancy 78 Sony 193 South Asia 7 Southern Afghanistan 21 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) 11, Red Army 1 Spetsnatz (Special Forces) 18 Union 200,208 withdrawal (1989) 175, 208 Special Services Group 28 Spin Baldak, Afghanistan 27—9, 189 Sri Lanka 68 Stalin, Joseph 147 Stanakzai, Sher Mohammed 101,202 Starobin, Paul 175 State Bank of Afghanistan 124 Stevenson, Robert Louis, Treasure Island 17 Sudan, National islamic Front 136 Sufism 84—5 Sunni Arabia 194 fundamentalism 205 Hanafis 83, 85, 88 Islams 74,88 Pashtuns69, 197, 199 84-5,197,208 Supreme Council for the Defence of the Motherland 52—3 Sureda, Jose Louis 158 Swedish Committee 110 Tacitus (Roman historian) 74 Taggert, Chris 166 Taimur (Tamerlane) 9, 112 Tajikistan, Soviet Socialist Republic of 44,60,93 Afghanistan border 60,77 CIA attack 129 conflict 209 heroin addiction 122 Masud6l, 148 Pashtun alliance 52 Tashkent meeting 77 Uzbek-Hazara alliance 69 Tajiks 7, 21,35,49, 5 1—3, 61—2,64, 68—9, 73—4, 83, 101,208 Takhar province 59 Talbott, Strobe 161—2, 164—5, 179, 181 Talibans 1—8, 20, 23—4,31,34—6, 40—6,48—62,64—5,67—8,70, 75—7, 85 airforce and airport operations 184 Ashkhabad talks 78 casualties 77 control of Afghanistan 211 culture 105—16 flefdoms 213 gender policies 105—16, 175, 180 government 212 governors 99 international relations 79, 118 Islamics 1,87,93, 111, 176 Kunduz expeditionary force 99 leaders 125, 139, 191 meeting with anti-Taliban Alliance mullahs 170—1 origins of 17—30 pipeline 159 political and military organisation prisoners 64 religious police 65, 105—6 Shuras 60 71 95—104 INDEX — 277 INDEX — 278 Talibans (continued) Sunni fundamentalism 205 Supreme Court 4 see also anti-Taliban alliance; Bin Tanai, General Shahnawaz 103, 198 Tanzania, US embassy bombing?, 75, 131, 134, 136, 138—9, 181, 209 TAP Pipelines 167 Taraki, President Nur Mohammed 13 Tariqah 88 Tarinkot (Urozgan province) 23—4 Tashkent 77,85 Tashkhorgan 62 Tazim Nifaz Shariat-i-Mohammedi in Bajaur Agency 194 Tehran 66,70 see also Iran Tehrik-i-Tuleba (Movement of Ta! Taliban
Peters, Gretchen 2 pipelines 6, 157—69, 173, 175, 179, 201,209,215 Polo, Marco 7 Primakov, Yevgeny 60—1 Prophet Mohammed 6, 10,23,32, 42—3, 57,86-7, 107 Cloak of 19—20,42 Qadeer, Haji Abdul 48 Qaderiyah (Suffi order) 84—5 Qais 10 Qalamuddin, Maulvi 105-7 Qazil Abad 63 Qila-e-Jhangi 55 Quetta, Pakistan 18,21—2, 27—9,50, 120 mafia 190—3 Rabbani, Mullah Mohammed 22,26, 34,50—2, 93, 103, 159 meeting with King Fahd 202 Rabbani, Burhanuddin 13,26,29,33, 36,43—4, 52,61,64,97, 159, 169 Iran 200,204 Masud troops 21,34—5,40 Pakistan’s rivals 188 Radio Afghanistan 185 Kabul 50 Pakistan 185 Shariat 50—1, 107, 185 Rafsanjani, President AkbarAli 202 Rahi, Dr Humera 69 opment 171 INDEX — 275 INDEX — 276 Rakhmanov, Imomall (President of Tajikistan) 123 Baphel, Robin 46-6, 165—6, 178, 181 Rashid, Abdul 118—19 Rashid, Mullah Abdul 125—6 Razaq, Mullah Abdul49, 51,59 Razzak, Mullah Abdul 100 Reagan, President 172 Red Cross, International Committe (ICRC) 18, 50, 59, 74, 126, 207 Rehami, Mullah Mohammed 17 Rebman, Amir Abdul ‘Iron Amir’ (1880—1901)12 Rehman, Dr Abdur 43 Rebman, Faslur 44 Rehman, Flight-Lieutenant Khalilur Rehman, King Abdul68 Rehman, Maulana Fazlur 26,90,201 Rehmen, General Akhtar Abdur 120 Reuters 167 Richardson, Bill (US Ambassador to Rishkor army garrison 139 Rohrabacher, Dana 181-2 Roman Empire 68 Rostam, Sobrab 63 Rouzi, Majid 58 Roy, Olivier 87, 130, 187 Rubin, Barnett 108,177 Rukh, Shah (son of Taimur)37-8 Rumi (Persian poet) 57 Russia 1—5,44, 53, 56, 60—1,66, 72, 77 arms supplies 76 and Britain treaties 209 Central Asian 44,209 Revolution (1917) 147 Tashkent meeting 77 troops 60 Unocal 171 Safavid dynasty 9—10,197 Sabar, General Saleem 63 Salang Highway/tunnel 47, 52—3, 59 Salim 75 Samangan province 59 Samarkand9,38, 147 Saneos, q~arles 171 121 UN) 71, 181, 196 Sarbanar (son of Qais) 10 Sari Pu! Taliban
UNESCO 9, 113 UNICEF 108, 113 United Arab Emirates 58 United Islamic and National Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan 61 United Nations (UN) 50,54,61,67, 74, 111, 114, 126—7, 139, 169 Afghanistan 189 agencies 59, 64, 71, 103, 113, 123—4, aid agencies 2, 62, 70, 72, 77, 101, Aid programmes 69 Charter 64,76 Drugs Control Programme (UNDCP) Group of Concerned Countries 66 High Commissioner for Refugees humanitarian aid agencies 65, 71, 93, investigations 63 Islamabad 49 mediation 177 officials, Kabul 75 peace-making 49, 214 Security Council 45—6,64,66,76—9, Special Representative for staff 70-1 United States (US) 66 Afghan policy 178 Agency for International Develop- Assistant Secretary of State for South h127 104 119—20, 123—4 (UNHCR) 65, 72, 113 108 178 Afghanistan see Brahimi, Lakhdar ment 171 Asia see Raphel, Robin attack 77,92 Bin Laden 77, 79, 175—7, 182 Central Asian policy 175, 215 CIA 172, 179 Congress 46, 129 Consulate in Calcutta 136 Drugs Enforcement Administration (DEA) 121 embassy bombing?, 75, 131, 136, 138—9, 181, 209 feminist groups 65, 174 Foreign Oil Companies group 162 Iran relations 46, 176, 181, 196—8, 200,205 Mujaheddin 172, 175—6, 184, 197 narcotics policy 120 oil companies 172, 179 Pakistan relations 182, 186 pipeline plans 179 policy to Afghanistan-Pakistan-Iran- Central Asia region 176 pressure 78 Saudi Arabia relations 179, 182 Senate 70, 178 State Department 133—4, 140, 156, 161, 177, 179 Talibans (1997—99) 170—82 Turkmenistan 173 University of Omaha, Centre of Afghanistan Studies 171 Unocal (US), Central Asian Oil Pipeline Project (CAOPP) 6,45, 126, 151, 154, 159—80, 209 Urozgan province 22,33,98 Uzbek-Tajik-Hazara alliance 69 Uzbekistan, Soviet Socialist Republic of 44, 56, 58,60, 72,93, 129, 149 Afghanistan border 60,77 Dostum 73 heroin addiction 122 Tashkent meeting 77 Uzbeks35, 5 1—2, 55—6,58,61,63—4, 69—70, 101, 128, 210 clan history 57 commanders 73 fighters 76 forces 21, 58 leadership 77 massacres (1998) 74,83 Shaybani Khans 9 Velayti, Ali Akbar 61,200 Vietnam 120 Vyakhirev, Rem 173—4 Wahab, Abdul (1703—1792)85 Wahabbis 137, 139 ulema 201 Wahabbism 85, 132, 197, 199,201—2, 211 Wahadat see Hizb-e-Wahadat party Wais, Mir 10,23 Wakil, Mullah 43, 102 Wali, Abdul3—4 Wali, Mahmud Ibn 149 Wali,Simi 111 Wardak province 34,67 Washington 45-6 Unocal6 Washington Post 182 Western humanitarian aid agencies 18, 106, 127 Witschi-Cestari, Alfredo 71,127 World Bank 167, 215 Food Programme (WFP) 67, 108, 126—7 Muslim League 131 Trade Center 130—1, 135 Trade Organisation 189 Xinjiang province 215 Yeltsin, President Boris 156 Yousufzai, Rahimullah 23 Zabul province 22,33 Zahir Shah, King 11—12, 19 Zardari, Asif 159 Zia, President see ul Haq, President (General) Zi Zohra, Bibi 108—9 Zoroastrianism 8,57 INDEX — 27 Taliban
After his release from prison, Professor Kakar fled with his family to Peshawar in Pakistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Politics in Contemporary Asia series I 1 ‘S The Taliban: War, religion and the new order in Afghanistan KARACHI LAHORE ISLAMABAD Peter Marsden Oxford University Press Zed Books Ltd LONDON & NEW YORK w 0 The Taliban: War, religion and the new order in Afghanistan was first published by Zed Books Ltd, 7 Cynthia Street, London NI 9JF, UK and Room 400, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, rw 10010, USA in 1998. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Afghanistan subject to Kushan dynasty. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Development of the Silk Route. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Afghanistan subject to Sasanian dynasty and Hephthalite empire. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Chapter 4 examines the origins of the Taliban and the nature of its leadership, and follows the dramatic events that led to the Taliban capture of Kabul and the subsequent efforts to take northern Afghan- istan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
7 In a country like Afghanistan, where the concept of the nation has developed but recently, where the state is seen as external to society and where people’s allegiance is directed primarily towards the local community the only thing which all Afghans have in common is Islam (Roy, 1986: 30). The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The people of Afghanistan are ethnically, religiously and linguistic- ally mixed. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Culturally, the country is very mixed. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
530 BC), who promoted Zoroastrianism through- out the Achaemenid empire. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In 1719 the new Afghan ruler of Kandahar, Mir Mahmoud, ex- ploited the weakness of the Safavid empire by marching on the Persian cities of Kerman, Yazd and Isfahan, which by 1722 he had captured. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
When Nadir Shah was assassinated a few years later, it was the turn of another Afghan leader, Ahmed Shah Durrani, to rise to prominence. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Although the Afghan ruler failed to conclude an agreement with either Britain or Russia and the siege of Herat failed, the Russian presence had alarmed hawks within the British Indian government, The nature of Afghanistan who decided that Britain had to make absolutely sure that Afghanistan was not vulnerable to Russian influence or invasion. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In 1838, Lord Auckland announced that an invasion force would be sent into Afghan territory to restore to power Shah Shuja, who had been ousted soon after signing the i8og mutual defence treaty. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Assuming that their occupation was well established they proceeded to import their wives and children and the colonial lifestyle they had developed in India, but it took only two years for popular resentment to manifest itself in armed insurrection. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Afghan ruler, Sher Mi, became increasingly anxious at the steady Russian military advance into Central Asia and sought assur- ances from Britain that it would provide support if the northern border was transgressed. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Although it was successful in reversing an initial defeat, Britain had no taste for further fighting and agreed, through the ‘919 Treaty of Rawal- pindi, that Afghanistan was free to conduct its own foreign affairs. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Within months of taking power Amanullah declared war on Britain, seeking to exploit reports of its post-war weakness. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Afghan government took the opportunity provided by the negotiations to argue that the Pushtun tribal areas of North- West Frontier Province, which had held a semi-independent status in relation to British India since 1901, should be able to opt for in- dependence. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The immediate post-war period saw early negotiations for the independence of India, based on partition between India and Pakistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Afghanistan thus increasingly looked to the Soviet Union as a trading partner and source of support. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Furthermore, the Islamists, who originated in the north, had no illusions about the objectives of the PDPA, having rubbed shoulders with them in Kabul University. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This analysis is of interest in that it clearly encapsulates the basic division between two elements of what has come to be known as the Mujahidin move It also indicates a complexity in a picture that has, through repetitive media images of Afghan warriors launching rockets and shells from mountain tops, been presented in a highly, simplistic manner. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Khalis was trained in Islamic theology at the Deoband School in Delhi, which produced several generations of Afghan Ulema. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
From 1987, the Soviet Union demonstrated an increasing commit- ( on / ment to the UN-sponsored peace negotiations that had been going government, but excluding the Mujahidin parties The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Soviet government had, however, taken steps to make the PDPA government more acceptable to the population. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Afghan Interim Government set out to create legitimacy for itself by. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The situation in Peshawar was not much better. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Efforts were made to legitimise the regime through discussions sponsored by Pakistan between the seven member parties of the Afghan Interim Government. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, their actions have often contravened the policies of other elements of the Taliban leadership, leading to confusion and to speculation as to a possible struggle between hardliners and relative moderates within the movement. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Asked how and why, the Taliban movement had started, he replied: After the Mujahidin parties came to power in 1992, the Afghan people thought that peace would prevail in the country However, the leaders 6o I The Taliban creed began to fight over power in Kabul. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
When asked what the/ differences were between the Afghan system and other systems, such as those in Iran, Sudan and others, Mullah Omar replied: ‘We do not look at other governments. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In summarising, it would be unwise to state that the Taliban have drawn their inspiration from any particular movement. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
From this arose an initiative to create a School of Islamic Studies at Deoband, near Delhi, in 1867, at which several generations of Afghan Ulema came to be trained. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Deoband school drew heavily on the Sufi tradition of Afghan- istan and was highly orthodox in its interpretation of Islam. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Former pupils of Deoband continued to encourage the tribes of the north-west frontier to take up arms against the British. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Shari’a law was seen by the Afghan monarchy in the nineteenth century as a useful basis for cementing the society into a governable unit. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
8o The Afghan Islamic tradition However, he failed to maintain his position and was replaced by Muhammad Nadir Khan, a third cousin of Amanullah, in October 1929. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
82 The Afghan Islamic tradition At the other end of the spectrum among the Islamists were Jamiat- i-Islami and Hisb-e-Islami (Khalis), with broadly similar objectives to those of Hisb-e-Islami but quite different views as to how these objectives should be achieved. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, while the decison-making process at the district level is based on a cell structure, at the village level the old consensual tradition continues to exist. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
(Saudi Arabia was extremely active in developing universities, madrasahs) and mosques in Afghanistan and in the Afghan refugee camps in Pakistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The war provided the opportunity for a new generation of adherents to radical Islam, or to Islamist ideologies, to be trained. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, the domin- ant influence appears to be that of the Afghan Ulema, who could be perceived as seeking a return to the status quo that existed before the intellectual movements of the 1950s and 1960s set in motion a chain of events from which Afghanistan is still reeling. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
A growing number of girls benefited from secondary and higher education and this in turn provoked a reaction from the Ulema, who argued that the expansion of non-traditional education was eroding the morals of the young and undermining traditional social values. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
(An interesting parallel can be seen with the early history of Islam where, having taken new areas, the Muslim conquerors found themselves dependent on 95 The Taliban Christians to run the administration, fuelling internal debate as to whether these Christians would undermine the values the movements were seeking to impart.) The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This attitude created an ambivalance within the population to- wards Western humanitarian aid agencies. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
To some extent the Mujahidin parties used the presence of the foreign agencies to strengthen their own positions. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
During the early years after the departure of the Soviet forces, humanitarian agencies found themselves under frequent verbal attacks from some of the Mujahidin parties and from Islamist fringe movements, and it was common for Afghan women working for the agencies to receive threats. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
It is also of interest to note the position of the Muslim Brother- hood ideologue, Muhammad Ghazali, in view of the significant 96 The gender policies of the Taliban influence of the Brotherhood on the Islamist movement in Afghan- istan prior to the Soviet invasion. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
There has equally been a range of responses amongst Afghan women. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
to women’s role within Afghan society and within Islam, covering the full spectrum from radical Islam to a secular position. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
It is also important to recognise that Western society is no more homogeneous than Afghan society. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
They have made every effort to conform with cultural norms but they have also sought to ensure that women benefited equally, as far as possible, from the aid given and that they were consulted as to the nature of the aid. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The Western NGOs operated in accordance with a curriculum drawn up jointly by a USAID-funded project run by the University of Omaha at Nebraska and the Pakistan-based Afghan Interim Government of the Mujahidin parties. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
As such we are non-partisan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The situation since the meeting has been extremely confused. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
On 17 October the UN Security Council issued a resolution in The Taliban which it expressed concern at what it described as extreme dis- crimination against women and urged strict adherence to the norms of international humanitarian law. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
On 24 October the European Parliament adopted a resolution in which it called on all states to oppose the Taliban administration in Kabul because of what it called systematic discrimination against Afghan women, the numerous violations of human rights and the forcible indoctrination of the Afghan people. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The threat to Afghan culture, either by Western values or by socialist ones, is felt very keenly by the population, and most Afghans would place a maintenance of their culture very high on their list of life priorities. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
At the risk of making further generalisations, it may be useful in the discussion of the interface between the Taliban and the inter- national community to consider some of the more obvious values held by the Afghan population. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The presence of humanit- lowed by people in the West. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
While this was going on, Dostam was strengthening his position in the north and developing trade and other links with the newly formed Central Asian Republics. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Pakistan has consistently denied backing the Taliban and there has been no concrete evidence of its support, only strong circumstantial evidence. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
All the indications were that the movement had run out of steam, exemplified by its failure to make much headway in its ‘8-month siege of Kabul. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
It argued that a single government there would bring stability and improve the prospects of proceeding with plans to build oil and gas pipelines through Afghan- istan from Central Asia. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Following the Taliban takeover of Kabul, Iran’s foreign minister, Mi Akbar Velayati, toured Central Asia and India to stress the need for a ceasefire and for the establishment of a broad-based govern- ment. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, on 14 October, the same day as a meeting with a delegation from the ousted Rabbani government, Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin of Russia met with President Niyazov of Turkmenistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
He added: ‘We do not quite share the results of the Almaty summit. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
In the meantime, he noted, one should be ‘patient’ about differing viewpoints in the CIS. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
On 19 October, President Karimov of Uzbekistan received the president of Pakistan, Farooq Leghari, in Tashkent. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
As we have seen, the Taliban were able to draw on particular Islamic movements within Pakistan’s borders to recruit young people from madrasahs throughout the country; including the Afghan refugee camps, where a number of radical Islamic and Islamist movements had established such centres of Islamic teaching, many supported with Saudi funding. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Iran was not only opposed to the Taliban because of competition over oil and gas pipelines. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
As the Taliban advanced, three countries in particular felt concern: Iran, Russia and India. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Earlier in the Afghan conflict, Iran took a strong position against the USA following the assumption of power by the Ayatollah Khom- eini in 1979, and was alarmed by the growing US and Saudi involve- ment in Afghanistan as the war progressed. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This population, in a politically and economically marginal situation under Pushtun control from the i88os until the PDPA coup and the Soviet invasion provided them with the opportunity to achieve effective local autonomy, has resisted the Taliban advance with great determination. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The secretary of the Russian Defence Council was nevertheless reported on 8 Qctober as saying that caution should be exercised in dealing with the Afghan situation, and that Russia and the CIS should not provide aid to Dostam. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
However, although the Afghan war has left deep scars and was, in the eyes of many, a contributory factor in the demise of the Soviet Union, Russia is anxious for good strategic reasons to maintain control of the northern Afghan border. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
For several years the rebels launched raids from Afghan territory on CIS troops manning the border between Tajikistan and north-eastern Afghanistan, with backing from Jamiat-i-Islami. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Pakistan could have reasoned that the Taliban, in restoring society to the condition that traditionally pertained in the rural areas, could quickly build support among the Pushtun tribes of southern Afghan- istan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
With the former Soviet Union in a fragile political and economic state, the USA is inevitably concerned not to have a country on the southern border of the CIS where there are no real controls and where drug production and smuggling, terrorism and the arms trade can be organised with a minimum of constraint. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Thus, in Pakistan, the military and the intelligence services have tended to dominate policy towards Afghanistan, with the political wing being relatively powerless. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
We have, therefore, two simultaneous and contradictory processes. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Education is a much more difficult area because of the religious, cultural and ideological dimensions, and a way forward has to be negotiated on the basis of dialogue between the different elements of the Afghan population and the Taliban. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Bibliography ‘54 Abdur-Rahman Khan, Amir, i8, 19, 31, 143 Abdur-Rahman, King, 8o adultery under Shari’a law, 85 Afghan Interim Government, 36, 42, 105 Afghan National Liberation Front, 32 afghani currency, collapse of, 51 Afghanistan: as conduit for gas and oil, 2 nature of, 8—26; relations with Pakistan, 22 Mshar, massacre of, 39 agriculture in Afghanistan, 8—9, 103 Ahmed Shah Durrani, 15, 16 Ahmed, Mullah Wakil, 6o, 65 aid, 8; provision of, 103, 104, 108, 151 (women’s access to, 105) aid agencies, 37, 40, 47, 49, 70, 96, 98, 99, 147, 149, 150, 151; and employment of women, 108, 110; attacks on, 96; dialogue with Taliban, 102—13; possible closure of programmes, 111 Akhund, Haji Mawlawi Mohammed Ghaus, 110 Alexander the Great, military campaigns of, 12—13 Algeria, 97, 100 Amanullah, 24, 8z Amanullah, grandson of Abdur- Rahman Khan, 20, 24, 81, 98; overthrow of, 21 Amanullah, King, 8o, 85, 93; Amin, Hafizullah, 26 Amnesty International, 52 Andropov, Yuri, 35 Index ‘55 Anglo-Afghan Treaty (1921), 20 Anglo-Russian Agreement (1872), 17 arms supplies, 43, 46; negotiated end to, 36; US provision of Stinger missiles, 35, 141 Ashraf, cousin of Mir Mahmoud, Auckland, Lord, i6, 17 Ayala-Lasso, José, 115 Babar, Moghul ruler, i4 Babar, Naseerullah, 128, 132 Babar, Qari, 41 Bacha-e-Saqqao, 21, 39, 8o, 8i, 86, 94 Bagram, 13; airbase, taking of, 55 Balkh, 12, 13, 16 Baluch population, 10 Bamyan, 13 Barelvi, Sayyad Ahmed, 79 Barkley-Brown, Elsa, 152 beards, requirement to wear, 46, 51, 63, 89, 92, 93, 99 Bellamy, Carol, 115 Bhutto, Benazir, 129 Bhutto, Zulfihar, 28; hanging of, 29 blood vengeance, 85 Bonino, Emma, 115 Borujerdi, Alauddin, 135, 143 Bosnia, fighting in, 84 Brezhnev, Leonid, 35 Bridas oil company, 139, 140 brideprice, limiting of, 24 Buddhism, 78 Bukhara, Amir of, i6, 17 burqa, requirement to wear, 51, 6o, 63, 89, 91, 93, g6, 97 15 The Taliban Catholic church, 58, 70 Central Asia, 126, 129, 130, 134, 147 Central Asian Republics, 127, 128, 133, 135, 136, 137, 148 chador, wearing of, 63 Charasyab, 46, 47 Charikar, taking of, 55 Chernenko, Konstantin, 35 Chernomyrdin, Victor, 131 children, working in the streets, 89 China, i8, 135 Christianity, 58, 59; conversion to, 37, 96; evangelism of, 137 see also Islam, and Christianity complex emergencies, 59 corruption, 45, 46, 6i, 71, 73, 92, 139 Cyrus the Great, 12 dance, restrictions on, 72, 73 Daoud Khan, Muhammad, 22, 23, 24, 28, 30, 31, 32, 94, 98; overthrow of, 24 Dan dialect, 9 Darius the Great, 12 debt, rural, 24 Delta Oil company, ‘40 democracy, ii6 Deoband school of Islamic Studies, 79, 8, Department for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice, 45, 63, 73, 77, 8g, 110, 122 Dost Muhammad, i6, 17 Dostam, Rashid, 36, 38, 40, 4!, The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
139, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, as conduit for aid, 142; creation of, ~i; recognition of Taliban, 53; sending of trade convoy, 45, 128, 132; support for Taliban, 128, 129, 133 see also refugees Pan-Islam, 7!, The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
79 Pan-Turkism, to Pashto language, g People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), II, 23, 24, 25,84, 95, g8, 105, 144; desertions from army of, 27 Peshawar, 37 polygamy, banned, 93 poppies, growing of, 9 prayer, obligation of, 46, 51, 64 prisoners, Taliban violence against, 122 Pul-i-Khumri, 54 punishments, under Islam, 62 purdah see seclusion of women Pushtun tribes, 5, 9, tO, II, 15, 19, 20, 21, 25, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 39, 42, 44, 49, 66, 78, 8o, 8,, 86, 92, g8, 135, 142, t46, 148 Pushtunistan, 23; proposal for assembly, 22 Pushtunwali code of conduct, 85, 86, g~ tension with Islam, 86; variance with Shari’a law, 85 Qadir, Haji, 41, 53 Qur’an, 3, 6, 43, 6o, 68, 76, 82, ii6; and position of women, 86, 97 (as regards employment, 107) Qutb, Sayyid, 68, 69 Rabbani, Burhannudin, 30, 32, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 50, 70, 86, 126, 127, 128, 131, 132, 135, 136, 139 Rashid, Ahmed, The Resurgence of Central Asia, 137 Rawalpindi, Treaty of, 20 Reagan, Ronald, 35 refugee camps, ~8, 84, 133, !3 The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
44, 52, 6i, 64, 65, 66, 70, 76, 86, ‘5° opium, production of, 124, 140—I Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), 135 orphanages, 142; role of, 84 Ottoman empire, 15 Pakistan, 7, 22, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 40, 43, 53, 8~, 84, 121, 123, 126, 127, t28, 130, 131, !35, The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Saussurea afghana from Afghanistan, Botanichnii Zhurnal, 1975, p.l446—l447. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
c~ 295 3629 Commentary, 69/4, 1980. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3907 Giannini, A., 1931, La Constituzione afghana, Oriente 3908 Godchot, J.E., 1957, Les constitutions du Proche et du~. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Islamic Revolution, (F), 1980, The spirit of Afghan Muslims, Islamic Revolution, 2/9, 1980, p.19—2l. Kamlin, M., 1980, Russia in Afghanistan, ‘piercing a. window’, or bursting the floodgates? Asia Pacific Community, 8, 1980, p.67—93. . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ranging from the Greeks under Alexander the Great to the Mongol hordes of Genghis Khan and the British in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, they have swept and thun- Introduction Introductlofl dered, ridden and caravaned across its rugged but magnificently beauti- ful lands. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, the tension, the insecurity, the growing hatred for the communists were apparent just beneath the surface. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Build-UP US satellite surveillance indicated abnormal Soviet military activity in the Central Asian republics bordering Afghanistan towards the end of November. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In contrast to their policies of exporting revolution to China, Mongolia, Iran and other ‘ripe’ countries, the Bolsheviks made little effort in Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
‘Al the men were ordered to come to a ‘jirgha’ (meet- ing) to discuss the rebel fighting in the area’, remembered Abdul Latif, a former policeman who later fled to Pakistan. the men were ordered to come to a ‘jirgha’ (meet- ing) to discuss the rebel fighting in the area’, remembered Abdul Latif, a former policeman who later fled to Pakistan Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While tank-supported troops stood back, planes and helicopter gunships bombed the fort and its surroundings for six hours, resulting in several thousand rebel and civilian casualties. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For a long time, the only programme that was watched with enthusiasm was the 149 150 The Sovietisation of Afghanistan weekend Indian movie. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Traditionally, the ICRC has assured the proper treatment of POWs according to the Geneva Convention by visiting POW camps, engi- neering prisoner exchanges and even mediating the release of captured civilians held by guerrillas in rebel-held areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Second, a tactical pattern emerged that would characterize the next two stages of the war. Afghanistan's Endless War
The first four months alone averaged 329 conflict incidents in 26 provinces.45 Afghanistan's Endless War
Martin, Mike. Afghanistan's Endless War
The attribution of insanity to the activities of men who rebel is of considerable interest; as we shall see, it seems directly comparable to the social rebellion of some women which is hidden behind a label of jinn-possession. Bartered Brides
Initially the White Guards reacted chaotically to the attack and suf- fered a humiliating defeat. Inside Bin Laden
The agreement facilitated the resignation and exile of President Mengistu in May 1991 and the relatively orderly entry of a coalition of Ethiopian rebel organizations led by Meles Zenawi to Addis Ababa. Inside Bin Laden
Nationalist and Islamist, they were eager to rebel against the corrupt 151-installed warlords and crime bosses. Inside Bin Laden
For example, if the government in an ostensibly Muslim state actively suppressed the Is- lamists, the Islamists had a right to rebel and even use force, for such a gov- ernment was apostate—suppressing political Islam and the propagation of Islamism. Inside Bin Laden
O ALLAH! Inside Bin Laden
In 1992 Dostum was the first to rebel against his mentor Najibullah, thereby establishing his reputation for treachery and political opportun- ism. Taliban
They arrived to drive Herati women indoors. Taliban
Amanullah was overthrown by a Tajik, Bacha-e-Saqqao, who led the rebel advance. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The communists have succeeded in winning over, sometimes only temporarily, a number of significant tribal groupings. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The next three decades saw important devel- opments for the future of the fledgling country, not only in Afghanistan itself but also in the larger region of Central and South Asia. Afghanistan's Endless War
When Abdul Rashid Dostam’s northern Uzbek militia rebelled against Najibullah’s government in February 1992, the days of the regime were numbered. Afghanistan's Endless War
By early January 1995 the movement had be- come a flood. Inside Bin Laden
Mullah Niazi, the commander who had ordered Najibullah’s murder was appointed Gov- ernor of Mazar and within hours of taking the city, Taliban mullahs were proclaiming from the city’s mosques that the city’s Shia had three cho- ices — convert to Sunni Islam, leave for Shia Iran or die. Taliban
Islam also sanctions rebellion against an unjust ruler, whether Muslim or not and jihad is the mobilizing mechanism to achieve change. Taliban
More Advisers Leadership problems were also gravely affecting the fighting morale of the army, where the situation was going from bad tO worse. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With some prodding from the mullahs, rebellion broke out in the Hazarajat in February 1979. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But before the insurgency could spread, government security forces put the guerrillas to flight. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The combination of these factors frequently led to unrest, rebellion, revolution, and, civil war in the developing countries. Afghanistan's Endless War
The British presence among the Pushtuns was always minimal, even in Peshawar, and confined to the fringe of Pushtun territory (the British never actually controlled many of the tribal areas they claimed, nor do the Pakistanis today). Afghanistan's Endless War
First, a coup d’etat in April 1978 overthrew Mohammad Daoud’s nation- alist regime and installed the fledgling communist party in power. Afghanistan's Endless War
Thereafter, the rebellion spread rapidly and unremittingly. Afghanistan's Endless War
At least twenty-four of the (then) twenty-eight pro- vinces of Afghanistan had suffered outbreaks of violence.~ Afghanistan's Endless War
Without the preexisting ethnic tensions and ill-timed government reform policies it is questionable whether the rebellion would have begun so suddenly or spread so vigorously. Afghanistan's Endless War
The citadel was overrun after a night of vicious fighting, including the use of poisonous gas to overcome the defenders, during which Amin was killed.’~ Afghanistan's Endless War
It is useful to recall the unsuccessful results of the abortive 1975 Panjshir uprising, the earlier Basmachi rebellion in Soviet Central Asia, and the Iraqi Kurdish rebellion of 1974—1975. Afghanistan's Endless War
Shahrani and Canfield, Revolutions and Rebellions; Hafizullah Emadi, NOTES “The State and Rural-Based Rebellion in Afghanistan,” Central Asian Survey 15, no. Afghanistan's Endless War
CHAPTER 2. Afghanistan's Endless War
Adamec, Afghanistan; Ludwig W. Adamec, Afghanistan’s Foreign Affairs to69. Afghanistan's Endless War
Poullada, Leon B. Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan, 1919—1929. Afghanistan's Endless War
An extreme form of such rebellion (though there were no cases in the village) is that of professional thugs who take to robbery and murder as a way of life, placing no value on their own or others’ lives but putting them at risk in the pursuit of gain without honour. Bartered Brides
It is notable that no one outside the household ever hinted that Shin might be ‘insane’, which suggests that within the privacy of the household many more ‘rebellious’ women might also be thus labelled without such a label gaining public attention or currency. Bartered Brides
However, because such female rebels were ‘known’ to be possessed, the social significance of their rebellion was in effect publicly denied. Bartered Brides
Most often women manage this by deliberately involving themselves in some blatant sexual irregularity. Bartered Brides
Durnani feel that breaches of the rules governing sexual behaviour should be severely punished. Bartered Brides
Poullada, Leon B. Reform and Rebellion in Afghanis - Ramazani, Rouhollah K. Northern Tier: Southern Bor Recent Books About Afghanistan: A Selected, Annotated Rice, Francis M. and Benjamine Rowland. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
The Saudi security forces settled for a siege of the mosque that lasted about two weeks. Inside Bin Laden
This inflow of skill boosted bin Laden’s ability to implement Sudan’s strategic development program. Inside Bin Laden
In essence the warfare had always been a rebellion against a cen- tralized Somalian identity and a struggle for self-determination by the main clans. Inside Bin Laden
try to ques- tion or doubt the Islamic justifiabili~y of jihad are hereby classified as ‘hyp- ocrites,’ who are no longer Muslims, and also ‘apostates’ from the religion of Islam; and that they will be condemned permanently to the fire of Hell.” Inside Bin Laden
Syrian experts recommended that emphasis be put on striking U.S. military facilities under the Islamist banner because it would be killing two birds with one shot. Inside Bin Laden
DECLARATION OF WAR rebellion that caused casualties among the civilian population even if the government were far from being Islamic or even legitimate. Inside Bin Laden
To present a deniable cover for Iran, the meeting decided on the estab- lishment of a new Sunni umbrella organization, later to be named the World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and Crusaders. Inside Bin Laden
Second, Turabi convened and chaired a major terrorist conference in Khartoum in mid-May. Inside Bin Laden
Mahmud Ibn Wali, a sixteenth- century historian, described the early Uzbeks as ‘famed for their bad nature, swiftness, audacity and boldness’ and revelling in their outlaw image.8 Taliban
Faced with rebellion, he was forced to abandon his expansionist ambitions and to lead his forces on .a The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
67. Afghanistan's Endless War
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Afghanistan's Endless War
Seddon, D. 1976. Bartered Brides
N. Shahrani and R. Canfield, eds., Revolutions and Rebellions in Afghanistan. Bartered Brides
Aided by rebellious soldiers, they broke into the town arsenal, capturing 500 rifles which were immediately distributed among the partisans. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The ‘Iron Amir’ (1880—1901), as he was called, received British support to centralize and strengthen the Afghan state. Taliban
7199 Male, B., 1981, Afghanistan: Rebels without policies, 7200 Male, B., 1982, Revolutionary Afghanistan, 7201 Mapraytl, C., 1982, The Soviets and Afghanistan, 7202 Meissner, B., 1980, Position of the Soviet Union on 7203 Meissner, B., 1980, Soviet foreign policy and Khalizad, Z., 1980, Soviet occupied Afghanistan, Problems of Communism, 2916, 1980, p.23—40. Central Asia, Summer 1980. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Whether some of the Kabul attacks were com- mitted with Moscow’s blessing, or were the work of rebels, remains unclear. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some days after Taraki’s overthrow, guerrillas reportedly am- bushed and killed 35 members of a senior Soviet military delegation, at least one of whom was a general. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
They are a far cry from enjoying the impressive arsenals habitually used by the PLO or the rebels in Eritrea and Angola. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Once there, he and his fellow guerrillas sought to persuade the local inhabitants to take up arms against the Kabul regime. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But this modernisa- tion programme met with deep suspicion from the peasantry, who regarded the reforms as an attempt by the central authorities to impinge on their traditional independence. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Abdul Hadi, another teacher, recalled: ‘They were particularly angry because the governor of Kunar had previously called on us all to take up arms against the rebels, but we flatly refused.’ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With the tanks blocking access to the river, the soldiers aimed their Kalashnikovs at the men. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Within three months, the rebels had seized the strongholds. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When the Taraki government called in the air force, only a few of 115 116 The Communist Overlay the remaining pilots, who had not defected, agreed to fly against their own people. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Forewarned, the authorities brought in extra troops and reinforced security around the radio station. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Unable to move against this vital objective, the rebels were never able to broad- cast their signal. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Travel by road between the cities had become outright hazar- dous. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But these precautions did little to prevent the rebels from sniping at the con~ voys. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Captured rebels or ‘bandits’ were either shot on the spot or thrown into jail. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The ICRC was all for negotiation in order to save Okrimyuk’s life, but it was against prisoner exchanges, at least for the moment. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Afghans—the Pushtuns especially—have become “almost gen- etically expert at guerrilla warfar~ after cenruries of resisting all corners and fighting among themselves when no comers were availab1e.”~~ Afghanistan's Endless War
Third, political manipulation of cleavages along lines of ethnicity (Turkomans, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Kirghiz, Kazakhs), religion (Qadimists vs. Afghanistan's Endless War
A nascent political opposition with its headquarters in Peshawar, Pakistan, had formed by 1980, but it was characterized by factionalism throughout this period (and afterward). Afghanistan's Endless War
They were unsuccessful, but a concerted push in May—June 1985 succeeded. Afghanistan's Endless War
Soviet military superiority, though still incomplete in light of mujahideen successes—most of them small-scale and minor, some spectacular and symbolic—nonetheless had driven rebels and civilians out of the coun- tryside and onto the defensive. Afghanistan's Endless War
In December, Uzbekistan claimed the Tal- iban were training the Uzbek Islamist rebels, while Russia made similar allegations about Taliban support for Chechnya. Afghanistan's Endless War
Without the sanctuary and arms pipeline provided by Pakistan, the assistance of the US and other countries, and the support of the refugees, the mujahideen would have been defeated by the mid-198os. Afghanistan's Endless War
The 1975 Panjshir Islamist uprising was doomed because the people were not united against the government and the rebels had insufficient training and weapons for such an undertaking. Afghanistan's Endless War
Women whose fits were labelled ‘fake’ were socially very weak indeed, while the category of ‘authentically’ possessed women included active, articulate domestic rebels. Bartered Brides
On November zo, 1979, the Grand Mosque in Mecca was seized by a well-organized group of 1,300 tO 1,500 men under the leadership of Juhayman ibn-Muhammad ibn-Sayf al-Utaibi. Inside Bin Laden
The rebels also smuggled in huge quantities of food and drinking water to supply them- selves and their supporters for a long siege. Inside Bin Laden
Sermons and discussions of corruption, wastefulness, and the pro-Western stance of the Saudi royal family quickly gained the rebels widespread support among the worshipers. Inside Bin Laden
Meanwhile the Iranian buildup in and supply of weapons to Sudan continued to grow. Inside Bin Laden
The overthrow of President Mengistu Haile Mariam’s Dergue regime in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in late May 1991 was an outcome of the rebels’ advance and U.S. mediation but was even more a manifestation of profound TRIUMPH OVER THE PAPER TIGER • 57 58 . Inside Bin Laden
The situation in the Horn of Africa was further complicated by the fact that although virtually all of these liberation movements were ethno- centric separatist movements, they also espoused to some extent a Marxist revolutionary ideology. Inside Bin Laden
But paragraph i stated their fate specifically: “Therefore the rebels who are Muslims and are fight- ing against the [Muslim] state are hereby declared apostates from Islam, and the non-Muslims are hereby declared Kaffirs [infidels] who have been stand- ing up against the efforts of preaching, proselytization, and spreading Islam into Africa. Inside Bin Laden
As for those Muslims who were not eager to kill in the name of the jihad, the fatwa stipulated in paragraph 6 that “thoseMuslims who. Inside Bin Laden
The specific strikes in East Africa resulted from a high-level political commitment to a spectacu- lar strike against the West; the failure of the primary operation, an attack on the Soccer World Cup games in France; and Turabi’s mounting insis- tence on anti-U.S. Inside Bin Laden
In contrast to the strategic and political importance of the August 1998 operation, the bombing was operationally low risk: a contingency plan had been activated that relied on forces already in place. Inside Bin Laden
By fall 1998, even though all the Islamist terrorist efforts had failed, the Ugandan government was considering the reduction of support for the rebels in southern Sudan as a way to reduce Islamist militancy. Inside Bin Laden
Islamabad’s failure to create a united front against Kabul, emboldened Rabbani further. Taliban
Its budget depended on subsidies from Moscow. Taliban
In 1992 Karl- mov gave military support to the Tajik government in its crackdown on Islamic rebels. Taliban
The Soviet Union was also facing unrest in Central Asia, where the rebels were receiving support from volunteers from Afghanistan and India. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Internally, Amanullah had to deal with armed revolts by the Pushtun tribes against the reform and modernisation programmes he had set in motion. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The recent peace agreement signed between the government of Tajikistan and the Islamic rebels who held the mountainous east of the country provides a good example of this. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
InJanuary 1993 a fierce civil war sent refugees from Tajikistan into Afghanistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The refugees also provided a sanctuary and base of operations for the Basmachi rebels. Afghanistan's Endless War
Crisis and Rebirth 3. Inside Bin Laden
2 Crisis and Rebirth IN 1989 OSAMA BIN LADEN returned to Saudi Arabia a hero. Inside Bin Laden
Through the occupation of Kuwait and the overthrow of its royal family, Saddam Hussein sought to secure the dominance of his brand of national- ist Arabism over that of conservative regimes like Saudi Arabia’s. Inside Bin Laden
But bin Laden warned that in accepting foreign—non-Muslim—forces, Saudi Arabia would hurt its long-standing Islamic legitimacy. Inside Bin Laden
With Riyadh’s belligerence mounting and fearing for the well-being of his extended family, Osama bin Laden and his CRISIS AND REBIRTH . Inside Bin Laden
3] 32 CRISIS AND REBIRTH family went into exile in the new haven of revivalist Islamism—Hassan al- Turabi’s Sudan. Inside Bin Laden
Turabi has been instrumental in translating this doctrine into action. Inside Bin Laden
This evolution has led to an unprecedented escalation in the Islamist jihad against the Judeo-Christian world order. Inside Bin Laden
Because of the character of both the military regime in Khartoum and the Sudanese Islamist movement, it was a profound process with far-reaching ideological ramifications for the entire Muslim world. Inside Bin Laden
He acknowledged that the Islamist drive had so far failed to deliver the anticipated results. Inside Bin Laden
At CRISIS AND REBIRTH • 37 38 . Inside Bin Laden
CRISIS AND REBIRTH . Inside Bin Laden
CRISIS AND REBIRTH A new “Islamist International” emerged in 1992, unifying and better coordinating the various Sunni militant Islamist movements from West Africa to the Far East than had its earlier incarnation. Inside Bin Laden
Since security services all over the world were paying close attention to Iranian banks and regulating their activities, CRISIS AND REBIRTH 41 42 . Inside Bin Laden
CRISIS AND REBIRTH these banks could not be used for clandestine purposes. Inside Bin Laden
The financing of Zawahiri’s terrorist system is organized through a totally independent entity known as the “Brotherhood Group.” Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden proved invaluable to Turabi even beyond the help he provided in finding financing for the Islamist cause. Inside Bin Laden
In fall 1991 Khartoum turned to bin Laden for assistance in yet another major undertaking. Inside Bin Laden
Libyan intelligence began transferring some of its training installations into other countries, including Sudan and Pakistan-Afghanistan, where active training of Islamist terrorists was CRISIS AND REBIRTH . Inside Bin Laden
CRISIS AND REBIRTH already taking place. Inside Bin Laden
By 1992, under the ISI’s sponsorship, AIM was supporting and training Is- lamist terrorists and fighters for jihads throughout the world from centers in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Inside Bin Laden
51 52 CRISIS AND REBIRT Although these “Afghans” were organized through AIM and supervised and assisted from a center in Peshawar, they constituted a unique phenome- non in the Islamist subversion and terrorism arena.IRTH Although these “Afghans” were organized through AIM and supervised and assisted from a center in Peshawar, they constituted a unique phenome- non in the Islamist subversion and terrorism arena Inside Bin Laden
With Turabi personally committed to the spread of Islam in Africa, African operation has become a major priority of Islamist Sudan, particu- larly since early 1992. Inside Bin Laden
In essence, Khartoum adopted and committed itself to the implementation of Iran’s strategic programs. Inside Bin Laden
Persian, Presidio of Monterey, California, Army Language School, 1955, 58p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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Coral Gables, University of Miami Press, 1953—1955, 2 vols. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
60, Cambridge, 1962, 3l6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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Stephens, I.M., 1953, Horned moon, London, Chatto & Windus, 1953; Also, Bloomington, Indiana Univer- sity Press, 1955, 288p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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Tattung, 22nd March 1834, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 3/31, 1834, p.329—332. , Masson, C., 1836, Notes on the antiquities’of’B&mian, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1836, 7O7p .. , . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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Frye, R.N., 1946, Observations on architecture in Afghanistan, Gazette des Beaux—arts, 6/29, 1946, p. 129—138 in Afghanistan, Ars Islamica, 11—12, 1946, p.200—202. hangers, Afghanistan Journal, 2/2, 1975, p.65—72. architecture of Afghanistan, Garland, STPM Press, New York, 1980, vii + 196p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2352 Grousset, R., 1921—22, J-Jistoire de l’Asie,.’Paris, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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2561 Carum, L., 1896, Introduction a l’histoire de l’Asie, ~ 2562 \Chavannes, M.de, 1876, Conquetes en Asie par les ~ • 2563 Cherefeddin, A., 1723, Scharaf—ud—din au .yazdi, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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18, 1878, London, National Press Agency, 1882, l2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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SOCiAL STUDIES 4341 4342 4343 4344 4345 Balikj, A., 1978, Buzkashi, (sport in Afghanistan), 4346 4347 Barnabas, A.P., 1968, A village in Afghanistan,’ 4348 4349 4350 4351 4352 4353 tribal areas, Karachi, Oxford University Press, 1977, 62p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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Documents, facts, eyewitness reports, Novesti Press Agency Publishing House, Moscow, 1980, l58p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Anthropology Baluchistan, Aussen Politik, 31/3, 1980, p.283—301. - Barfield, T.J., 1981, The Central-Asian Arabs of Afghanistan: pastoral nomadism in transition, - - -- - - J - S - • - 595 596 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 7301 Centlivres, P., 1980, Identity and image of outsiders 7302 Frembgen, J., 1980, New literature on the Indo—Euro— 7303 Harrison, S.S., 1980—81, Baluch Nationalism and Super- 7304 Harrison, S.S., 1981, In Afghanistan’s shadow: Baluchi 7305 Lindholm, C., 1980, Images of the Pathan: the useful- 7306 Mishael, Y., 1981, Between Afghanistan and Eretz 7307 Moos, I. von, 1980, Die wirtschaftlichen Verh~ltnisse im 7308 Naby, E., 1980, The Ethnic faètor in Soviet—Afghan 7309 Schinasi, M., 1980, The Afghans in Australia, The Asia 7310 Scott, R.B., 1980, Tribal and ethnic groups in the 7311 7312 Wheeler, G., 1980, The science of Turcology: signs of 7313 Wirsing, R.G., 1981, The Baluchis and Pathans, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1981, l82p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
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St. Martin’s Press • 175 Fifth Avenue • New York, NY 10010 Scholarly & Reference Books Division Printed in the United States of America —The Washington PostBook World —Publisher’s Weekly —The Washington Times —The Wall Street Journal ISBN 0—312-00924—0 ii Alvilanislan THE SOVIET WAR EDWARD GIRARDET ST. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
MARTEN’S PRESS New York / “ 3 7/ic~2~ /9g~s © 1985 Edward Girardet All rights reserved. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For information, write: St. Martin’s Press, Inc., Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It is a conflict about which limited amounts of consistent, reliable 9 10 Introduction dents, the international non-communist press has been prevented from reporting the Soviet side of the war on a regular and unrestricted basis. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Among the remedial suggestions brought back was the possibility of direct Soviet military action. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, the many articles in the Soviet press criticising as ‘fantastic gosSiP’ the notion that the intervention was in response to the Muslim threat have only underlined Moscow’s con- cern. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Chehestoon Palace, a hilltop mansion normally reserved for foreign dignitaries. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Seeking to gain political advantage, it announced the pull-out of 5,000-6,000 reservists in June, 1980. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Russians shrewdly benefitted from this situation by airfreightiflg Afghanistan’s fruit harvests, which were in danger of rotting on the ground, to the USSR. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Following the government’s crackdown on the liberal Opposition and press in 1952, he was banished to Washington as press attache at the Afghan embassy, but was relieved of his duties six months later after giving a provocative press conference in which he strongly criticised the Daoud regime. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although rumours of reprisory killings had circulated almost from the very beginning of the Saud Revolution, Kerala was the first to be reported in detail by Westbrn journalists (albeit nine months later; first accounts in the Pakistani press two weeks after the incident were ignored) based on the corroborating evidence of some fifty survivors and witnesses. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As with the pre-1980 human rights situation, there are no reliable estimates of the number of political prisoners interned by the present authorities or dispatched to camps in the USSR, as some reports indi- cate. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Repeatedly, the government has launched conscription drives. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, some, such as the Salang Tunnel disaster of October 1982 in which an estimated 700 Soviets and several hundred Afghans died, never emerge in the government press. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Guerrilla successes, which are too obvious to hide from the public eye, are often camouflaged as accidents, such as the destruction by the resistance of a major ammunition and petrol depot in Kabul in mid- 1982. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The other parties soon caught on. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Apart from government bombardments and heliborne assaults aimed at knocking out the transmitters, the communist press has consistently attacked the mujahed network as an affront to the Soviet Union and the government of Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Baluchi and Pushtun nationalists, a substantial number of them believed to be backed or infiltrated by the KGB and KHAD, have also been using the situation to their advantage. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In return, the French quietly pursued their medical activities, generally keeping a low profile visd-vis the Western press. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
From then on, the Afghans conducted all proceedings, with the Soviets remaining out of sight. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, both North and South Vietnam had the organisational structures to intern captives, and the ICRC, with representatives in Hanoi and Saigon, could press all parties to respect the Geneva Conventions. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Since early 1983, there has been growing concern in North America, Western Europe, Japan and other democracies, not only because of a more acute perception of the region’s strategic import- ance, but also because the aspirations of this independent-minded people are being considered worthy of approval and support. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Even during the invasion itself, it took nearly a week for the Soviet press to notify the nation that it was providing ‘military aid’ under a 1978 bilateral Friendship Treaty. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By September 1980, the Soviet press began to admit the existence of widespread fighting but this was couched more in terms of a condem- nation of guerrilla activities than of difficulties facing Russian soldiers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
To be sure, there ‘are dangers in covering this war. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On completing university in 1973, Girardet went to Paris where he taught English before joining United Press international, first in Brussels and then back in France. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Afghanistan’s Endless War Afghanistan’s Endless War State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban LARRY UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PRESS P. Seattle and London GOODSON All rights reserved. Afghanistan's Endless War
l te press coverage for such activity, and there was never a night when tracers did not arc over the city, always fired by persons unknown for reasons unknown.e press coverage for such activity, and there was never a night when tracers did not arc over the city, always fired by persons unknown for reasons unknown Afghanistan's Endless War
The British occupied Quetta in 1876 and began to press Amir Sher Ali for a British mission in Kabul. Afghanistan's Endless War
First, the mujahideen finally began to jell into an effective fighting force. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Talibanization of social discourse and policy in Pakistan repre- sents a significant regional variation on the “blowback” phenomenon often reported in Western press coverage of Afghanistan.91 Afghanistan's Endless War
Politics in Afghanistan (Surrey, UK: Curzon Press, 1995); Bernt Glatzer, “Is Afghanistan on the Brink of Ethnic and Tribal Disintegration?” in Maley, Fun- damentalism, 167—181; and Ralph H. Magnus and Eden Naby, Afghanistan: Mul- lah, Marx, and Mujahid (Boulder, GO: Westview, 1998). Afghanistan's Endless War
6. Afghanistan's Endless War
For a classic treatment of this subject, see Gabriel A. Almond and Jamesii. Afghanistan's Endless War
John Spanier, American Foreign Policy since World War II, 12th ed. Afghanistan's Endless War
Olivier Roy, Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan, 1st ed. Afghanistan's Endless War
W. B. Fisher, “Afghanistan: Physical and Social Geography,” Middle East21. Afghanistan's Endless War
26. Afghanistan's Endless War
43. Afghanistan's Endless War
HISTORICAL FACTORS SHAPING MODERN AFGHANISTAN 1. Afghanistan's Endless War
4. Afghanistan's Endless War
Central Asia: 120 Years of Russian Rule (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989); Dupree, Afghanistan; and Garoe, Pathans. Afghanistan's Endless War
46. Afghanistan's Endless War
the Mid-Twentieth Century (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974); Grego- rian, Emergence of Modern Afghanistan; Poullada, Reform and Rebellion. Afghanistan's Endless War
Virtually any weapon can be bought in Darra Adam Khel, or in similar My observations of mujahideen training in Pakistan in 1987 confirmed NOTES 203 204 NOTES Asia (Peshawar, Pakistan: Emjay Book International, 1985); Elizabeth E. Bacon, Central Asians under Russian Rule: A Study in Culture Change (Ithaca, NY: Cor- nell University Press, 1966); Klass, “Great Game Revisited,” 1—29. Afghanistan's Endless War
8i. Afghanistan's Endless War
121. Afghanistan's Endless War
Bradsher, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, 101.13. Afghanistan's Endless War
Response, 1979—1982 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 39. Afghanistan's Endless War
84. Afghanistan's Endless War
131. Afghanistan's Endless War
135. Afghanistan's Endless War
78. Afghanistan's Endless War
85. Afghanistan's Endless War
Associated Press, 19 September 1999 (found at Afghanistan Online, www.afghan- Afghanistan's Endless War
Cold War World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993). Afghanistan's Endless War
35. Afghanistan's Endless War
Press, 1980. Afghanistan's Endless War
Ed. Afghanistan's Endless War
Reuters, ii March 1998. Afghanistan's Endless War
Buzkashi: Gamç and Power in Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982. Afghanistan's Endless War
Change. Afghanistan's Endless War
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994. Afghanistan's Endless War
Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986. Afghanistan's Endless War
Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1987. Afghanistan's Endless War
Dur- ham, NC: Duke University Press, 1985. Afghanistan's Endless War
Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1990. Afghanistan's Endless War
Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986, 75—103. Afghanistan's Endless War
Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1958. Afghanistan's Endless War
(Le Monde) World Press Review 46, no. Afghanistan's Endless War
New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Afghanistan's Endless War
Fisher, W. B. “Afghanistan: Physical and Social Geography.” Afghanistan's Endless War
Electronic Telegraph, Issue 1178, i6 August 1998. Afghanistan's Endless War
December 1987. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan Culturgram. Afghanistan's Endless War
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995. Afghanistan's Endless War
Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1937. Afghanistan's Endless War
Howell, Evelyn. Afghanistan's Endless War
Huntington, Samuel. Afghanistan's Endless War
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Afghanistan's Endless War
_____ “Who’s Who in the DRA and the PDPA: A Selected List?’ In Rosanne Kiass, ed., Afghanistan's Endless War
Maley, William. Afghanistan's Endless War
Washington Square, NY: New York University Press, 1998, 182—198. Afghanistan's Endless War
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982. Afghanistan's Endless War
Princeton, NJ: Princeton Uni- versity Press, 1988. Afghanistan's Endless War
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981. Afghanistan's Endless War
In Rosanne Klass, ed., Afghanistan's Endless War
New York: Free Press, 1995. Afghanistan's Endless War
Surrey, UK: Curzon Press, 1995. Afghanistan's Endless War
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960. Afghanistan's Endless War
Poladi, Hassan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1994. Afghanistan's Endless War
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Afghanistan's Endless War
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973. Afghanistan's Endless War
Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. Afghanistan's Endless War
Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000. Afghanistan's Endless War
Press, 1995. Afghanistan's Endless War
1994. Afghanistan's Endless War
Press, 1986. Afghanistan's Endless War
Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1983. Afghanistan's Endless War
Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1991. Afghanistan's Endless War
International Narcotics Control Strategy Report. Afghanistan's Endless War
Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
It is the first study of the area which looks in depth at both the domestic aspects of marriage and its relation to the productive and reproductive activities of women, as well as marriage as a means of managing political and economic conflict and competition. Bartered Brides
University of California Press, Berkeley. Bartered Brides
1987. Bartered Brides
Cambridge University Press. Bartered Brides
1985. Bartered Brides
Cambridge University Press. Bartered Brides
Curzon Press, London and Malmo. Bartered Brides
Institut d’Ethnologie, NeuchAtel, Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris. Bartered Brides
1970. Bartered Brides
Holy, L. 1989. Bartered Brides
Newman, ed., Bartered Brides
1986. Bartered Brides
Columbia University Press, New York. Bartered Brides
Manchester University Press. Bartered Brides
Yale University Press, New Haven. Bartered Brides
Man (NS), 15(4), 682—701. Bartered Brides
1980. Bartered Brides
1977. Bartered Brides
Rosen, L. 1985. Bartered Brides
A. 1982. Bartered Brides
Harvard University Press. Bartered Brides
1979a. Bartered Brides
5 The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Zangilak Peak125 Jr Zranda ZRANDA.PuShtU Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Twentieth Century . Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Lahore: Educational Press, 1958. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Lahore: Educational Press, 1959. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Taylor (eds.). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Cornell University Press, 1966. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Kabul: Franklin Book Programs, 1970. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1948. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Translated from the original Turki. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
sity Press, 1974. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1967, pp. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Calcutta: World Press Private Limited, 1960. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
London: pedia of Islam . Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
York, 1951. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Warrior-Poet,” Islamic Culture , Vol. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Random House, 1964. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Kabul University Press, 1966. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Mahmud of Ghazna. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
niversity Press, 192.972 Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Hove, England: Key Press, 1954. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Barth). Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
New York: Washington Square Press, 1963. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
Wood-Walker, R. et al. Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Afghanistan
On April zo Prince Nayif called an unprecedented press conference and warned that additional sabotage at- tempts could not be ruled out. Inside Bin Laden
According to a recent Arab visitor, Abdul-Bari Atwan, editor of al-Quds al-Arabi, “the ‘eagles’ nest’ or the Arab Afghans’ base” was in caves, 8,zoo feet up in snow-covered mountains, with numer- ous armed guards. Inside Bin Laden
The conference approved with slight modifications “a confrontation plan prepared several months ago” and or- dered the Supreme Council for National Security to press ahead with the implementation of “plans to export the [Islamic] Revolution by force” using Iranian-controlled terrorist forces—specifically networks of the HizbAllah and Arab “Afghans” already in the West. Inside Bin Laden
Owhali was trained in a number of camps in Afghanistan on such subjects as handling explosives, making bombs, hijacking, and kidnapping. Inside Bin Laden
Meanwhile, to justify the presence of so many Islamist leaders in Pe- shawar, bin Laden and Zawahiri called a press conference to discuss their latest statements. Inside Bin Laden
In the press conference Osama bin Laden delivered an opening speech in which he stressed the gravity of the current threat to Islam and the justification for the jihad he was calling for: At present, we have got into trouble, which is very dangerous and unfor- tunate. Inside Bin Laden
Janitors who cleaned these rooms could not recall seeing tools, wires, chemicals, or any unusual containers in the rooms, testifying to the profes- sionalism of the bombers, who knew how to conceal potentially incrimi- nating evidence. Inside Bin Laden
Toward this end he is grooming his close friend and confidant Sheikh Taseer Abdallah, also a Saudi Islamist, as a political-theological leader. Inside Bin Laden
THE ISLAMIST TERRORISTS did not arrive lightly at considerations of using weapons of mass destruction. Inside Bin Laden
ATA (Albania) BETA (Yugoslavia) BH PRESS (Bosnian EFE (Spain) FNS (Russia) HINA (Croatia) INA (Iraq) INTERFAX (Russia) IPS (France-based Iranian opposition) IRNA (Iran) ITAR-TASS (Russia) KYODO (Japan) Lebanon News Wire (Lebanon) Abd-Rabouh (Jordan) Addis Tribune (Ethiopia) Akhbar (Pakistan) Al-Ahd (Lebanon) MAIN PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS (BOTH PAPER AND ELECTRONIC EDITIONS) Government) NEWS AGENCIES MAKPRES (former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia) MENA (Egypt) ONASA (Islamist service closely associated with the Bosnian government) PANA (Pan-African) Petra (Jordan) REUTERS (U.S./U.K.) Inside Bin Laden
Groner, Salon More Praise for Taliban For my mother, what I have seen she taught me to see. Taliban
and in the United States by Yale University Press. Taliban
This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustra- tions, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. Taliban
For information about this and other Yale University Press publications, please contact: Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress catalog card number: 99-687 18 ISBN 0-300-08902-3 (pbk.) Taliban
The Taliban do not issue press releases, policy statements or hold regular press conferences. Taliban
Wakil, a young madrassa student from the Kakar tribe who studied under Omar, started out as his companion, driver, food taster, translator and note-taker. Taliban
Unlike the capture of Herat and other cities, a large international press and TV corps were in Kabul and for the first time they reported extensively on the Taliban’s restrictions. Taliban
Bridas executives never spoke to the press and only issued very occa- sional statements from a discreet public relations company in London. Taliban
We have an American com- pany which is interested in building a pipeline from Turkmenistan through to Pakistan,’ said Raphel at a press conference in Islamabad on 21 April 1996. Taliban
That may be the end of this year, next year or three years from now or this may be a dry hole if the fighting continues,’ Miller told a press conference on 5 June 1997. Taliban
Hurst and Co, London 1985. Taliban
Hurst, London 1998. Taliban
Roy, Olivier, Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan, Cambridge University Press 1986. Taliban
TALIBAN Rawlinson, Henry, England and Russia in the East, 1875, Reprinted by Indus Publications, Karachi 1989. Taliban
Roy, Olivier, Afghanistan, from Holy War to Civil War, Princeton University 1995. Taliban
Royal Geographical Society, The Country of the Turkomans, Royal Geograph- ical Society, London 1977. Taliban
Shafqat, Saeed, Civil Military Relations in Pakistan. Taliban
Dawn, Frontier Post, the Nation, the News, Herald. Taliban
Chapter 9 1. Taliban
Chapter 10 1. Taliban
The Western media have created simplistic images of Muslims as terrorists and oppressors through the catch-all term ‘Islamic funda- mentalists’. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Afghanistan is the largest world producer of opium 140 The regional picture poppies, from which heroin is processed both in Afghanistan and in the wider region. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
This ambivalence is also evident with regard to terrorism. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Dupree, Louis, 1980, Afghanistan, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Roy, Olivier, 1986, Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Rubin, Barnett, 1995, The Search for Peace in Afghanistan: From Buffer State to Failed State, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT Ruthven, Malise, 1984, islam in the World, Penguin, Harmondsworth. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
3343 La Pira, G., 1979, Profilo storico dell’Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3766 Krug, P., 1960, Afghanistan tussen twee werelden, 3767 Labonne, R., 1930, La revolution afghane. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1960, Note sur Ia presse afghane, Tandon, B.N., Tandon, H.D. and Mattock,.A.R., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
L’Afghanistan dans la presse mondiale, Afghanistan, 9/4, 1954, p.60—62. literary influence 1897—1969, Afghanistan Journal, 3, 1976, p.26—35; 75—77. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Pressed to make a distinction between them, they use kor more often for a nuclear family, kala for those people who pool their incomes, budget together and accept the economic decisions made by the acknowledged household head, da kala mashar. Bartered Brides
Again this may be a way in which the bride’s guardian can help a hard-pressed but favoured groom, but often it is indicative of an attempt on the part of the groom’s side to reduce the amount in real terms: if the bride’s guardian has an immediate need for cash, he may be forced to accept items as worth more than their market value. Bartered Brides
The groom must initiate bazi and he may have other wives at home, or be so hard-pressed to collect money for the brideprice that he has no time for such frivolity. Bartered Brides
Kamaluddin was a troublemaker, but his own close agnates were happy to support him in a quarrel with members of Lower Sinjit. Bartered Brides
As before, anticipation of the escalation was not without foundation. Inside Bin Laden
The principal problem lay in the overwhelming American presence in Saudi Arabia, a presence that op- pressed and stifled the ability of the House of al-Saud to establish the gen- uine Muslim rule it truly aspired to. Inside Bin Laden
Governments find themselves pressed between the groundswell of Islarnism and growing dependency on an anti-Muslim West. Inside Bin Laden
This means that terrorism is the means for calling on the op- pressed to terrorize the tyrants.” Inside Bin Laden
Iran now pressed for Wah- adat’s inclusion in international negotiations to form a new Mujaheddin government, which was to be dominated by the Peshawar-based Mujahed- din parties. Taliban
p.329—352. Ost—Probleme, 2, 1950, p.1164; also, Presse—Forum, 4137, 1950, p.i6—l9. Asic Centrale (1840—1980), Les Temps Modernes, 408—9, July—Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Mémoires de Ia Délégation ArchCologique. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1976, 168p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Frolinat, Polisario, Erythree, Dhofar, Djibouti, Kurdes, Baloochistan, Indonésie, Birmanie Presses de Ia Cite, Paris, 1977, 333p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
General and regional histories of Afghanistan Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1981, l27p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A further pressing predicament similar to that in the refugee areas of the Horn of Africa has been the presence of some three million camels, cattle, sheep and goats brought in from Afghanistan. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The ‘Sayyid’ was not pressing for his daughter’s marriage, but the Ghilzai father-in-law of the second son was, saying ‘Since Laijan hasn’t anything, he should send his son to work for me, and I would give him his bride.’ Bartered Brides
This was arranged and Gul Mohammad was soon married (1956). Bartered Brides
Meanwhile, the ISI used its Arab allies to ensure that the Islamists’ grievances against the overall policies of Bhutto were aired. Inside Bin Laden
By the end of the meeting Zawahiri was satisfied with the status of his net- works and approved the activation of several operational plans. Inside Bin Laden
She also imposed op- pressive security pacts over these peoples, which were ‘signed secretly by their rulers. Inside Bin Laden
The close relationship that resulted between Pak- istan and the US was opportunistic and somewhat artificial on both sides, as the suspension of that relationship in 1990 under the Pressler Amendment would demonstrate.~~ Afghanistan's Endless War
Abu-Hamzah has threatened retaliation against the British if they interfere with the Islamists’ efforts to target “op- pressors” abroad. Inside Bin Laden
The better organised mujahed fronts are now trying to discourage such ‘understandings’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But when the Soviets joined the war on the Allied side, they too put pressure on Kabul to rid the country of the Axis presence. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
US-Soviet Competition Overall, the Russians had adopted a far more effective, and subtle, long- term approach than their American counterparts. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Only Gen. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Pressure has also been put on the remaining non-communist teachers and students to join the PDPA. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Certain international organisations such as the World Health Organisation and UNESCO have continued to maintain limited operations in Kabul despite the occupation, but can only function in the government-controlled zones for security reasons. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, among the organisa- tion’s few remaining projects in Kabul, its association with the regime’s controversial National Literacy Programme has aroused the most irrita- tion. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Political opponents, too, have seized contentiously on the refugee issue and exploited public discontent to pressure the Zia dictatorship. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The doctors have found themselves coping with problems such as depression or severe trauma arising from the constant pressure of war. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The French communists, with four ministers in the government, also intervened under pressure from the Elysee Palace. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But their vehemence brought the guerrillas under heavy pressure and put a severe strain on their ability to care for the tens of thousands of internal refugees forced to flee from their homes into the mountains or neighbouring regions. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Large-scale starva- tion could be a reality by the end of 1985. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
motivated by the Soviet Union’s desire for warm-water ports. Afghanistan's Endless War
After maintaining that neutrality through World War I, Habibullah was murdered in 1919, and his son, Amanullah, seized power. Afghanistan's Endless War
First, diplomatic pressure was exerted against Afghanistan to prevent it from openly support- ing the so-called Basmachi movement in an attempt to form a Central Asian confederation. Afghanistan's Endless War
The government in Kabul felt the pressure generated by the popular uprisings in the countryside, particularly the savage fighting in Herat and the defection of its troops in Jalalabad. Afghanistan's Endless War
Western support developed slowly because of the widely held belief that the rebels had no chance. Afghanistan's Endless War
The Soviets also tried to sweep the valleys around Kabul to reduce mujahideen pressure on the capital. Afghanistan's Endless War
ce to keep the pressure on, with big rocket attacks on Kabul also in Nvember 1984.with big rocket attacks on Kabul also in November 1984 Afghanistan's Endless War
The war leaped in intensity in 1986 as it shifted into stage four. Afghanistan's Endless War
These inci- dents tripled in 1986 and remained at this higher level of intensity until the Soviet withdrawal in 1989.~’ Afghanistan's Endless War
In 1987, growing Soviet-American rapprochement increased pressure for a settlement on Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
The shuttle diplomacy of indirect talks by UN representative Diego Cordovez became more intense. Afghanistan's Endless War
Western aid was bottled up in the Pakistani pipeline, and more importantly, Pakistani pressure on the mujahideen for a victory mounted. Afghanistan's Endless War
It was this pressure that pushed the mujahideen into their ill-considered offensive against Jalalabad in March 1989. Afghanistan's Endless War
Under pressure of the loss of Soviet support, Najibullah made con- ciliatory gestures throughout the year. Afghanistan's Endless War
Pressure on Rabbani to step down grew in early 1996, especially from a new alliance of Hekmatyar, Mojaddidi, Dostam, and Karim Khahii (the new leader of Hezb-i-Wahdat) called the Supreme Coordination Council. Afghanistan's Endless War
As 1998 dawned the Taliban increased their pressure on the Hazara population by restricting the supply of food aid to the starving people of central Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
All three countries have since faced substantial pressure from the West to revoke or downgrade their recognition, and both Pakistan and Saudi Arabia did downgrade rela- tions under intense US pressure in 1998. Afghanistan's Endless War
Perhaps recent battlefield successes will help maintain Taliban soli- darity a bit longer, but they may also lead to increased pressure from opposition forces to convince wavering Taliban commanders to switch back over, as was precisely the case in several northern provinces in late 1998 and 1999. Afghanistan's Endless War
Thus, it is vital to the success of their movement that the Taliban retain their hold on Herat, until recently their most fragile posi- tion. Afghanistan's Endless War
Since then, bin Laden has been the focus of intense pressure on the Taliban government, and for much of 1999 he lowered his profile by going into hiding within Afghanistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Increasing pressure from Islamist groups led Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to declare on November 17, 1998, that Taliban justice was needed in Pakistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
Talibanization has grown rapidly to have a nationwide impact in Pakistan. Afghanistan's Endless War
When the Taliban captured Kabul, Russia increased its supplies to the Northern Alliance forces while simultaneously increasing its diplomatic pressure on Pakistan to rein in the Taliban.92 Afghanistan's Endless War
The March 14, 1999, announcement from the Ashkhabad talks of an agreement in principle from both sides to a coalition government composed of both Taliban and non-Taliban leaders appeared promising, even if the Taliban almost immediately backed away from the bargain. Afghanistan's Endless War
Women act as status demonstrators for the men who ‘control’ them; but there is another side to their dependence: Feminine power is not overt, but, due to their participation in the familial honour (as the repositories of its moral and sacred aspects) women hold in their hands the power not merely to put pressure on their menfolk but actually to ‘ruin’ them. Bartered Brides
The Ishaqzai subtribes of Saripul vary widely in situation and character (see N. Tapper 1979:60). Bartered Brides
For instance, settlement has deprived groups like the Maduzai of the flexibility of camp association which they had as nomads and which enabled them literally to move away from disputes. Bartered Brides
Today all the households of the Sinjit wolus depend heavily on Ibrahim’s leadership skills, a fact which is greatly resented by members of Section LV, not least because Ibrahim has several times been one of the principals in intra-lineage confrontations with them. Bartered Brides
The need and desire for children and the very high rate of child mortality com- bine to put great pressure on the procreative abilities of both men and women, for there are no generally recognized cultural alternatives such as adoption or foster- ing to supplement biological inadequacy. Bartered Brides
A household head is always eager to keep the household together; the pressure for partition comes from married dependants, against whom the head has virtu- ally no sanctions to prevent them from separating. Bartered Brides
This profit is recognized as such, and there is no pressure to convert it immediately into further brideprices, yet it is considered poor compensation for the expense a father has had in raising his daughter. Bartered Brides
However, when pressure on resources and competition between ethnic groups and Durrani households becomes severe, as has been the case in the Saripul region in recent years, certain elements in the marriage forms are liable to change. Bartered Brides
While older girls are considered unattractive spouses, the pressure to engage a girl early stems largely from the fear that she will otherwise become embroiled in some illicit attachment, Table 18 draws on the 1972 sample, and presents the approximate ages of all engaged members of Lineage C. The numbers are very small but it can be seen that the proportions of engagements with men and women outside the lineage are similar to those for completed marriages. Bartered Brides
The par- ticular charater this competition now takes among the Maduzai is related to the increased value set on household independence, which in turn can be attributed to the considerable increase in population of the region over the last fifty years, the consequent pressure on land and pasture, and the process of settlement which the Maduzai have experienced.ter this competition now takes among the Maduzai is related to the increased value set on household independence, which in turn can be attributed to the considerable increase in population of the region over the last fifty years, the consequent pressure on land and pasture, and the process of settlement which the Maduzai have experienced Bartered Brides
Such attitudes were not inappropriate in the early decades in Turkistan when the population was small and resources accessible to all. Bartered Brides
This was a deliberate, carefully consid- ered policy that we steadfastly refused to change despite mounting pressure from the CIA, and later from the U.S. Defense Department, to allow them to take over.” Inside Bin Laden
His call for action concentrated on such civic deeds as the boycott of U.S. goods. Inside Bin Laden
Incapable of confronting any criticism, Riyadh did not bother to dis- tinguish between bin Laden’s position and that of other Islamists. Inside Bin Laden
The pressure that had been put on him turned to outright hostility. Inside Bin Laden
In Ethiopia the combination of Iranian money and Sudanese pressure and subversion transformed the Oromo Liberation Front, a nationalist lib- eration front consisting of the largest nationality of southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya, into the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromo. Inside Bin Laden
Operating under tremendous time pressure, bin Laden decided to capi- talize on old and proven contacts to expedite the strike. Inside Bin Laden
He applauded Pakistan’s decision to maintain its nuclear poten- tial despite international pressure, especially from the United States, and promised from the entire Muslim world for Pakistan’s endeavor to continue and expand its nuclear program.port from the entire Muslim world for Pakistan’s endeavor to continue and expand its nuclear program Inside Bin Laden
The Pakistani delegation assured the PAIC leadership that Islamabad would not surrender to Western pressure to reduce its support for the Arab “Afghans” and international terrorist activities. Inside Bin Laden
The key to the success of this campaign would lie in the aggregate impact on the American people, which. Inside Bin Laden
The growing popularity of the Islamists in virtually all segments of society, from the widespread popular following of Sheikh Udah to the attention paid to the CDLR in the higher strata of society, would put pressure on the militant Islamists to continue to escalate their armed struggle and terrorism until they overthrew the House of al-Saud. Inside Bin Laden
ternational pressure to close down the Islamist terrorist infrastructure, the Egyptian Islamists would not have made the lives of their friends and bene- factors in the ISI, who fought for their survival and sought permission for them to remain in Pakistan, more difficult by embarrassing them. Inside Bin Laden
The upper echelons of the ISI were reported to be “fuming.” Inside Bin Laden
There was little benevolence in President Assad’s support for the anti- Riyadh terrorism. Inside Bin Laden
A few weeks before the local support network had stolen a Caprice, which was later used as the getaway car and abandoned in Dammam, six miles from Dhahran. Inside Bin Laden
In mid-May 1996 Sudan’s General Bashir succumbed to Saudi pressure and financial incentives, ordering the expulsion of Osama bin Laden and his numerous followers. Inside Bin Laden
Bin Laden had been a driving force behind and an inspiration for the Islamist forces striving to overthrow the House of al- Saud and establish an Islamist state in its place. Inside Bin Laden
With the succession crisis in Riyadh worsening, the House of al-Saud sought to reduce pressure by si- lencing its chief and most eloquent foe—Osama bin Laden. Inside Bin Laden
Despite pressure from key Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt for his extradition, Osama bin Laden remained well protected by the Taliban and their Pakistani masters. Inside Bin Laden
Previously Mubarak’s plans to switch Egypt’s strategic alliances had been lacking a reason for the Islamists to cease their terrorism and subver- sion, a source of strong pressure on Mubarak, and also a formal excuse that would enable Cairo to break its close relations with Washington. Inside Bin Laden
IN EARLY FEBRUARY a new Islamist international front emerged. Inside Bin Laden
He noted “the vain attempts of the U.S. to pressure African states against broadening their relations with Iran” and concluded that “the African states and people have evaluated the benefits of trade and economic ties with Islamic Iran and are ready to become free of the self-interested poli- cies of the West.” Inside Bin Laden
In late 1998, despite the growing pressure from U.S. intelligence and its local allies, the Islamist terrorist networks operating in and from Albania continued to expand. Inside Bin Laden
As for the possibility of his involvement in terrorism in and against Saudi Arabia, the Taliban offered to send a delegation of their ulema to study the evidence available to their Saudi counterparts. Inside Bin Laden
Another Islamist group, Lashkar-i-Tuiba, rallied 5oo,ooo supporters in Lahore. Inside Bin Laden
To sustain pressure on the Sharif government to remain pro-Islamist, the Islamists spread rumors—some loosely based on facts and some pure imagination—about a myriad of conspiracies against bin Laden in which the Pakistani security and secret services had a role. Inside Bin Laden
Building pressure on Washington on many fronts would make the United States lose its orientation. Inside Bin Laden
Turabi estimated that the application of pressure on the United States could start immediately so that by the end of December—the time of Ramadan (starting December 19) and Christmas—the Islamist terrorist system would be ready to launch the first, operations in this wave. Inside Bin Laden
Not surprisingly, Arab leaders showed little appetite for supporting the proposed U.S.-led military strikes against Iraq. Inside Bin Laden
In the aftermath of the “compromise” reached in mid-November about the resumption of the U.N. inspections and with growing pressure in the United Nations to lift the sanctions—pressure imposed by France, China, and Russia, and endorsed by most Arab states—Baghdad was con- vinced that it would have a few months of routine low-key U.N. activity be- fore Washington instigated another crisis. Inside Bin Laden
This statement was later confirmed by Abu-al- Hassan himself. Inside Bin Laden
SOME OF THE next spectacular terrorist operations may be a joint effort of bin Laden and Iraqi intelligence. Inside Bin Laden
In contrast these Europe-based Islamists are unable to find any re- deeming qualities in the Western governments they target, and according to the Front’s statement, its strikes will be revenge for the pressure to western- ize and sanctions imposed by these governments on their Muslim enemies in the Hub of Islam. Inside Bin Laden
The numerous setbacks they suffered as their networks were exposed and their operations prevented, and the in- ternational pressure on bin Laden, Zawahiri, and their Afghanistan-based commanders and Taliban guardians, have not reversed the Islamists’ overall surge toward dominance worldwide. Inside Bin Laden
“It is possible that the Kosovo region could become vacant of its Albanian inhab- itants, whose autonomy the NATO war machine came to defend. Inside Bin Laden
Other dear friends rallied as well. Inside Bin Laden
As international and domestic pressure mounted on Pakistan to explain its position, Bhutto made the first formal denial of any Pakistani backing of the Taliban in February 1995. Taliban
The UN mediator Norbet Holl failed to persuade the Taliban that the UN was a neutral peace broker or the opposition that the UN would protect the interests of the ethnic minorities. Taliban
After visiting 13 countries including Afghanistan between 14 August and 23 September, Brahimi’s conclusions were to mobilize greater international pressure on Afghanistan’s neighbours to stop aiding the belligerents. Taliban
Increasing pressure by the UN, the US and other states forced both sides back to the negotiating table in early 1999. Taliban
Taliban leaders repeatedly told me that if they gave women greater freedom or a chance to go to school, they would lose the support of their rank and file, who would be disillusioned by a leadership that had compromised principles under pressure. Taliban
The Saudi conundrum was even worse. Taliban
Prince Turki visited Kandabar again, this time to persuade the Taliban to hand over Bin Laden. Taliban
In the first phase of its programme, Iran proposed swapping its crude oil with Central Asian crude. Taliban
By now, there was growing scepticism in Washington that Pakistan and the Taliban could deliver a unified Afghanistan. Taliban
Throughout 1998 the feminist pressure on Unocal intensified. Taliban
For ordinary Afghans the US withdrawal from the scene ROMANCING ThE TALIBAN 2:1997-99 175 176 constituted a major betrayal, while Washington’s refusal to harness inter- national pressure to help broker a settlement between the warlords was considered a double betrayal. Taliban
But with Pakistan exerting no real pressure on the Taliban, except advising them to give Richardson full protocol, the trip turned into little more than a public relations exercise. Taliban
The Pakistanis realized this weakness and tried to negate US pressure. Taliban
In 1992—93, under Indian pressure, the USA had come close to declar- ing Pakistan a state sponsor of terrorism, as Kashmiri militants based in Pakistan carried out guerrilla attacks in Indian Kashmir. Taliban
Saudi Arabia viewed the Taliban as an important asset to their dwind- ling influence in Afghanistan. Taliban
Riyadh’s support for the Taliban made them extremely reluctant to exert any pressure on the Taliban to deport Osama Bin Laden, even though the USA was urging them to do so. Taliban
In 1873, under pressure from Britain, Russia agreed to the creation of a corridor of land to divide Russia from British India in north-eastern Afghanistan. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
The abortive attempts of Britain to take Afghanistan during the nineteenth century and the pressure from the north, first from Russia and then from the Soviet Union, have strengthened the resolve of the Ulema to resist outside interference and to render the government of Afghanistan more purely Islamic. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
He was helped by the global intellectual movements of the 1960s, which challenged existing thinking and resulted in pressure from some quarters for women to be accorded greater rights and freedoms. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Because Western society is relatively individualistic, each individual, female or male, will normally seek fulfilment on the basis of personal life choices. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
When some students in the summer of 1981 said they wanted to return to Russia because security in their villages was poor, they found that their travel papers had been blocked for the holiday e Sovietising the Classrooms many students and teachers opposed to the communists, Sovietisation had become an ugly fact of life. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For the sensitive Islamabad regime, a Soviet prisoner on Pakistani soil was the last thing it wanted and it pressured the Afghans into handing him over. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
country, it connects Central Asia with South and West Asia. Afghanistan's Endless War
Under these circumstances Prkme Mini~ter Sharif visited the United States in early December. Inside Bin Laden
About the Author Mohammad Hassan Kakar holds a B.A. from Kabul University and an M.Phil. and Ph~D. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
‘cordon and thump’ operatioflS~ they have sought to maintain a limited holding pattern around the main population centres, military installations and highwaY links that ring the country. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
uncommon, but the KHAD can bring often nefarious pressures to bear on prisoners who refuse to co-operate, including torture, harassment of their families, bribery and promises of release or reduced sentence. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It demonstrates what happens when weak states come under enormous internal and external pressures to survive, and it illustrates how regional powers compete for influence in the absence of superpower leadership. Afghanistan's Endless War
Among these characteristics are limited political institutionalization and penetration in society, strong ethnic, linguistic, and/or religious divisions, and slow economic and social development. Afghanistan's Endless War
Only after the resolution of the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 did Afghanistan become a completely sovereign nation-state. Afghanistan's Endless War
The main pressures influencing a man to separate from his father derive from a highly subjective equation involving the extent to which a married man’s labour within the household is likely to increase his father’s estate and hence his own patrimony, or whether he is likely to reap greater benefits from his own labour if he becomes independent. Bartered Brides
The economic pressures on brothers to remain in a fraternal joint household are, in many respects, the exact opposites of those encouraging sons to separate from their father. Bartered Brides
Dispersal and the economic pressures of spring and summer, and the bad weather of winter, cause the khosheys and weddings to be much smaller then. Bartered Brides
Again, things are not so simple. Bartered Brides
Nowadays the circumstances which lead to marriage choices themselves may determine the nature of women’s loyalty to their marital home. Bartered Brides
Clearly, this account does not describe a process which is unique to the Maduzai. Bartered Brides
BY THE LATE 198os the world of international terrorism was changing. Inside Bin Laden
The Taliban must know that not only is there a limit to what you can stand but that there are growing pressures on us — in particular from the donor community to say that there’s a limit.” Taliban
poicies in response to Western pressures will provoke accusations from their followers that they are no longer acting in accordance with the jihad for which men have martyred themselves.icies in response to Western pressures will provoke accusations from their followers that they are no longer acting in accordance with the jihad for which men have martyred themselves The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
Social pressures still influence these choices in the West such that women are expected to have children but, increasingly, women are putting off having their first child until they are in their thirties and will normally limit the number of children they have. The Taliban: Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan
hanistan Manuscrpt catalogues General ReQional Studies 3.3. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Extension work 12.6.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Some difficulties were encountered in the collection, collation and checking of references. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Nevertheless, as far as possible the compilers have attempted to reduce errors to acceptable limits through extensive checking. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Newspaper articles and cuttings were also excluded from the bibliography on the basis of our having insufficient time to cover all possible sources. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
MASOOD, R., A bibliography of-newspaper and maga- zine articles on the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1978—1 981. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Director: Paul Bucherer— Dietschl. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
of books on Afghanistan, Kabul, Kabul University Library, 1967, 27p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ical literature on Afghanistan, Occasional paper no.18, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rahin, A.R., 1970, Bibliography of Afghanist~n, containing books and materials on Afghani~tan, Kabul 1970 4lp Instituts fur entwicklungsforschung und .entwick— A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Fund, 1975, Bibliography on Afghanistan, available in Kabul libraries, UNICEF, Kabul, 1975, 34lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- -- - / - - ,- •~i-~1 - - ---- -3 \O0 - ~-.T~) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bibliographies containing references on Afghanistan bibliography and analysis. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
annual), Bibliography of recent Soviet source material on Soviet Central Asia and the borderlands, London, Central Asian Research Centre, 1957. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Persian manuscripts acquired on behalf of the Gov- ernment of India by the Asiatic Society of Bengal during 1903-1907, Calcutta, 1908. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
hanistan, ashington DC, Department of Research, American Friends of the Middle East, 1961, 2Op. Washington DC, Department of Research, American Friends of the Middle East, 1961, 2Op A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ducation i the Middle East / North Africa, - Washington DC, American Friends of the Middle East, for the Middle East/North Africa Workshop, 1966, 64p.in the Middle East / North Africa, - Washington DC, American Friends of the Middle East, for the Middle East/North Africa Workshop, 1966, 64p A Bibliography of Afghanistan
14 0163 0164 Griesbach, C.L., 1886, Mitteilungen aus Afghanistan, 0165 Griffith, W., 1841, Extracts from a report on subjects 0166 Hunger, J.P., 1964, Geological Survey in Afghanistan, 0167 lanke, 1878, Afghanistan, Jahrbuch des Vereins für 0168 Immanuel, H., 1902, Afghanistan, Geographische, 0169 J~ck1i, H., 1955, Geologische und Hydrologische 0170 Leuchs, K., 1935, Geologie von Asien, Berlin, 1935, 0171 Lindrg, K., 1961, Recherches biospéléologiques en 0172 Medlicott, H.B. and Blanford, W.T., 1889, A manual 0173 Mennessier, G., 1961, Lexique stratigraphique inter- 0174 Merzbacher, G., 1925, Afghanistan, Geographische 0175 Mouchketov, 0. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
17/1, 1879. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN - GEOLOGY 0201 0202 Griesbach, C.L., 1884, Report on the geology’.of A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1973, Zur Geologic und Paläontologie der Decken von Lagman und Jelalabad, Geologisches Jahrbuch, 3, 1973, p.G3—99. Rosset, L.F., 1955, Les intercalations et ‘roches filoniennes dans Ic complexe cnistallophyllien de Ia region de Kaboul et du socle afghan en general, Afghanistan, 10, 1955, p.21—34. und Afghanistan vorhanden? Petrol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Palaeozoic era A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I GEOLOGY 0248 Brice, D., 1977, Biostratigraphy of the Devonian of 0249 Brice, D. and Farsan, M., 1976, Brachiopods from the 0250 Brice, D., Lapparent, A.F.de, and Mistiaen, B., 1974, 0251 Bruggey, J., 1973, Mesozoikum und alttertiar in 0252 Dekentorp, K., 1977, Some new aspects on secondary 0253 Durkoop, A., Mensink, H. and Plodowski, G., 1968, 0254 0255 Flugel, H. 1965, Rugosa aus dem Perm Afghanistan, 0256 Fontaine, H., Montenai, C., Termier, G.and Vachard,D. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
‘~ ,~,• 21 22 0259 Lapparent, A.F.de, 1977, On the early Cambrian and 0260 Lapparent, A.F.de, et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
H., Lapparent, A.F.de, nd 0282 Termier, G., Termier, H. and Vachard, D., 1977, On 0283 Thompson, M.L., 1941, Upper Penmian fusulinid fonam- 0284 Thompson, M.L., 1946, Permian fusulinids from Afghan- 0285 Weippert, D. and Wittekindt, H.P.. 1964, Em Von— 0286 Wolfart, R., 1967, Zur Entwicklung den paláozoischen 0287 Arjang, B., 1976, The Rhaeto--jurassic floras of Iran 0288 Ashraf, A.R., 1977, The Rhaetic—Junassic flora of Iran 0289 Barnard, P.D.W., 1967, Two new plants from the Upper 0290 Benda, L., 1964, Die Jura—Flora aus den Saighan-Senie Teichert, C., Kummel, B. and Kapoor, H.M., 1970, Mixed permian—tniassic fauna, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, Science, 167, Jan. and 0282 Termier, G., Termier, H. and Vachard, D., 1977, On 0283 Thompson, M.L., 1941, Upper Penmian fusulinid fonam- 0284 Thompson, M.L., 1946, Permian fusulinids from Afghan- 0285 Weippert, D. and Wittekindt, H.P.. 1964, Em Von— 0286 Wolfart, R., 1967, Zur Entwicklung den paláozoischen 0287 Arjang, B., 1976, The Rhaeto--jurassic floras of Iran 0288 Ashraf, A.R., 1977, The Rhaetic—Junassic flora of Iran 0289 Barnard, P.D.W., 1967, Two new plants from the Upper 0290 Benda, L., 1964, Die Jura—Flora aus den Saighan-Senie Teichert, C., Kummel, B. and Kapoor, H.M., 1970, Mixed permian—tniassic fauna, Guryul Ravine, Kashmir, Science, 167, Jan A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Martin, P., 1974, Monograph on the Permo—Carbon— iferous of Wardak (Central Afghanistan), Documents: Laboratoires de Geologic de Ia Faculté des Sciences de Lyons, 2, 1974, lG7p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Nond-Afghanistans, Beihefte zum Geologische Jahr- A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 1 GEOLOGY 00292 Bion, H.S. and Coggin—Brown, J., 1925, Notes on 0293 Bordet, P., Montenat, C., Bellon, H. and Sonet, J. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
0294 Boulin, J. and Bouyx, E., 1976, Fragmentation of the 0295 Cita, M.B. and Ruscelli, M.A., 1959, Cretaceous micro— 0296 Demin, A.N., et at., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Cainozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary eras Barthoux, J., 1933, Le Siwalik et les rochesvolcan— iques récentes en Afghanistan, . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1977, p.98—145. 1 ~:~‘“ “ - 27 ~) 28 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 0324 0325 Cassaigneau. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Science naturelle), 276/18, 1973, p.2509—2512. ‘ Pias, J., 1974, Genèse de croutes et encnoutements calcaines en Afghanistan au Quaternaire-récent, :~‘~(:. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(Significance of the presence of pollens of Cheno— podiaceae in the crusts and calcareous incnustations of the recent Quatennary in,, Afghanistan), Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l’Académie des Sciences (Ser.D: A Bibliography of Afghanistan
11th Nov. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1937, Records of the Geological Survey of I 31 22 0363 Desio, A., 1961, Qualche osservazione comparativa fra 0364 Desio, A., 1963, 1 rapporti tettonici fra il Badakhshan 0365 Desio, A., 1963, Qualche osservazione sopra un recento 0366 Desio, A., 1963, Review of the geologic “Formations” 0367 Desio, A., 1965, On the tectonic connection between 0368 Desio, A., 1972, Explorazioni geologiche. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
statistical methods to investigations of the general laws of the seismic conditions in the northern A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN GEOLOGY 4 0397 0398 Joudin, G.L., 1932, On the geological structure of the 0399 Jux, U., 1975, Paleogeographic development of, mobile 0400 Jux, U. and Kempf, E.K., 1971, Straussendurch 0401 0402 0403 0404 Karapetov, S.S., Sonin, 1,1, and Khain,V,E., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Proceedings of t.’ie International Colloquium on the Geotectonics of the Kashmir Himalaya—Hindu Kush-Pamir orogenic belts, Rome, June 1974,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Schlagel und Eisen, 7, 1956, p.246. ,,,~,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Geological Magazine, 6, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
on the Development of Petroleum Resources in Asia and the Far East, I’ & NR/PR, 3/42, 1965, 4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
the Middle East, Bulletin of~’~’ the Seismological S of America, 62/3, 1972, p.823—850. the Hindu—Kush seismic zones, Proceedings A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4,1 42 A BiBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN 0475 Kaever, M., 1961, Observation sur une faunule de 0476 Kaever, M., 1965, Mikropaläontologische Untersuchungen 0477 Kaever, M., 1967, Untersuchungen zur Schichtenfolge 0478 Kaever, M., 1967, Historische Entwicklung und der- 0479 Kaever, M., 1967, Unterkretazische Cyclammininae 0480 Lang, J. and Pierre, J.F., 1974, Contribution a 0481 0482 Medlicott, H.B., 1879 and 1880, On geological specimens 0483 Prashad, M., 1938, Some freshwater and land fossil 0484 Ronchetti, C.R. and Sestini, N.F., 1961, La Fauna 0485 Rosset, L.F., 1949, Prospection paléontologique dans de France, 8, 1977, p.277—289. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
an Inceramus from Afghan- istan, Annales de Paléontologie Invertèbres, 60/1, 1974, p.27—34. Termier, H., and Termier, G., 1977, Bio—sedimentologi— cal studies, of Stromatolites collected in the Zargaran suite (Central Afghanistan), Mémoires de Ia Société Géologique de France, 8, 1977, p.263—266. Vogel, K., 1966, Riffbildende Muscheln in Afghanistan, Science Quarterly Journal, 1966, p.4—8. Minerals, mining and exploration Abdullah, J., Bordet, P., Carbonnel, J.P. and Pias, J., 1975, A recent carbonatite, dome in Regis— tan (Southern Afghanistan), Comptes Rendus de VAcadémie des Sciences, 281123, 1975, p.1801—1804. Afghan Petrol Exploration Department, 1967, Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on the development of petroleum resources of Asia and the Near East, Mineral Sources, Dev A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Preliminary report on geological and mineral investigations in Nurestan, Afghanistan, Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt,’ 1, 1974, p.9—23. Furon, R., 1924, Les ressources minières de l’Afghan— istan, Revue Scientifique, 1924, p.313. Ganss, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I GEOLOGY’~ 0534 Lapparent, A.F.de, 1961, ‘Un gisement de minerai de 0535 Lapparen,t,...A.F~de,1966, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, Nouvelles données sur le minenai de fer d’Hajigak en Afghanistan, Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, 259, 1964, p.ll53—ll54. propos de l’Age de la sénie ‘de Saighan et du char— bon en Afghanistan, Annale~ de la Société Géolog— ique du Nord, 85, 1965, p.105-108. gisements a fusulines de l”Afghanistan central, Comptes Rendus de 1 ‘Académie des Sciences, 260, 1965, p.5073—5075. Lapparent, A.F.de, and Meriaux, E., 1974, On a Gondwana coal layer of Central Afghanistan, Annales de Ia Sociétd Géologique du Nord, 94/1—4, 1974, p.l27—131. minérales de l’Asie, Paris, Ch. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A l’Est de Kaboul (Afghanistan), Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, 252/17, 1961, p.2578—258O. istan, Conference on current problems in Afghanis- tan, Princeton University, 1961, p.25—48. mineral finds, (graphite, talc, copper), Mining Journal, 287, 1976, p.402. Cooperation Administration Advisor, 1957, Report to the Royal Government of Afghanistan, Kabul, Ministry of Mines and ICA, 1957. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(McLean), (P), 1975, Time of development 0561 Petrol World, (P), 1935, Will Afghanistan oil enter 0562 Petrol World, (P), 1938, Afghanistan prospect for 0563 Piddington, H., 1835, Examination of a mineral 0564 Popal, S., 1952, Bericht über wichtige Eisen—und 0565 Pninsep, J., 1838, Report on ten specimens of coal 0566 Proc. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2nd Symposium on Devel~pment of Petroleum 0567 Proc. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2nd Symposium on Development of Petroleum 0568 0569 Rossset, L.F., 1947, Les pierres précieuses.en A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Resources, (Asia and the Far East), 1963, Technical,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
0574 Schreyer, W. and Abraham, K., 1975, Peraluminous 0575 Schwarz, C., 1925, Erzvorkommen und nutzbare 0576 Schwarz, V., 1929, Erzvorkommen und nutzbare 0577 Siebdrat, H., 1965, Parallelisierung von optisch 0578 Smith, G.I., 1975, Potash and other evaporite resources 0579 Tipper, G.H.; 1921, The geology and mineral resources 0580 Tromp, S.W., 1951, Report on the oil possibilities of 0581 United Nations Development Programme, no date, Afghanistan, Pt.1, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Vredenburg, E., 1909, Note on a Hippurite bearing limestone in Seistan and on the geology of the adjoining region, Records of the Geological Survey of India, 38, 1909, p.216. water, Afghanistan, 5/2, 1950, p.36—46 5/3, 1950, p. 18—24. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul Province, Afghanistan, Washington DC, US Dept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(German: On the geology of the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan.) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(German: on the Geology of the Arghandab (River) Pluton and Adjacent Sediment Series in Almaytu in Central Afghanistan.) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Veetation zones and ecology 0604 Agachanjanc, O.E., 1980, Die geographischen Ursachen 0605 Aitchinson, J.F.T., 1880, “The vegetation of the Kuram 0606 Anandale, N., 1919, Notes on the vegetation of Seistan, 0607 Bharucha, F.R., 1955, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan: 0608 Boissier, E.P., 1867—84, Flora orientalis; sive, enumer- 0609 Breckle, S.W., 1973, Mikroklimatische Messungen und 0610 Breckle, S.W. and Frey, W., 1974, Die Vegetationsstufen 0611 Breckle, S.W. and Frey, W., 1976, Flora Iranica — 0612 Dieterle, A., 1973, Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen 0613 Diickelmann, R.von, 1951, Die Holzgewächse und Wald- Bedingtheit und geographischen Verteilung, General— für die Luckenhaftigheit der Flora in den Gebirgen, Mittelasiens, (The geographical reasons for gaps in the floral species distribution of the Central Asian mountain ranges.)etation zones and ecology 0604 Agachanjanc, O.E., 1980, Die geographischen Ursachen 0605 Aitchinson, J.F.T., 1880, “The vegetation of the Kuram 0606 Anandale, N., 1919, Notes on the vegetation of Seistan, 0607 Bharucha, F.R., 1955, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan: 0608 Boissier, E.P., 1867—84, Flora orientalis; sive, enumer- 0609 Breckle, S.W., 1973, Mikroklimatische Messungen und 0610 Breckle, S.W. and Frey, W., 1974, Die Vegetationsstufen 0611 Breckle, S.W. and Frey, W., 1976, Flora Iranica — 0612 Dieterle, A., 1973, Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen 0613 Diickelmann, R.von, 1951, Die Holzgewächse und Wald- Bedingtheit und geographischen Verteilung, General— für die Luckenhaftigheit der Flora in den Gebirgen, Mittelasiens, (The geographical reasons for gaps in the floral species distribution of the Central Asian mountain ranges. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bibliography on ‘Plant Ecology’ in Afghanistan, Excerpta Botanica Sectio B Sociologica, 12, 1973, p.310—3 15. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I FLORA AND FAUNA 0659 Brandenburger, W. and Steiner, M., 1972, Parasitische 0660 Brandis, D., 1874, The forest flora of Northwest and 0661 Breckle, S.W., 1971, 1st Diarthron vesiculosum 0662 Breckle, S.W., 1974, Notes on alpine and nival flora 0663 Breckle, S.W., 1979, Afghanische Drogen und ihre 0664 Breckle, S.W., Frey, W. and Hedge, 1.C., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Seg. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, teile von West—Pakistan, Nord—Iraq, Azerbaidjan, Turkmenistan: Capparidaceae, (Flora ‘ of the Iranian highland and the surrounding mountains, Persia, Afghanistan, parts of West Pak- istan, North Iraq, Azerbal~an, Turkmenia: Capparidaceae), Flora Iran, 68, 1970, .32p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
~\“ Garden Notes, 5 ..~ * I 63 ~‘ - -~ -I 64 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OFSAFGHANISTAN 0716 Henderson, D.M., 1970, Studies in the flora of Afghan- 0717 Hewer, T.F., 1973, A botanical expedition to Iran and 0718 Jacquemin—Roussard, M. . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
K~ie, M. and Rechinger, K.H., 1954, Symbolae icae. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ephedra plants. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rechinger, K—H., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1961, Uber eine neue Art der Primula— 0786 Soest, J.L.van, 1970, Taraxacum podlechii, etne neue 0787 Stewart, J.L., 1862, Notes on the flora of the country 0788 Stocks, J.E., 1852, Notes on Baloochistan plants, Hook. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN FLORA AND FAUNA 0783 0784 Schonbeck—Temesy, E., 1970~ Flora des iranlschen Hoch~- 0785 Schwarz, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4, p.142—iSO; 172—181. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 53/1, 1955, p.49—53. reptilia collected by F. P. Maynard, A. H.Mac—MahonAlcock, A. and Finn, F., 1896, An account of the and the members of the Afghan—Baluch Boundary ~ Commission of 1896, Journal of the Asiatic Society . c 73 ~ 3 74 0807 Annandale, N., 1919-1921, Report on the aquatic fauna 0808 Beier, M., 1953, Mantiden aus Afghanistan, Vidnes— 0809 Cumming, J.W.N,:19~15, Birds of Seistan, Being a list 0810 Deranyigala, P.E.P., 1955, Some extinct elephants, 0811 Dupree, L., 1956, Note in the distribution of the 0812 Finn, F., n.d., List of the birds collected by the 0813 Gaughley, G., 1971, Afghanistan; wildlife resources, 0814 Gull, A., 1977, Die waidgebiete im osten Afghanistans, 0815 Goodwin, C. and Amadon, D., 1958, Animal and bird 0816 ‘Hassinger, J.D., 1973, A survey of the mammals of 0817 Hay, W.R., 1840, Notes on the wild sheep of the 0818 Hora, S.L., n.d., Fish of Afghanistan, India: Zoo- 0819 Howarth, T.G. and Povolny, D., 1973, Beitrage zur of Bengal, 65, 1896, p.550—566. of Seistan, Record of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 18, 1919—1921, p.l—254. kabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, 115, 1953, p.169—172. of the Birds shot or seen in Seistan by Members of the Seistan Arbitration Commission, 1903—1905. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kullmann, E., 1966—1967, Der Tiergarten in ~Kabul, Freuñde des Kölner Zoos, 9/4, 1966—67, p.130—134. Kullmann, E., 1967, Wozu bauen wir einen Zoo in Kabul?, Freunde des Kölner Zoos, 2/10, 1967, p.43—49. Leviton, A.E., 1959,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Science Quarterly Journal, 3, 1965, 20p.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan expedition, 1952—53; Acarina, lxodoidea ,~ Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 46, 1956, p.l8—l9. I .. , . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Olejnicek, J. and Amin, A., 1977, On some ; 0945 Minar, 3. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1962, Notes on the Kunduz River basin, Afghanistan, Kabul, not pub., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I~IATER RESOURCES (Natural) 1043 1044 1045 Markham, C.R., 1879, The upper basin of the Kabul 1046 Markham, C.R., 1879, The basin of the Hilmend, 1047 Minayeff, I., 1879, Information relating to ‘the coun- 1048 Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation,’ Water and 1049 Ministry of Agriculture and irrigation, Water “and 1050 Mohammad, A., 1965, Description of gaging, ‘station on 1051 Petersen, A.T., n.d., Kunduz river discharge at Pul—’~ 1052 Proctor and Redfern international Ltd., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1053 Rathjens, C., 1956, Das Hilmend—Projekt in Afghanistan, 1054 Rawlinson, H.C., 1872, Monograph ‘on the Oxus, Journal Lindberg, K., 1961, Le Lac dit de Chiva (Afghanistan) (Le pays des Choghnis et des Marmottes), Acta Ceo— graphica, 37, 1961, p. 4—10; Also Afghanistan, 16/3, 196.1, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, 100, 1956,’ p.213. ‘ ‘ ‘ of the Royal Geographical Society, 42, 1872. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
‘ ‘ ‘ 97 “if 98 1055 Rishtya, S.Q., 1943 and 1947, The rivers of Afghanis- 1056 Rocca, F.de, 1896, De l’Alai a l’Amou-Daria, 1057 Saxena, B.P., 1959, Report on the inspection and 1058 Shah, M.H., 1961, Hirmand—Hindmand, Afghanistan, 1059 Stenz, E., 1942, Système hydrographique et debits des 1060 United Nations Development Programme, 1970, Ground 1061 United Nations Development Programme, 1972, Ground- 1062 United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the 1063 United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the 1064 United Nations international Children’s Emergency Fund, 1065 United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, 1066 United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, tan, Afghanistan, 2/2, 1943, p.8—14; 6/2, 1947, p.8—14. Paris, Ollendorff, 1896. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965, Report on development of Helmand Valley, Washington DC, Tudor Engineering, 1965, 2O3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES 1132 Ayuso, D.F.G., 1877, Estudios sobre el Oriente: Iran, 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 Clerk, C C , 1861 Notes on Persia Khorassan and 1143 o del Indo al Tigris. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Wood, employed on missions in the years 1835-1837 in Scinde, Afghan—’ istan and adjacent countries, Calcutta, ‘G.H.Hutt— A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN GEOGRAPHICAL STUD1ES 1160 Liniger, J., 1964, En Afghanistan, Afghanistan, 19/1, 1161 1162 1163 Maitland, P.J. and MacGregor, C.M., 1882—84, 1164 Malachov, M., 1946, Afghanistan, Geographical sketch, 1165 Malte—Brun, V.A., 1873, Gdographie physique,’ poli— 1166 Markham, C.R., 1876, Afghan’iGeography, Proceedings 1167 1168 Michel, A.A., 1960, On writing the geography of 1169 Monod—Herzen, G.E., 1936, Une ascension française en 1170 Monteith, W., 1836, Notes on Persia, Tartary, and 1171 Monde, 14, 1909, p.49—96; 313—360. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1173 Ortroy, von, 1887, Esquisse géographique de l’Afghan— 1176 Petersen, S., 1933, Mellem Indien og Afghanistan, 1175 Ramkrishna, G.B., 1872, PAnini and the geography of 1176 Rathjens, C., 1957, Afghanistan, Die Weltwirtscháft 2, 1177 Rathjens, C., 1958, L’Afghanistan, oggi. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES 1187 Sadik, 1., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1971, Afghanistan: official standard names approved by the US Board on Geographic Names, Washington, Army Topographical Command, 1971, xvi, l7Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES 1215 1216 Beavan, R., 1880, Notes on the country between 1217 Benava, A.R., 1953, “Punjwai”, Afghanistan, 8/3, 1218 Benava, A.R., 1954, Dawar ou Zamine Dawar, 1219 Breckle, S.W. and Frey, W., 1976, Die höchsten Berge 1220 Broadfoot, W., 1897, Kafiristan and the Kafirs, 1221 1222 Campbell, W.W., 1880, Shor a Wak Valley and the 1223 Capus, G., 1889, Le. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Khwaja in Seistan, Journal of the Royal. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1284 1285 1286 1287 Tate, G.P., 1910—12, Seistan: A memoir on the history, and genealogists: the histories of the Ghuris, the~ - - Turk sovereigns of the Dilhi Kingdom, the Moghul sovereigns of the House of Timur, and other Muha- madan chronicles, and from personal observations, - - - London, Eyre and Spottiswoods, for the Secretary of State for India, 1880—1888, xvi, 734p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN ~. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
9 .J- A Bibliography of Afghanistan
stud~r of 1336 Stenz, E., 1941, On the evaporation capacity in 1337 Stenz, E., 1947, The climate of Afghanistan, its: 1338 Stenz, E., 1948, Le climat- de Kaboul, Afghanistan, ~ 1339 Stenz, E., 1949, The problem of arid climates from the 1340 Stenz, E., 1957, Precipitation, evaporation -and aridity gebirges in den sommertrockenen subtropen am - Beispiel des afghanischen Hindukusch, (Climate and countryside in the high mountains of the Hindu Kush), Trochengebielt, Natur und Mensch im ariden. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1400 Kraus, R.W.H., 1971, Land settlement in Afghanistan: 1401 Noblemaire, G., 1897, Au pays des Afridis, Revue de 1402 Planhol, X;de, 1976, Le repeuplement de la basse 1403 1404 Raunig, W., 1976, Menschen im Wakhan, Afghanischer 1405 Stadelbauer, J., 1973, Bahnbau und Kulturgeographi— 1406 1407 Tanner, 1881, Notes on the Chunganis and neigh- 1408 1409 Wiebe, D. • 1973, Raumordnung und Kommunalstruktur 1410 Wiebe, D., 1976, Einer Kulturgeographischer Beitrag den Volkerverkehr, Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Geographic, 8, 1891, p.10. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
vicinity of 1448 Biscoe, W., 1880, Report on the Kandahar district, 1449 Capra, G., 1933, Le citta dell’Afghanistan, (The city 1450 Council of Planning Librarians, 1975, Urbanization and 1451 1452 Fischer, K., 1967, Zur Lage von Kandahar an Land— 1453 Fontpertuis, de, 1880, La yule de H~rat et son 1454 Foucher, A., 1900, Ghandara: .note A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1462 Jamil Hanifi, M., n.d., The Central Asian city and its 1463 Jung, C.L., n.d., Some observations on the patterns 1464 1465 Kohzad, M.N., 1958, Kabul, Afghanistan, 13/4—14/1, 1466 Lacoste, Y., 1967, Kaboul et quelques problèmes de 1467 Lal, M., 1834, A brief description of Herat, Journal 1468 Leech, P., 1845, Account of parts of the Cabool and 1469 Malleson, G.B., 1880, Herat: the granary of Central 1470 Morgenstierne, G., 1970, Istalif and other place—names 1471 Mulder, S.J., 1957, Kabul, Hoofstadt van het Konink- 1472 Paquier, J.B., 1885, Hérat et les territoires contestés, 1473 Rafat, A.R., 1971, The study of the population of 1474 Rathjens, C., 1957, Kabul, die Hauptstadt Afghanistans, Die Koralle, 4/12, 1928—29, p.564—567. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Overland from England through Russia, Persia and Afghanistan, 2nd ed. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Khorassan, to the River Heni—Rud, on the border of Seistan, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 14, 1884, p.145—192. • through the northern parts of India, Kashmir, Afghanistan and Persia and into Russia hy the Caspian Sea, London, 1798, 2nd ed. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Sherepore Camp, Cabul. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Translated by Sir William Cuseley, London, 1800. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Candahar, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 2/9, Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
p.27—32. The journey of the Taoist Ch’ang-Ch’un from China to the Hindukush at the summons of Chin giz Khan, Recorded by his Disciple Li Chih—Ch’ang. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1780 1781 1782 1783 Sykes, P., 1902, Ten thousand miles in Persia, or 1784 1785 1786 1787 Thomas, L., 1927, Beyond Khyber Pass, Third edition,, 1788 Stein, A., 1929, On Alexander track to the Indus. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Sykes, C., 1934, Some notes on a recent journey in Afghanistan, Geographical Journal, 84, 1934, p.327—336. Sykes, H.R., 1905, Some notes on journeys’ in southern and east—southern Persia, Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, 21, 1905. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Tate, G.P., 1909, The frontier of Baluchistan~:’ travels on the borders of Persia and Afghanistan, ‘London,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Hutchinson, London, xiv+224p.’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORICAL STUDIES 1842 1843 Bernard, P., 1967, Ai Khanum on the Oxus: ‘a Hellen—’ 1844 ‘ Bernard, P., 1971, La campagne de fouilles de 1970 a; 1845 Bernard, P., 1978, Al—Khanoum, Afghanistan, 3112, 1846 Bernard, P., 1980, Un problème de toponymie antique 1847 Berre, M.Le, 1970, Le monument de Danestama en 1848 Berre, M.Le, Schiumberger, D. and Dagens, B.; 1964, 1849 . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ghazni Afghanistan, 14/4, 1959 p 1—23 1958, p.7—9. , I,.’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, 27/3, 1974, p.46—64. ‘ I p.247—260. . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rev. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORICAL STUDIES 1895 1896 Dupont—Sommer, A., 1956, Shamshir Ghar, a historic 1897 Dupree, L., 1950, Preliminary field report on excava- 1898. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Editions d’Art et Histoire, (P), 1934, Le site archéo— 1918 Fairservis, W.A., 1950, Archaeological research in 1919 Fairservis, W.A., 1952, Preliminary report on the pre- 1920 Fairservis, W.A., 1964, Archaeological studies in 1921 Field, H. and Prostov, E., 1948, Recent excavations at istan, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 9914, Oct.—Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1933 Fischer, K., 1967, Der sp’at—sassanidische~Feuertempel— 1934 Fischer, K., 1969, Preliminary remarks on ,archaeo—’’.i.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, 16/2, 1961, p.3O—39. Fischer, K., Hindu, Jam International Conference on Asian Archaeology Summaries of Papers, New Delhi, l961~ p.72—74. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
p. 1—16. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
their influence on Buddhist sculpture, Eastern Art, 1/2, 1928, p.1O9—116. ologique Fran cause a Hadda (Afghanistan), Missions Foucher-Godard—Barthoux (1923—1928), Revue des Arts Asiatiques, 1928, p.66—77. istan, Mélanges Linossier, 1, 1930, p.287—291. ologique Fran çaise en Afghanistan, (1922—1932), Vol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Paris, Editions d’Art et d’histoire, 1939, lO3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2034 Klimburg, M., 1959, Short preliminary report on our 2035 Knobloch, E., 1981, Survey Qf\ Archaeology and Archi- 2036 Kohzad, A.A., 1948, La statuaire au Nouristan’ ct le 2037 2038 2039 Kohzad, A.A., 1949, Lashkargah, Afghanistan, 4/1,.’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Illustrated London News, 234/6240, Jan.’. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORICAL STUDIES 2082 Mizuno, S., 1971, Bascewal and Jelalabad — Kabul, 2083 Mizuno, S. and Higuchi, T., 1978, Tharezi, Buddhist 2084 Moline, J., 1973—74, The Minaret of Jam, Kunst des 2085 2086 2087 Motamedi, A.A., 1979, Bronze age sites in North East” 2088 2089 Motamedi, A,A,, 1980, Some notes on the excavation at 2090 Motamedi, A.A., 1980, Discovery of an inscription in 2091 Motamedi, A.A., 1980, A temple of mystery, ‘Afghanistan 2092 Motamedi, H., 1971, Buddic. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
179’- ‘ -‘ 180 2096 Motamedi, H., 1978, Contribution of Japanese scholars 2097 Motamedi, H., 1979, A great discovery of the ancient 2098 Motamedi, H., 1980, Bamyan and its culture, (2 parts), 2099 Movlus, H.S. (Jr), 1972, The Mouster’ian. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORICAL STUDIES 2136 Scerrato, U., 1959, Summary report on the Italian 2137 2138 2139 Schiumberger, D., 1949, Archaeology in Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORICAL STUDIES 2160 2161 2162 2163 2164 2165 Shakur, M.A., 1947, A dash through the heart of 2166 2167 2168 Smith, G.E., 1915, The migrations of early culture, 2169 Smith, R.W., 1958, Technical report on Shamshir Ghar 2170 Smith and Elder, 1887, The idoles of Bamian, Journal 2171 2172 Sourdel—Thomine, J., 1953, Deux minarets d’époque 2173 Senart, E., 1924, Rapport sur les travaux de Ia mission archéologique en Afghanistan pendant le premier semestre 1924, Bulletin de i’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 1924, p.342—346. Shaffer, J.G., 1971, Preliminary field report on excavations at Said Qala Tepe, Afghanistan, 24/2—3, 1971, p.89—l27. Shaffer, J.G., 1971, Kushano—Sasanian cemetery, Afghanistan, 24/2—3, 1971, p.138—i66. Shaffer, J.G., 1976, Neolithic — Bronze age Afghanistan — recent developments, Afghanistan, 29/3, i976. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
in Nordafghanistan, Afghanistan Journal, 4/3, 1977, p.100—110. ~. ~ .1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Veltro, 16/5—6, 1972, p.563—578. Zestovsky, P I Afghanistan Vallée de Bámiyan, Afghanistan, 3/2, 1948, p 39—62 Hérat, Kaboul — Hérat, Afghanistan, 4/3,:L 1949, p.l—25. readable Ashokan era edicts found, Afghanistan, - 22/3—4, 1969—70, p.l48—150. 1948, Esquisses d’ architecture de -, •~ - - -- : - 1~ - -192 2253 Bayley, E.C., 1861, Note on the translation of a 2254 Beames, J., 1898, The geography of the Kandahar 2255 2256 2257 2258 2259 2260 2261 2262 2263 2264 2265 - unity, Afghanistan, 16/2, 1961, p.1—7 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN HISTORICAL STUDIES 2266 2267 Dowson, J., 1875, Notes on a Bactrian Paltllnscription 2268 Flury, S., 1918, Das Schriftbund an der~Fure~des - 2269 2270 - 2271 2272 - 2273 Habibi, A.H., 1971, A short history of calligraphy and 2274 2275 2276 Humbach, H. and Davary, G.D., 1975,- -Eine--weltere-:Y 2277 2278 2279 Dowson, J., 1862, On a newly discovered Bactrian Pali Inscription, and on other inscriptions in the Bactrian Pali character, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 20, 1862, p.221—268. and the Samvat Era, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (t~1.S), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORICAL STUDIES 2293 Burn, R., 1933, Muhamad Tughluq’s forced coinage, 2294 Cunningham, A., 1840., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2299 Frye, R.N., 1950, Additional notes on the early 2300 Furdoonjee, N., 1838, Report on the weights, measures, 2301 Gardner, P., 1886, The coins of the Greek and - H - 2302 Hackin, J., 1935, Repartitions des, monnaies anciennes 2303 Hamid, H.A., 1967, A catalogue of-modern coins of 2304 Hay, W.R., 1840, Account of coins found- -at .Bameean,~~p~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- 2305 Hoernle, A.F.R., 1888, Notes- on some new Bactrian and- - Delhi, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 3, - 1907, p.587—592. - -- Journal of the Royal Asian Society, (N.S), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
9, -1840, - Gupta coins, Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1888, p.l27—l33. - I- -, - - - “~-- :~t4 - ,, ‘ ‘~, - - ~ 195 196 2306 Hoernle, A.F.R., 1890, On the copper coins of the Sun 2307 Hoernle, A.F.R., 1890-97, On some new and rare Hindu 2308 Kalus, L., 1976, Etablissement d ‘un catalogue de la 2309 Kalus, L., 1979, La collection des monnaies Islamiques 2310 Kohzad,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Scythic kings of Bactria and India in the British Museum, London Stuart Poole 1886 lxxvi, 193p en Afghanistan, Journal Asiatique,, 2,- 1935, - - p 287—292 Afghanistan, IPS, 1967, 57p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Oxford, 1906. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2342 Abdoul Kerim Boukhary, M., 1876, Histoire de 1 ‘Asie 2343 Altheim, F. and Stiehl, R., 1970, The history of 2344 Archibald, W.A.J., 1929, Cambridge History of British - 2345 Barthold, V., 1962—63, Four studies on the history of 2346 Blerzy, H., 1874, Les revolutions -de l’Asie-Centrale, 2347 Elphinstone, M., 1866, History of India: the Hindu and 2348 Fairservis, W.A., 1971, The roots of ancient India, 2349 Geiger, W., 1885, Civilization ‘of the Eastern Iranians - 2350 Girard de Rialle, J., 1875, Mérnoire sur 1 ‘Asie 2351 - Gowen, H.H., 1929, Histoire de l’Asie, Trans.-.-into A Bibliography of Afghanistan
London, 1858, xxii, 491p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
2431 2432 Modi, M.M., 1907, The Afghanistan of the Amir and 2433 Muqtadir, A., 1916, Notes on a unique history of Herat 2434 Palwal, A.R., 1968—1971, History of former Kafiristan, - 2435 Pazhwak, A.R., 1954, Afghanistan (ancient Aryana). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY AND POLITICS 2473 2474 Chatelier, A.Le, 1907, L’émir d’Afghanistan aux Indes, 2475 Desai, Z.A., 1975, Cultural relations between Afghar~— 2.476 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Cashmerian of distinction who accompanied Nadir Shah on his return from Hindostan to Persia, whence he travelled to Bagdad, etc. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
on the metrology of the early Sultans of ‘Delhi, Journal of the Asiatic Society.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
~527 Gunther, R., 1977, Some remarks on the chronology of ~528 2529 Habibi, A.H., 1971, Afghanistan at the end of the 2530 Hameed—ud—Din, 1962, Les Afghans a la conquête du 2531 2532 Jouquet, P., 1926, L ‘impérialisme macédonien et 2533 Justi, F., 1902, History of all Nations, Vol.2: A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY AND POLITICS 9.5 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Shah Rokh, d’après Thomas de Medzoph,:.Mémoirs A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Evans, G.de Lacy, 1829, On the practicability of an invasion of India, London, 1829, lviii, l47p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Published in 1846, (Reprint in Oxford in Asia series), 2.vol. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1886, 241p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Nineteenth Century, 6, Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Russe, d’après deux voyageurs français, Revue des Deux Mondes, 1 Nov. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
HISTORY AND POLITICS 3058 3059 3060 3061 3062 3063 3064 3065 3066 . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
..~ . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
and R.Fulford, London, Macmillan, 1938. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Amir, London, 1901, 523p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Conversations with Skobeleff, Ignatieff, and other distinguished Russian generals and statesmen on the Central Asian question, London, Sampson Low, 1882, xx, 338p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Speech of the Earl of Northbrook. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A memoir, with selections from his correspondence and ~official writings, London, John Murray, 1897, xxiii, 392p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Comments on a Dianous, H.J.de, 1961, La contribution rCcente. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Uzbekistan: observations and trends, American Universities Field Staff Reports, South’ Asia Series, 3/4, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Eastern World, 11, Nov. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3312 Hacker, J., 1980, Afghanistan und die Folgen zu 3313 Halliday, F., 1978, Revolution in Afghanistan, New Left 3314 Hamaqui, E., 1965, Les organes de gestion des activités 3315 Hannah, N., 1979, Afghanistan the great gamble, 3316 Harrison, S.G., 1978, Nightmare in Baluchistan (on 3317 Hasan, K.S., (Ed.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
207, 1930, p.306—308. during Amanullah ‘ s reign, 1919—1929, International Studies, 9, 1967—68, p.161—182. on the basis of history, Afghanistan, 23/1, 1970, p .29—35. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Whoever rules, MEED, 23/22, 1 June 1979, p.14—15. Hyman, A., 1979, Afghanistan’s unpopular revolution, Round Table, 275, July 1979, p.222—226. International Affairs, (P), 1962, Afghanistan: two results, International Affairs, 8/3, March 1962, p.86-87. on Soviet role in coup), Atlas, 25/1, 1978, p.42. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bulletin 3411 3412 Taillardat, F., 1933, L’assassinat de Nadir Chah, rot’ 3413 United Nations, 1964, Seminar on human rights in 3414 3415 Utas B 1977—78 Recent events in Afghanistan 3416 Vercellin, G., 1973, Afghanistan,’ 1919—1971.’,’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
CeAtral Asian Review, 4/2, 1956, A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF’ AFGHANISTAN HISTORY AND POLITICS 3431 3432 3433 Abidi, A.H.H., 1977, Irano—Afghan .dispute A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Observations on China’s relations ‘with. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3491 3492 Wu, P—L., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
US Committee on Foreign Affairs, 1980, Subcontinent: Afghanistan and Pakistan, Hearings,::’ Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs, Committee of Foreign Affairs, House, May ‘15 — Washington, 1980, 4lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Economist, 174, 1955, p.58O—583. . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
OF AFGHANISTAN 1 HISTORY AND POLITICS 3507 3508 . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
8/2, 1953, p.31—32. Khan, N., 1953, Dr Najibullah Khan’s statement on Pashtoonistan Day, Afghanistan, 8/3, 1953, p.45. Kohzad, A.A., 1961, Frontier discord between Afghanistan and Pakistan, Afghanistan, 16/1, 1961, p.54—67. Mayne, P., 1965, The implications of Pakhtunlstan prospects for Pakistani—Afghani relations, .~. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
- as the focus on the new state of Pakhtunistan, London, Royal Embassy of Afghanistan, 1952; Hove, Sussex, Key Press, 1954, l53p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
n.d., Report on India and 3539 Dupree, L., 1962, India’s stake in Afghan—Pakistan 3540 Foreign Affairs Record, (F), 1977, India — Afghanistan, 3541 Chose, D.K., 1960, England and Afghanistan: a phaseJ 3542 3543 Indian Yearbook of International Affairs, 1953, Treaty 3544 Jafri, H.A. S., 1976, lndo—Afghan relations, 1947—1967, 3545 3546 Kohzad, A.A., 1954, lndo—Afghan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Joint communiqué (Kabul), Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3589 Dupaigne, B., 1980, L’expansion coloniale russe en 3590 Dupree, L., 1960, Afghanistan’s big gamble, invasion of Afghanistan, The Atlantic Community Quarterly, 18/1, 1980, p.20—26. President’s statement, Dec.24, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
p.40—49. track negotiations on Afghanisan, Journal of South Presseschau, 6/10, 1951, p.6. istan, Revue Socialiste, July 1962 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3703 3704 370S 3706 3707 Vercellin G 1980 La crisi af~hana Le riforme (Report prepared for the sub-committee on Europe and the Middle East of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs by the Office of Sç~’iior Specialists.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Morison, D.).,, 1978,’’ Moscow on the new Afghanistan, USSR and Third World, 814, 8/5, 8/6, 1978. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Morison, D...)., 1979, Brezhnev on “new stage” in Soviet—Afghan relations: Soviet military supplies to Afghanistan; Reports, on and reactions to the Herat rising, Moscow on’ “intervention plot” against Afghanistan, USSR and Third World, 9/2, 9/3, 1979. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 97th Congress, 1st Session, April 1981, Washington DC, USGPO, 1981, x + l33p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Morison, D.), 1978, Afghanistan: the Soviet connection, USSR. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
and Third World, 8/2, 8/3, 1978. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Zahir: observations on Afghanistan’s reactions to visits from Nixon, Bulganin—Khrushchev, Eisenhower, and Khrushchev, American Universities Field Staff Reports, South Asia Series, 4/6, May 1960, 4Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Le duel 3768 Lacoste, H.B.de, 1907, Autour de l’Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(Statement before the sub—committee on Asian and Pacific Affairs of the~. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
House Committee on Foreign Affairs on May15, 1979, by Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Dept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Hearings before the Sub-commit- tee on the Near East and \South Asia, March 12, 15, 20, and 27, 1973. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghan—Pakistan relations with special reference to the North—West frontier, Current Notes on Inter- national Affairs, 21, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Seistan (1909): a memoir on the history, topography, Calcutta, 1910—1912. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Constitution de l’Afghanistan, 1st Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
operations of the 3938 Mukherjee, S., 1976, Juvenile justice: an international Field, C.D., 1880, The chart of inheritance acc~ording to the Sunni School of Mohamedan Law, Calcutta, Thacker Spink & Co., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Hendrick, P., 1973, Infant and early childhood mort- ality survey: protocol for prospective study in Kabul, Kabul, World Health Organisation and Ministry of Public Health, 1973, 9lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
tration and execution of the population census of Afghanistan, 1969, UN Population Census Project, Kabul, 1969, llp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN SOCIAL STUDIES 3989 World Health Organisation, 1955, Report on the 3990 3991 World Health Organisation, 1972, Country Project 10.1 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
3994 Afghanistan Journal, (P), 1976, Abdullah Ansari and 3995’ Ahmad, H.M., 1960, Future of Ahmadiyya movement 3996 Ahrens, D., 1965, Relief mit geburt Buddhas in der 3997 André J.P., 1922, L’Islam’et les races,’ Paris, ulation, Revue Scientifique, 12 Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN SOCIAL STUDIES 4066 4067 4068 4069 4070 Burnes, A., 1838, On the Siah—posh Kafirs, with 4071 4072 4073 Caroe, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Zentralasiatische Studien, 3, 1969, p.4O9—416. Farhadi, A.G.R., 1974, Les quatrains populaires de la region de Kaboul, Adab, 22/3, 1974, p.1—14. letters, Afghanistan, 28/2, 1975, p.14—19. region de Kaboul, Adab, 22/4, 1975, p.19—27. Ferdinand, K., 1959, Preliminary notes on Hazara culture, Copenhagen 1959, 51p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ferdinand, K., 1963, The horizontal windmills of Western Afghanistan, Folk, 5, 1963, p.71—89. Ferdinand, K., 1964, Ethnographical notes on Chahar Aimaq, Hazara and Moghol, Acta Orientalion; 28/3-4, 1964, p.175—203. ‘ Fischel, W.J., 1965, The rediscovery of the medieval Jewish community at Firuzkuh in Central Afghanistan, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 85, 1965, p.l48—153. Franz, E., 1972, Ethnographische Skizzen zur .Lage A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4130 Janata, A., 1981, Notizen zur Bevolkerungskarte 4131 Jarring, G., 1939, On the distribution of Turk tribes 4132 Jeanneret, A., 1964, Contribution a i’étude des bou— 4133 Jettmar, K., 1961, Ethnological research in Dardistan 4134 4135 4136 Keane, A.H., n.d. ,(pre—1948), Asia, with ethnological 4137 Kieffer, C., 1972, Uber das Voik der Pastunen und Geographical Journal, 67, 1926, p.i43—158. in Afghanistan, International Symposium on History of Eastern and Western Cultural Contacts, 1959, p.61. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4183 4184 4185 4186 4187 4188 4189 4190 4191 4192: Temple, R.C., 1880, Remarks on the Afghans found land and people, Kabul, USAID, 1971, 55p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
J’Hindou—Kousch, ethnographie et linguistique, Muséon, iSp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4415 Shalinsky, A., 1979, History as self—image: the case of 4416 Singer, A., 1973, Tribal migrations on the irano— 4417 Sterling, T., 1971, The fled to Kabul in search of law, 4418 Stucki, A., 1978, Horses and women, Afghanistan 4419 Sweetser, A.T., 1976, Family formation attitudes among 4420 Swinson, A., 1967, North—West Frontier: people and Afghanistan, Royal Central Asian Journal, 49, 1962, p.33—39. graphic study of the village of Bagrami, province of Kabul, July 1959, Special report no.43, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dissertations — Nomads 4479D Barfield, T.J., 1978, The Central Asian Arabs: Pas- 4480D Glatzer B , 1975, Nomaden von Gharjistan Aspekte Rosman, A. and Rubel, P.G., 1976, Nomad sedentary interethnic relations, in Iran and Afghanistan, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 7/4, 1976, p.545—570. Scott, R., 1973, Establishing system of data collection on herd and pasture conditions with Afghan nomadic groups, Kabul, USAID, 1973, 4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(French: Introduction to the Study of the Kirghiz of the Afghan Pamir.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
4507 4508 Asian Development Bank, 1973, Economic Report on 4509 Asian Review, (P), 1960, Progress in Afghanistan, 4510 Becka, J., 1963, Soviet publications concerning the 4511 4512 Boizeau, J., 1966, Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965, p.25—27. og erhvervs — maessige forhold i Afghanistan, Udenrigsministeriets tids—skrift, 37, 28 Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, Contemporary Review, June 1933, p. 714—722 Est, Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
data on the economy of Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Reprt on 4621 Jabcke, P. 1967, Economic development in Afghanistan 4622 Janata, A., 1969—1970, Zur landwirtschaftlichen Ent— 4623 Jensch, W., 1973, Die afghanischen Entwicklungsplane 4624 Jochack, P., 1962, Afghanistan, em entwicklungs- 4625 Kraus, W., 1974, Afghanistan natur, Geschichte und 4626 Krause, V., 1956, Die Wirtschaftslage Afghanistans, 4627 Loewy, K., 1955, Afghanistan braucht Kapital.rt on 4621 Jabcke, P. 1967, Economic development in Afghanistan 4622 Janata, A., 1969—1970, Zur landwirtschaftlichen Ent— 4623 Jensch, W., 1973, Die afghanischen Entwicklungsplane 4624 Jochack, P., 1962, Afghanistan, em entwicklungs- 4625 Kraus, W., 1974, Afghanistan natur, Geschichte und 4626 Krause, V., 1956, Die Wirtschaftslage Afghanistans, 4627 Loewy, K., 1955, Afghanistan braucht Kapital A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ll9p; 123p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
American Universities Field Staff Reports, South Asia Series, 8/4, 1964, 18p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
request from the Government of Afghanistan for assistance in the integrated development of the Kunar region, Summary, Kabul, UNDP, 1968, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1958, lip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
the improvement of village life, Pittsburg, Penn- sylvania, International Cooperation Administration and Agricultural Mission, Inc., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
of Afghanistan on agriculture, economics and farm management, Rome, FAO, 1971, 14p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, Proceedings of the Conference on International Rural Development, Washington DC, USAID, 1964, 185p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bank (no title shown on the. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Dissertations — Aid 4837D Franck, P.G., 1955, Foreign aid and economic develop- 4838D Hoshmand, A. R., 1978, Economic Cooperation between 225, 153, 119, 92p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Finance, banking and taxation 4843 Abramowski, H., 1966, The Asian Development Bank on 4844 Agricultural Development Bank of Afghanistan, 1973, 4845 Agricultural Development Bank of Afghanistan, 1974, 4846 Agricultural Development Bank of Afghanistan, 1975, 4847 Agricultural Development Bank of Afghanistan, 1976, cière et technique de l’Afghanistan, (French: Afghan- istan’s Policy of Financial and Technical Cooperation.) A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan: A Case of Maximum Foreign Aid and Minimum Growth, (Ph.D., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
School of Advanced Inter- national Studies), John Hopkins, 1976, 236p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
the eve of commencing activities, Inter Economics, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(Memorandum to the Committee on Banking and Finance), Kabul, Nathan Assoc., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1977, India—Afghanistan, Central Statistics Office, 1973—74, Imports of merchan- dise into Afghanistan, March 21 1973 to March 20 1974, Kabul, Department of Data Processing, 1974, 89p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Text of trade talks between India and Afghanistan, (New Delhi), May 28, 1977. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
237p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5017 5018 Bach, K., 1955, Bauarbeiten in Afghanistan, 5019 5020 5021 Brand, W., 1964, Prospects for automatic data pro- 5022 Buscher, H., 1964, Die Industriearbeiter in Afghan_/~ 5023 5024 in Afghanistan, Kabul, ILO, 1963. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Contribution a 1’ étude de l’indus— trialisation du Tiers—monde, Bulletin de la Société Languedocienne de Géographie, 7/1, 1973. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5030 Frank, J., 1953, Wasserkraftbauten in Afghanistan, 5031 Gupta, L.R., 1972, Building code of Afghanistan, 5032 H.K., 1954, Der industrielle Aufbau des Landes, 5033 Hanke, G., 1954, Wasserkraftbauten fordern Industrie 5034 Industries et Travaux Outremer, (P), 1963, L’Afghanistan, 5035 Institut für Industrieverwaltung, 1967, Das Institut 5036 International Engineering Company, 1948, Report on 5037 International Engineering Company, 1955, Helmand 5038 Jackaman, E. and Nyberg, H., 1965, The casing Der Baukasten, 7/21, 1955, p.2—4. trialisation of Asia, Foreign Affairs, 15, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
denken der Afghanen, AuRenhandelsdienst der Industrie- und Handelskammern und Wirtschaftsver— bände, 14/47, 1960, p.4—5. Afghanistan on an exploratory mission on indus- trial maintenance problems, UN, industrial Develop- ment, Asia and the Far East, 1971, 17p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(industrial- ization based on agricultural production.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Seminar on the Organization and Administration of Industrial Services (for Asia and the Middle East) Tashkent, USSR, 12-25 Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
istan on small—scale leather industries (model tannery, leather tanning project, Charicar), Geneva, ILO, 1967, ii, 72p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Asie Nouvelle, 111128—129, 1961. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan on small—scale leather industries: the leather project at Charikar, and training in leather technology. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
government of Afghanistan on handicrafts ‘and small—, scale industries, Geneva, ILO, 1954, 67p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
government of Afghanistan on handicrafts and small— scale industries, Geneva, ILO, 1957, 67p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
International Labour Office, 1959, Report to the ~ government of Afghanistan on the development of ‘handicrafts and small scale industries in general and of cotton and silk weaving in particular, Geneva, ILO, 1959, 34p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(See 5076) scale leather industries in Afghanistan, Report Small—scale industry 411 412 5073 International Labour Office, 1967, Small—scale leather 5074 international Labour Office, 1970, Proposal for the 5075 International Labour Office, 1971, Report to the 5076 Meccai, M.A., 1959, Report to the government of 5077 5078 Ministry of National Economy, 1952, A short report on 5079 O’Bannon, G., 1977, The Salitq Essari carpet, 5080 5081 Planhol, X de. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan on the development of handicrafts and small-scale industries in general and of cotton and silk weaving in particular, Part 1. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan on a survey of small—scale leather industries in Afghanistan, Geneva, International Labour Office, 1959, 59p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
H.(T.P.), 1842, Note on the passes into Hindoostan from the West and North—West, and the use made of them by different conquerors, Journal of. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Operations and Monetary Affairs, 1961, Afghanistan highway contracts. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Hearings before a subcommittee on foreign operations and monetary affairs, subcommittee of the committee on government operations, House of Representatives, 8th Congress, Vol.2, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1973, Report on traffic counts, Kabul, March 1973,:, 22p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kampsax, Afghanistan Highway Maintenance Program, 1973, Report on off shore procurement of results and recommendations for the remainder of Stage I, Kabul, April 1973. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1969) on science policy and organisation of research in Afghanistan in relation to economic and social development, UNESCO, 1970, 3Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
notes on research, institutional activity and bibliography, American Universities Field Staff Reports, South Asia Series, 20/4, 1976, 32p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
423 424 5217 5218 international Development Agency and Royal Govern- 5219 International Development Agency and Royal Govern- 5220 International Labour Office, 1968, Prevocational 5221 Jeffery, T.E., 1965, Educational testing in Afghanistan, 5222 5223 Kandari, A.A., 1970, A junior college system for 5224 Kerr, G., 1979,Strategies for collecting information for 5225 Khan, N.U., 1950, Speech delivered by Najibullah 5226 Khorosh, 1973, The institute for consultation and 5227 5228 Klein, H.G. et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
a report on three surveys: foreign students in US institutions of higher education; foreign faculty members at US Colleges and Universities; foreign doctors training at US hospitals, 1954—55, New York, Institute of International Education, 1955, 56p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 8, 1839, p.l/,5. française, Asie Nouvehle, 11/128—129, 1961, p.l5l—l52.~ on Pourhadi’s two articles, Afghanistan Journal, 4/2, 1977, p.82. education law in Afghanistan, Kabul, 37p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Work conference on technological and scientific needs of Afghanistan and their meaning for Kabul University, Feb~ 25 — Mar. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Penzl, H., 1949, Modern language instruction ‘in Afghanistan, School and Society, 69, March 26, 1949, p.224; 225. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1959, Kabul University role in 5275 Ryda, K., 1973, Final report to the Royal Government 5276 Saksena, J.B., 1972, University education and develop- 5277 Saraf, S.N., 1973, Functional literacy project, Kabul, 5278 Sassani, A.H.K., 1961, Education in Afghanistan, 5279 Sassani, A.H.K., 1961, Educational data: Afghanistan, 5280 Sayed, F.A., 1971, Statistics in Nangarhar educational Zeitschrift für Kulturaustausch, 17/1, 1967, p.3l—35. Afghanistan: a survey of needs and proposals for development by the Public School survey and planning team, Kabul, USOM, 1959, l73p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(March 23 - April 7) report on the development of technical and vocational education based on a planned educational reform in Afghanistan, UNESCO, Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
istics of Afghanistan, Kabul, 1958. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1973, 18p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Organization, 1973, Experts meeting on Regional Cooperation in UNESCO cultural activities in Asia, Tokyo, UNESCO, 1973, 56p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Organization, 1974, Daily timetable of the national training course on school activities, 8 Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Organization, 1977, National training seminar on methods for projecting school enrolment, Kabul, 1977, UNESCO, Regional Office for Education in Asia, Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Draft report on a project identification mission to Afghanistan, 16 April — 26 May 1973. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1971, Functional literacy project, Kabul, FAO, Programme on Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives in Afghanistan, 1971, 2Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1973—74, March 1974, Kabul, FAO, Programme on Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives in Afghanistan, 1974, 28p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Fund, 1974, Report on Afghanistan, Kabul, UNICEF, 1974, 37p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
p. 83—86 istan’ s education system: Commentary on T. I Kukhina’s article: The history and present status of ‘Afghanistan’s education system: from Prosvesh— cheniye v Nezavisimom Afghanistane, Moscow, 1960. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Wulbern, J.P., 1974, Education policy in Afghanistan: interim review, Internationales Asienforum, 5/2, 1974, p.179—194. - second five year plan and ‘in future long—term plan, Afghanistan, 18/4, 1963, p.1—22. , ,, - human rights, Afghanistan, 19/2, 1964, p.1—19. Zynon, A., 1965, Der Aufbau einer wirtschaftswissen— schaftlichen Fakultat in einem Entwicklungsland: Die Partnerschaft zwischen Köln und Kabul, Zeitschnift Betriebswirtschaftlich Forschung und Praxis, 3, 1965. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Tübingen, University of Tubingen, 1964, 614p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Law in Contemporary Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
George Peabody College for Teachers, 439 440 5403D Nazari. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
annual report based on the new clinic in formation system, Afghan demographic studies, USAID/SUNY, March 1974, 4lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
sciomyzidae (for control of liver flukes), Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1966, lip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965, 3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Reubens, E.P., 1967, Planning for children.and A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1973, Report of tthe Second Regional Seminar on food and nutrition. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1955. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
national Children • $ Emergency Fund, 1973, Report on basic health services: study of alternative approaches to meeting basic health needs in develo- ping countries, WHO/UNICEF, Nov.1973, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
erster Versuch, Munich, 1953. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan on planning of agricultural development, Rome, FAO, 1964, II, 35p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, USAID, 1964. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, USAID, 1964, 9p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 5618 5619 5620 Ministry of Education, 1954, Rules and regulations on.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Base~J on article 4 of the Agricultural Councils law project. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ministry of Planning, 1969, Government of Afghanistan self—help report on agriculture (Jan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
and Noory, V., 1964, Summary report on field trips. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Asia ... their effects on US farm exports. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Der Diplornlandwirt. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rome, FAQ, 1953, l7p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Rome, FAO, 1953, 19p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
17,1966: Briefing 5681 Urano, J.A., 1967, Memorandum, March 15, 1967, 5682 Utah State University, 1960, Progress report, Agricul- 5683 Van Vig, A., 1965, Recommendations on an economic 5684 Volk, O.H., 1954, Landwirtschaftliche Probieme des 5685 Vollert, H.E., 1967, Ais landwirtschaftlicher Berater in 5686 Waldee, E.L., 1966, Some thoughts concerning the 5687 Whitaker, F.G., 1964, End of tour report, Nov A Bibliography of Afghanistan
7, 1965. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Attachment “B”: Proposed economic analysis for the Shamalan and Darweshan units, Bost, Bureau of Reclamation, 1965, 3Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5729 Ministry of Planning, 1.971, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1967 seminar on agriculture held in the Helmand Valley, Bost, USA1D and Helmand— Arghandab Valley Authority, 1967, 3Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ncu, R.C., 1953, Suggestions and comments on 5732 Morrison, I.D., 1965, Terminal report, Aug., R.C., 1953, Suggestions and comments on 5732 Morrison, I.D., 1965, Terminal report, Aug A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, Report on field trip 5746 Payenda, M., Safi, S. and Mortensen, E., 1965, 5747 5748 5749 5750 Reeves, E.A., 1955, Terminal report (Chief. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
agricul- 5751 5752 Slocom, M.H., 1958, Report on the visit to Afghanistan 5753 5754 Stevens, I.M., 1963, Proposed incentive program for 5755 Stevens, I.M., 1964, How to increase production and Newell, R.G., 1960, Terminal report (Substation. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1956 (Helmand projects coordinator and public administration advisor), Lashkar Gah, USOM, 1956, 7p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
I’. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Helmand Valley area, Lashkar Gah, Bureau of Reclamation, 1963, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5765 Youngs, F.O., 1947, Report on the development of 5766 Youngs, F.O., 1955, Memorandum, March 14, 1955 5767 Youngs, F.O., 1957, Terminal report (Project advisor, income from farms in the Helmand Valley, Lashkar Gah, Bureau of Reclamation, 1964, 7p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
(Observations on agricultural development, Helmand Valley) to E.A.Reeves, Lashkar Gah, FOA, 1955, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Memorandum: Bamiyan trip June 5775 Formali, M., 1967, Memorandum, status report on 5776. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
10, 1960 5777 Ghafoor, A., 1966, Hazarajat trip — report; on the 5778 Gr~jtzbach, E., 1970, Formen des zelgengebundenen HVA), Lashkar Gah, USOM. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
12.2.2. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
‘ (Report on triD to Lashkar Gah, Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
471 472 5779 Growden, J.P., 1955, Report on Darweshan project, 5780 GuI, A. et at., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
survey of Baghlan province, , Kabul, General Direct- orate of Census and Sampling, Department of Statistics, 1349 (1970), 13p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, Report on field trips 5794 5795 Noory, V., Narvik. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1967, Plan of work for the Balkh regional 5798 Petersen, A.T., 1956, Notes on a short reconnaissance 5799 Pickett, L.C., 1965, Notes from the trip to Bamian, ‘~ 5800 5801 Reeves, E.A., 1955, Shamalan farm report and ~- 5802 5803 and Mazar-i-Sharif, Kabul, Nathan Assoc., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, Report on field trip to Maidan and Seidabad, Kabul, Ministry of Planning, 1964, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
on field trip to Serai Kwaja and Kula Kan, Kabul, Ministry of Planning, 1964, 3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Reeves, E.A., 1955, Reportio? the experimental work on the Nad-i-Ali and Shamalan farms for small ‘ “C grains, Lashkar Gah, International Cooperative Administration and Helmand Valley Authority, 1955, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
report on economic survey of agriculture in Nangarhar Province, Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1965, lOip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Basic information on member farms of Baghlan development centre, Technical report no.10, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
economic survey 1971 of member farms of Baghlan pilot area, Technical report no.11, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
5814 5815 5816 5817 Begley, W. L., 1961, Farm irrigation and drainage in 5818 Begley, W.L., n.d., Collection of materials on irri- 5819 Bureau of Reclamation and Helmand Valley Authority, 5820 5821 5822 5823 5824 Asian Development Bank, 1971, Technical assistance to the Government of Afghanistan for the Balkh river irrigation project, Kabul, Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Barclay, M.G., Bertelson, F.D. and Goorian, P., 1966, Land development for irrigation on blocks 2E—1 and 2E-2 of the Darweshan project, Helmand Valley, Afghanistan, Bost, Bureau of Reclamation and HAVA, 1966, l4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bureau of Reclamation and Helmand Valley Authority, 1965, Report on emergency work to provide, drainage relief and canal rehabilitation in the Central Arghandab Area near Kandahar, Afghanistan, Bost, Bureau of Reclamation and HVA, 1965, l8p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AGRiCULTURE AND FORESTRY 5838 Forsberg, C.M., Metzger, J.D. and Steele, J.C., 1956, 5839 Frahmand, M.A., 1969, Irrigation, irrigation methods, 5840 Frahmand, M.A., Pickett, L.C., Nielsen, G.A. and 5841 5842 Harkin, W.A., 1957, Terminal report, March 1955 — 5843 5844 5845 5846 5847 5848 Horning, B.M., 1966, Report on the completion of the Preventative maintenance recommendations experi- mental pipe drain, area block 2A, Marja, Bost, Bureau of Reclamation and HAVA, 1965, 14p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Loudon, T., 1968, Effect of furrow and basin methods of irrigation on yields of corn and millet, Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1968, 21p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
development, n.p., HVA and M—K, 41p.’ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Lisbonne, 1951, p.318—328. International Engineering Company, 1955, Report on reclamation of the Chakansur area, Afghanistan, Kandahar, International Engineering Co., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Seminar on watenlogging in relation to irrigation and salinity problems, ETAP report 1932, Rome, FAO, 1965, p.69—71. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Miller, J., 1965, Preliminary’ report of the USAID: Ministry of Agriculture and irrigation team~ on the Kohistan irrigation scheme’ in Kapisa Province, Kabul, USAID and Ministry of Agriculture, 1965, 4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Morrison—Knudsen Afghanistan Inc., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
regional conference on water resources development in Asia and the Fan East, Water resources series, no.23, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1971, Planning and execution of small scale irrigation projects, report to the government of Afghanistan, based on the work of W.G.Rodger, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1971, Planning and execution of small scale irrigation projects, report to the government of Afghanistan, based on the work of T. Vivekananthan, Rome, FAQ, 1971, 23p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Soils and land Aliev M 0 1973 Reclamation of lands and ~agro- technical measures for growing citrus on the Khedda farm in Afghanistan 1973, p.174—181. istan soils, Champaign Ill, Army Construction ~ Engineering Research Laboratory, 1972, . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
in calcareous bess on the ‘Dast—i—Esan..Top’’plain A Bibliography of Afghanistan
.: A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1954 (A 5951 Fly, C.L., 1955, Soils and drainage surveys and land 5952 Fly, C.L., 1956, Memorandum, May 26, 1956 (Prelim- 5953 Fly, C.L., 1956, . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
on reconnaissance soil 5980 Nassyrov, Y.M., 1963, Report on the reconnaissance 5981 Nassyrov, Y.M., 1963, Report on the reconniassance 5982 Nassyrov, Y.M., 1963, Report on the reconnaissance 5983 development: preliminary cost estimate drainage system, Kandahar, Morrison—Knudsen, 1954, 24p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 5972 Morrison-Knudsen Afghanistan Inc., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
experiments on wheat in Afghanistan, Kabul, FAQ,197O, 9p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organisation, 1961, A preliminary report on the reconnaissance soil survey and land classigication of Farah Valley, Kabul, UN, 1961, 25p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6: Aksakovsky, i.P., Irrigation development, Han Rud and Kabul Basins, l25p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, FAQ, 1958. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
report on training received in Mexico 1965—1 966, Kabul, Ministry of Agriculture, 7p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Cereal production A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 6016 6017 Carter, D.P., 1966, Grow more wheat campaign: 6018 Carter, D.P. and Baz, M.F., 1966, Instructions to 6019 Canter, D.P. and Baz, M.F., 1967, Instructions to 6020 Carter, D.P. and Helmand—Arghandab Valley Authority, 6021 Dawlaty, K., Saleh, Z. and Owens, G.P., 1970, Wheat 6022 Dinkov, B., 1966, Possibilities for the increasing of 6023 Dinkov, B., 1966, Possibilities for the increase of the 6024 6025 6026 6027 Faculty of Agriculture, 1963, Wheat yields on ten fields Carter, D.P., (Ed.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1967, Helmand-Arghandab Valley Authority’s extension—sponsored corn demonstration report, Bost, USAID and HAVA, 1967, 8p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
farming in Afghanistan, cost of production and returns, Kabul, University of Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1970. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Bulletin on North East Cereal Improvement ‘and Production Project, FAQ, 8/1, 1971, p.32—35. the Near East and North Africa, MP Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, 28A, 1972, p.22—24. of Professor J.B. Harnington, FAQ regional consultant on wheat and barley breeding in the Near East, arising from his visit of 2 — 16 Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6045 Harrington, J.B., 1965, Comments of Dr J.B. Harrington 6046 Helmand—Arghandab Valley Authority, 1967, Instructions 6047 Helmand-Arghandab Valley Authority, n. d., Extension 6048 Hepworth, H.M. and Sumner, E.S., 1963. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1958 to Afghan- istan, Rome, FAQ, 1959, 4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Harrington,, wheat improvement advisor, Govt. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
of Pakistan, to the Ministry of Agriculture, Kabul, Afghanistan on 27 - 31 Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Mortensen, E., 1967, Observation of Mexican wheat and corn programs, Jan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
weeding corn using local hand tools vs. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
rototiller, Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1966, 2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 6091 Pickett, L.C. and Fabricius, L., 1967, Seeding rates 6092 Pickett, L.C. and Nielsen, G~A., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965, Corn yields as 6093 Pickett, L.C., First, J.. Naitaqi, H.A. and 6094 Pickett, L.C., First, J.K., Loudon, T.L. and 6095 Qureshi, S.A. and Narvaez, I., n.d., Accelerated 6096 Rahin, D.M., 1965, Response of winter wheat to 6097 Sadam, M. and Young, J., 1965, Small grain trials, 6098 Saeh, Z., n.d., Wheat farming in Afghanistan, cost of 6099 Samin, A.Q., 1967, Corn yields in Kutalkhil and Safid 6100 Samin, A.Q., 1968, Fertilizer trials on corn, 1967, 6101 planting study on Kenya Montana wheat, Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1966, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
ation schemes on wheat yields under fertilizer and unfertilized conditions, Kabul, Faculty of Agricul- ture, 1968, lip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Technical bulletin 10, Kabul, Kabul University 1968, lop. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
crust formation on the emergence of wheat seedlings, Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1964, 4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1961, Report of the 7th FAQ meeting on wheat and barley improvement and production in the Near East, Meeting report no.1961, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1964, Report on wheat and barley improvement and production in the Near East countries, Cairo, FAO Regional Office, 1964, 150p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965, Report on. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965, Wheat and barley improvement and production meeting report, no.8, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1967, Agriculture development in Afghanistan with special emphasis on wheat problems, prospects and priorities, Kabul, USART, 1967, 105p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
tural development in Afghanistan with special emphasis on wheat: A report to the Royal Government of Afghanistan, Kabul, US Agricultural Review Team, 1967. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Fruit, vegetable and spice production AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 6138 6139 6140 6141 6142 Bemower, W., n.d., Report of pistachio nut production 6143 Brewbaker, H.E., 1965, Sugar beet factory for the 6144 6145 6146 Dinkov, B., 1966, Improvement of the sugar beet 6147 6148 6149 6150 Hamzakheyl, N. and Shirzad, B.M., 1971, The identifi- Aliev, M.O., 1972, Prospective varieties of citrus crops of Jalalabad Province, Afghanistan, Subtropicheskie Kultury, 6, 1972, p.172—178. Aliev, M.O., 1974, The common olive (Olea europaea) in the Nangrakhar Valley of Afghanistan, Subtropicheskie Kultury, 2, 1974, p.l48—l5O. Attia, M.S., 1965, Report on vegetable improvement and seed production in Afghanistan, Cairo, FAO Regional Office, 1965, lip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1969, 17p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 6163 Keh, K. and Tsia, T.K., 1962, Sericulture, FAO report 6164 6165 Kershisnik, F.J., 1957. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1967, Developing the herb 6170 Miner, T.H., et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6189 United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organisation, 6190 United States Agency for International Development, 6191 Youngs, F.O., 1956, Sweet potato growing, Lashkar 6192 Allanson, G., 1966, The place of cotton and beet sugar 6193 Carter, D.P. and Helmand—Arghandab Valley Authority, 6194 Carter, D.P. and Helmand-Arghandab Valley Authority, 6195 Cason, R.R., 1964, Memorandum, meeting on jute held 6196 Dickinson, W.W., 1953, Cotton” improvement in 6197 6198 Dunn, R.P., 1952, Cotton in the Middle East, Memphis, 6199 6200 Gattani, M.L., 1963, Better “Cur” yielding varieties Afghanistan, Kabul, Bulgarian Embassy, 1966, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1962, Report on vegetable improvement and seed production in Afghanistan, Cairo, FAQ Regional Office, Dec. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
National Cotton Council, 1952, V, 187p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 6214 Sulyman, M., 1963, Production of cigarette tobacco 6215 Sumner, E., 1963, Notes on cotton, Kabul, Faculty of 6216 Tonchev, G., 1966, Tobacco growing and prospects 6217 United States Agency for International Development,; 6218 Wright, J.L., 1961, Suggestions and recommendations 6219 Aslamy, N., 1966, Mezir plant in Afghanistan, 6220 6221 Fritz, D.B. and Newell, R.G.,1 n.d., A basic rotation 6222 6223 Hamzakheyl, N., 1969, A preliminary ‘survey. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
on government cotton production program, Lashkar Gah, USOM, 1961, approximately 2Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
vations on improved cultural methods in Afghanistan vineyards, Kabul, Faculty of Agriculture, 1967, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1959, Annual report on the FAQ cooperative uniform Near East wheat and barley nurseries, Rome, FAQ, 1959, 45p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1965—1967, Information bulletins on the Near East wheat and barley improvement and production project, Cairo, FAQ Regional Office, 1965—1967, (Issued 3 times a year). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
laboratory on the studying of pink bollworm in Nangra/iar ... Jalalabad, FAO, 1963, lOp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 6264 6265 Gattani, M.L., 1959, Control of some important plant 6266 Gattani, M.L., 1964, Plant diseases and their, control, 6267 6268 Gotterrell, G.S., 1964, Plant protection and locust 6269 Hannah, H.W., 1966, Resource book for rural univer- 6270 Hauser, G.F., 1953, Report about the laboratory work, 6271 6272 Hingopani, M.K., 1974, Final’ report to the govern- 6273 Kispatic, J., 1970, Preliminary observations’ on plant 6274 Koehler, C.S., 1972, Plant protection in Turkey, Iran, 6275 Kuchkuck, H., 1973, Present situation of wheat genetic 6276 Kumler, M.L. et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
control, Report no.253, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1970, 17p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Studies on the biochemical composition of Chundekani grape of Afghanistan with special reference to the factors governing berry senescence, Progressive Horticulture, 6/1, 1974, p.5—10. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6293 Sumner,’ E., 1961, Terminal report, Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Program bulletin no. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Steigerung der Landwirt- schaftlichen Produktion und ihre Weiterverarbeitung in Afghanistan, 6, 1972, p.103—120. equipment related to mechanical farm proposal, Lashkar Gah, USAID, 1962, 4p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
10,000 acres for the Marja Area, Bost, HVA and Massey—Harris—Ferguson, 1958, 34p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
International Development Association for an agricultural credit project by the RCA, Part A: The loan request; Part B: Appendices, ~ Kabul, Agricultural Bank, 1967, plishments in Agricultural Bank of year 1965 to the general assembly participants, Kabul, Agricultural Bank, 1967, 6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Government of Afghanistan on agricultural and co- operative extension work in the Baghlan region, Rome, FAO, May 1971, l2p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Pastidis, S.L., 1961, Agricultural cooperatives, Kabul, FAO, 1961, lOp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
farm credit programme, Kabul, Nathan Assoc., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1969, Kabul, FAQ Programme on Agricultural Credit and Cooper- atives in Afghanistan, 1969, l6p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1969—1970, Syllabus and lecture notes for courses CR 121: Agricultural Banking Institute of Training, Kabul, FAQ, Programme on Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives in Afghanistan, 1969—70, 3Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1969—1970, Final report by cooperative management specialist, Kabul, FAO, Programme on Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives in Afghanistan, 1969—70, 5p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Zafari, A.W., 1972, Agricultural credit in Afghanistan, summary, FAQ seminar on agricultural credit for selected countries in the Near East, Rome, 29 Jan — 9 Feb. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6380 Campbell, W., 1965, End of tour report, July 1965 6381 Campbell, W., n.d., Suggestions for a training 6382 Dey, S.K., 1959, Course on agricultural extension, 6383 Dey, S.K., 1959, Justification, extension organization, 6384 Dey, S.K., Kumar, S., Rafiq E. and Afzal, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
library agriculture holdings, Sept. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, USAID, 1963, lip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
guide, Lashkar Gah, USOM, 1960, 21; 49p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Government of Afghanistan on farm management, marketing, cooperative and credit work in the Baghlan region, Rome, FAQ, 1971, 25p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
and disposal programme, Report to the UNDP, New York on Afghanistan, New York, UNDP, l97O,.2Op. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
23p 9p 5p l3p 531 532 6483 Pastidis, S.L., 1961, Improvement in sun drying of 6484 Pastidis, S.L., 1961, Improvements in trimming, 6485. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Pastidis, S.L.,61, Packing and packing materials, 6486 Pastidis, S. L., 1961, Prerequisites for the development 6487 Pastidis, S.L., 1961, Research in agricultural 6488 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Air transport of agricultural 6489 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Production, handling and 6490 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Introduction and enforcement of 6491 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Proposal for the establishment of 6492 Pastidjs, S.L., 1962, Sun drying and dehydration of 6493 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Production, preparation and 6494 Pastidis, S.L., 1963, Project proposal for the estab- 6495 Pastidis, S.L., 1963, Project proposal for the imple- grapes spread on roof tops or in the dry yard, Kabul, FAQ, 1961, 5p.61, Packing and packing materials, 6486 Pastidis, S. L., 1961, Prerequisites for the development 6487 Pastidis, S.L., 1961, Research in agricultural 6488 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Air transport of agricultural 6489 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Production, handling and 6490 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Introduction and enforcement of 6491 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Proposal for the establishment of 6492 Pastidjs, S.L., 1962, Sun drying and dehydration of 6493 Pastidis, S.L., 1962, Production, preparation and 6494 Pastidis, S.L., 1963, Project proposal for the estab- 6495 Pastidis, S.L., 1963, Project proposal for the imple- grapes spread on roof tops or in the dry yard, Kabul, FAQ, 1961, 5p A Bibliography of Afghanistan
handling, packing and marketing of table grapes, Kabul, FAQ, 1961, 3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Kabul, Asia Foundation, 1961, ‘ “ , ) ,.,~ it S •. .. 533 534 6510 Perry, J.L., 1967, Grape drying improvements, 6511 Perry, J.L., 1967, Raisin processing and nut shelling 6512 Perry, J.L., 1967, Raisin processing plant for 6513 Perry, J.L., 1967, Raisin processing plant for 6514 Perry, J.L., 1967, Raisin processing plant for Shpoon 6515 Perry, J.L., 1967, Rahimi slaughter house killing, 6516 Petersen, T.F., 1972, The improvement and develop- 6517 Richards, H.L., 1964. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1972, 28p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1976, Nematodes parasitizing domestic ruminants in Afghanistan, Folia Parasitologica, 2313, 1976, p.207—216. istan on the Karakul sheep improvement program, Rome, FAQ, 1953, ip. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
fattening of Karakul sheep with utilization of by- products, Science Quarterly Journal, 2, 1964, l3p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Ag. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1972, Report on artificial insemination in 6594 Rouhu, A., 1971, Eras.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6592 Richards, H.L., 1965, End of tour report, March 1963 - 6593 Ronsholt, 1., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
11, 1967 6608 Teeter, W.R., 1967, Memorandum, Aug.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
14,: 1967 6609 , Tenora, F., Kotria, B. and Blazek, K.,. .1974~ A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Seraj, H. and Sihm, P.A., 1971, Afghanistan, sheep 6600 Sihm, P.A., 1968, Training and demonstration in 6601 Stephens, W.H., 1959, Control of animal diseases, 6602 Stevens, I.M., 1964, Kochi livestock operations in 6603 Stevens, I.M., and Helmand Valley Authority, 1963, 6604 Studic, D.S., 1970, Work accomplished in training and 6605 Teeter, W.R., 1966, Memorandum, June 15,1966 6606 Teeter, W.R., 1967, Memorandum, Jan.7, A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1966, Poultry development in the 6636 Breckle, S.W. and Breckle, U., 1977, Erganzende 1968, Papers to the ad hoc meeting on training of animal health assistants, Beirut, Lebanon, 20—25 May, 1968, Rome, FAO, 1968. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1968, Training and demonstration in animal health and animal husbandry: information on wool pro- duction in Afghanistan, FAO, Oct. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan on the five year plan on the develop- ment of Karakul sheep husbandry of Afghanistan, Kabul, FAD, 1966. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Corson, C.W., 1956, Terminal report, 1954 ~1956 (on the Forestation program, 1-lelmand River Valley Project), Lashkar Gah, USOM, 1956, 3lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AFGHANISTAN I I AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 6661 6662 Neubauer, H.F., 1954, Die Wälder Afghanistans, 6663 Newton, I.L., 1958, Problems in forestry, Spring 1958, 6664 Newton, I. L., n. d., Progress report of forestry 6665 Patten, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
FAQ Seminar on heathland and sand-dune silviculture, Denmark, 23 June — 19 July 1968, Rome, FAD, 1968, 3p.. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
nguage 692 Adami, P. 1954, Vielsprachiges Afghanistan, Mittei- 6693 Arshi, l.A., 1958, The influence of Pashto on Urdu, 6694 Badakshi, S.A., 1953, Les langues du Pamir, 6695 Badakshi, S.A., 1960, A dictionary of some languages 6696 Bashiruddin, 1962, Remedial work in English pro— 6697 Bellew, H.W., 1867, A dictionary of the Pukkto or 6698 Bellew, H.W., 1876, A grammar of the Pukhto or 6699 Blanc, J.C., 1976, Afghan trucks, London, Mathews 6700 Bogdanov, L., 1930, Stray notes on Kabuli Persian, 6701 Buddruss, G., 1959, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Pashai— 6702 Buddruss, G., 1960, Die Sprache von Wotapur und 6703 Capus, G., 1889, Vocabulaires de langues pré-pamiri— 6704 Casartelli, L.C., 1882, Les Afghans et leur langue, 13 LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: THE ARTS lungen des Instituts für Auslandsbeziehungen, 4/9—10, 1954, p.241—242. Jadunath Sarkar Commem. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Published as Situations— analyse ... Afghanistan, (Saarbrucken: Breitenbach, 1978, viii, 283p (Sozialökonomische Schriften zur Agrarentwicklung, 30)). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Paris, Maisonneuve, 1883, 383p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
the national and literary language of Afghanistan, Central Asian Review, 14/3, 1966, p.210—220. ‘s. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
London, 1882, 257p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6791 6792 Phillott, D.C., 1919, Higher Persian grammar -, 6793 Plowden, 1875, Idiomatic colloquial sentences, English— 6794 Plunkett, G.T., 1875, The conversation manual of 6795 Ramstedt, G.J., 1952, Marginal notes on Pashto - 6796 Raverty, H.G., 1854, Some remarks on the origin of 6797 Raverty, H.G., 1855, A grammar of the Pukhto, Pushto 6798 Raverty, H.G., 1860, A dictionary of the Pukhto, or 6799 Raverty, H.G., 1864, On the language of the Siah— pane au Turkestan (a propos d’un livre recent de 1. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
which ii’ are added specimens of Kohistani and other . A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Benava, A.R., 1946, Native literature, poems on and about marriage, Afghanistan, 1/4, 1946, p.43—46. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Mahmud Tara, Afghanistan, 29/3, 1976, p.63—72. the oldest Pashto poet, Amir Krore Jahan Pahlawan, Afghanistan, 1/1, 1946, p.9—iS. 1964, p.9—14. Afghanistan, 20/4, 1968, p.5l—64; 21/1, 1968, p.53—57. Indian Art and Letters, 14/1, 1940, p,16—28. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
nations musulmanes, d’après le traité persan intitulé Hadayit—ul—Balagat, Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1845—1848, 2nd ed. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6909 Pazhwak, A.R., 1946, The lovers of Dilaram ~(a rom- 6910 Pazhwak, A.R., 1946, Les amants de Delaram(légende 408—9, cations, Paris, 1939, 2lp. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghans, from the XVIth to the XIXth Century, literally translated from the original Pushto; with notices of the different authors ... and remarks on the mystic doctrine and poetry of Sufis, London, Williams and Norgate; Calcutta, W.Newman, 1867. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
‘Ajam, (A treatise on the prosody and poetic art of the Persians), Leyden, E.J.Brill; London, Luzac, 1909, xx, 464p. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
O music, Asian Music, 4/1, 1972, p.48—58. 0 ,~, To honour Roman Jakobson, Essays on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, The Hague,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
0 0 camions en Afghanistan, Afghanistan Journal, 2/2, 1975, p.&O—64. istan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1968, Greco—Bactrian art, Afghanistan, 7070 Naimi, A..A., 1946, Afghan calligraphy, illumination and 7071 O’Bannon, G.W., 1974, The Turkoman carpet, 7072 Rice, F.M. and Rdwland, fl., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
7102 14 SUPPLEMENT OF PUBLICATIONS POST—1979 Bibliographies containing references on Afghanistan Ha L., 1981, A brief guide to sources for the study of Afghanistan in the India Office Records, india Office Library and Records, London, 1981, 6Op. L., 1981, A brief guide to sources for the study of Afghanistan in the India Office Records, india Office Library and Records, London, 1981, 6Op A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Travel — post 1900 Interview of Centlivres, Pierre and Centlivres, Micheline, views on Afghanistan, Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 1980/34, 1980, p.3—16. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1981, Afghanistan under Babrak Karmal — 7127 Salih, H., 1980, Afghanistan al-thaurah. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1980, AfghanIstan — The Great Game or 7156 Dallin, A., 1980, Russia’s Afghanistan move, Centre 7157 Dentish, B., 1980, After Afghanistan — Round Two, 7158 Eastern Horizon, (F), 1980, Czar’s soldiers on the • Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Information Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kabul, 1980. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
7183 7184 7185 Khalid, M., 1980, Russia’s influence over Afghanistan: 7186 Khalizad, Z., 1980, The struggle for Afghanistan, on Afghanistan, Institutional Investor, 5, • 1980, -• p.i65—l66. - - Asian Affairs, An American Review, 7/5, 1980, p. 299—304 through Finland, Foreign Policy, 1981/41, 1981, p. 163—187 Hauner, M., 1980, The significance of Afghanistan — The lessons from the past, Round Table, 1980/279, 1980, p.240—244. Heur, R.J., 1980, Analyzing the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan — hypotheses from casual attribution theory, Seudies in comparative communism, - 13/4, 1980, p.347—355. lshida, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Valenta, J Comparative comments Studies in Comparative 1980 The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 1980 Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan 591 ‘S - -. - -• -~ ~ 592 7248 Valenta, J., 1980, From Prague to Kabul, the Soviet 7249 Van der Beugel, E., 1980, After Afghanistan, Survival, 7250 Van Hollen, E., 1981, Afghanistan: 18 months of 7251 Vayrynen, R., 1980, Focus on Afghanistan, Journal of 7252 Vogel, H., (Ed.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
International Relations (General) Artner, S.J., 1980, Detente policy before and after Afghanistan, Aussen Politik, 2, 1980, p.134—146. correlation of forces, Problems of Communism, 29/3, 1980, Atlantic Community Quarterly, (P), 1980, North Atlantic Assembly — Luxembourg June 7, 1980 - - Resolution on Afghanistan and related issues, Atlantic Community Quarterly, 18/2, 1980, p.238—239. Ayoob, M., (Ed.), A Bibliography of Afghanistan
wake of Afghanistan: Report on Venice, - — International Perspectives, July—Aug. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
London: GSGS 3919 Based on maps of the Survey of india~ 1910—1.944. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Inset on general map of Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Washington: On sheet: Ethnolinguistic groups, Land use and Economic activity, Population (1 :8,000,000). A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Afghanistan, 1841 Map of the countries on the North West Frontier, compiled ... under the superintendence of Lieut. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Panjdeh. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Mazar—i—Sharif, 1969, Inset on map of Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1970 Northwest Afghanistan, (N.P.: A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Warszawa: Inset: Lists of summits on sheets, and sources used. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Plane table sketch of the country on the Kabul and Alingar rivers in the Lughman valley. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
St. G.C. Gore. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1:50,000 1:250,000 .1:1,500,000 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Cacutta: Survey of India, 1879 A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Inset: Candahar. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Inset on map of Afghanistan. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1840 Skeleton Map of Afghanistan and the Countries on the North West Frontier of India shewing the principal Routes and Passes. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
London: Map illustrating the reports on the Havildar’s route through Afghanistan, Kolab and Darwaz and the Mullah’s route from Jalalabad to Sarhadd-i—Wakham, 1873—1874. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
map (on rollers) 96 by 71 cm. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Articles on surveying, mapmaking and remote sensing Ahang, M.K., 1968, A seventy two year old map of Afghanistan, Afghanistan, 21/2, 1968, p.63—67. of an area east of Kandahar, Afghanistan, 1:50000, Kabul, 1958. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
1972, Comments on errors in the cadastral 7558 Shroder, J.F., et al., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
6544 Childers, 0., A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Pillisbury, H.W., 6179, 6180, 6240, Pinder—Wilson, P., 1981 Pinelli, C,A. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Organisation, 0583, 4757,. A Bibliography of Afghanistan
Girardet’s work is a masterpiece of observations on combat, accumulated in six visits to the war zone...” Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Soviet War on over six years of personal reporting and research that included five clandestine trips into Afghanistan with the guerrillas and one official visit. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Special thanks to the French volunteer doctors and nurses, notably Laurence Laumonier, Capucine de Bretagne and Frederique Hincelin of Aide Medicale Internationale, whose courage and dedicated efforts to provide humanitarian relief to this war-ravaged country have helped to alleviate some of the suffering and to furnish the outside world with detailed testimony on conditions under the Soviet occupation. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
They are young, most of them, in their late teens and early twenties, walking at a stiff, determined pace with the innocent self-importance of school boys eagerly spilling out on to the football field for the big match of the year. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
being blessed with perfect sight, pick off our messmates left and right.’ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The unit leaders growl ‘Boro, boro’ and the caravan pushes on. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
At 2 a.m. the Afghans stop to sleep and rest the horses. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The men unload the animals and bang oat bags around their necks, and then curl up on the grounds tightly wrapped in their patous against the now penetrating wind that sweeps di~wfl the valley. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Afghans, sweat glistening on their bronzed faces shout and whistle at the animals, sometimes remorselessly whipping them up the mountain. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Leaving the main valley, the path now cuts straight up to a high pastured plateau cordoned off by precipitous ridges. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Th~ lop of’ the Diwana flaba pass, a barren, ice-draped corridor, is ~lolstered by monumental gothic ridges. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For millennia, this mainly arid, mountainous country, the size of France, Switzerland and the Benelux countries combined, has absorbed a host of foreign cultures. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
However, they do not face the same sort of domestic political unrest, which ultimately forced France and the United States to term- inate their respective involvements. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Despite avowed concern on the part of the West, the Arab and the Third World nations, world opinion has brought 7 8 little effective pressure on the Soviets to leave. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This took me for a relatively short period through the country, staying at cheap dosshouse hotels and travelling everywhere by bus or on foot. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Only a few weeks before, on 14 September, Hafizullah Amin, then prime minister, had deposed President Nur Mohammad Taraki following a bloody shoot-out at the Presidential Palace. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Following the invasion, I returned to Afghanistan in early January, 1980 on special assignment for The Christian Science Monitor and ABC Radio News to cover the war. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This first took me on an official visa to Afghanistan’s second largest city, Kandahar, in the south. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
This took me on major trips with the mujahideen to the eastern and northern parts of Afghanistan in 1981 and 1982 and the following year to the border areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
My reporting on Afghanistan for The Christian Science Monitor has been criticised occasionally by the Soviet and other East bloc media as ‘malicious’, ‘reactionary’ and a ‘complete fabrication’. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Unbeknown to them, similar operations were being carried out at Bagram airbase to the north, Jalalabad to the east, Kandahar to the south and Shindand to the southwest. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
- But still the war goes on. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
on th outskirts of Kabul, they instructed tank crews to remove the batteries from 200 vehicles for ‘winterisatiOn.’ Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Judging by an inter- view given to an Arab journalist on the morning before the coup, he may still have believed that the military transports, now landing and taking off at ten-minute intervals on the other side of town, were indeed there to aid his rebel-besieged government. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the second half 13 14 The Soviet Invasion move from his city residence to the more fortified Darulaman Palace situated on a 600-foot-high hill not far from the Soviet embassy and five miles from the centre of the capital. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
A somewhat different story has emerged from other quarters. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While long convoys of oil tankers provided for much of the invasion force’s fuel requirements, Soviet pipe-laying battalions — the only army in the world thus equipped — laid up to 30 kilometreS a day of pipe along the Kunduz axis to pump in petrol supplies, a facil- ity such as Rommel could have used to good effect during his North African campaign. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By first light on the 28th, the Soviets had taken all important build- ings and installations in the capital. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Then he smiled and waved us on. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Within twelve months, however, There was little traffic on the main 80 kilometre-long highway, built 17 1 8 The Soviet Invasion the region had deteriorated into a merciless free-fire zone, with the city and its surroundings suffering some of the worst bombardments and fighting of the war. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
We found a relatively modern but empty hotel that had obviously seen better days during the pre-1978 tourist boom which had provided Afghanistan with one of its main sources of hard currency. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Government troops quickly appeared on the scene and shooting broke out. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Coming into town to do some New Year’s shopping in the bazaar, they were dragged from their jeep and lynched on the spot. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
19 r 20 The Soviet Invasion Shortly after dawn on New Year’s Day, the invasion proper of Kandahar began. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Five camouflaged Antonov transports with red star markings were being unloaded by Soviet troops on the slipways that ran parallel with the main highway. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Over a 30-minute period, no fewer than a dozen Mi-8 and Mi-24 helicopter gunships flew in, landed for several minutes without cutting out their engines, probably taking on more ammunition, and then took off again for the northeast. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The communist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was torn by bitter and often bloody in- ternecine strife between the two rival factions: Taraki’s Khalq and Karmal’s Parcham. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
SChOOlS, militarY outpoSts and highway traffic were falling victim to Day by day, the situation was ~~teriorating. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On 11 September 1979, Taraki stopped off in the Russian capital on his return from the non- aligned summit in Havana to meet President Brezhnev and discuss Amin’s replacement. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On 16 September he launched a violent putsch, killing Taraki either in battle or shortly afterwards. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Amin’s fate was definitely sealed, however, The Soviet Invasion when he refused tO grant a Soviet request on io November 1979 for exclusive facilities at Shindand, considered one of Central Asia’s lo- gisticallY most important airbases because of its proximitY to the Ira- nian border and the Gulf. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Indians and the Pakistanis, too, were aware that elab- orate military preparations were in the offing. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
On 23 December, less than 24 hours before the wheels of the Soviet military machine began turning in earnest, Pravda accused the West of fabricating reports of an alleged invasion. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Soviet inter- national standing has never relied on legal niceties, but rather on force and ideology. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Nevertheless, as with many totalitarian regimes past and present, it has tried to justify actions such as Hungary (1956) or Czechoslovakia (1968) based on legalistic terms and agreements. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Officially, the Kremlin claims to have acted according to its treaty obligations with the Kabul regime. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
But it is certain that the Russians were reluctant to hazard yet another Khomeini-style Muslim revival on their doorstep. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Only ten per cent of the Soviet Union’s 45-50 million Muslims are Shiites as in Iran; the rest are Sunni who do not regard Khomeini as a spiritual leader. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
For a nation which maintains numerically the largest navy in the world, access to a warm-water port such as Gwadar in Pakistan’s Baluchistan province would pioneer new frontiers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The USSR has no major open-sea ports which are ice-free throughout the year. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Iran, however, remains the key to the Persian Gulf. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
29 2 THE SOVIET STRATEGY MIGs, HELICOPTER GUNSHIPS AND KALASHNIKOVS Tactics and Objectives Most military analysts have considered the execution of the actual inva- sion as the easiest part; splendidly planned and coordinated, it was the sort of large-scale operation one might expect from a modern army geared for conventional offensive warfare. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The mujahideen in contrast, had the terrain, centuries of fighting tradition and Islamic fervour on their side. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Red Army went into action almost on arrival in certain parts of the country, but it still had to show what kind of war it was willing to pursue. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Still basking in the past glory of having thrown out the communists the year before, they had not expected the Russians to act so quickly in taking advantage of a warm spell which prematurely freed the valley floor. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Furthermore, the Soviets were suffering as many as 10,000 casUalties by the end of 1982. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Deliberate attacks on civilians are similarly part of the Kremlin’s policy of ‘migratory genocide’s designed to rid the coutryside of all inhabitants capable of supporting the mujahideen. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
the mining of a road or an attack on a convoy), by razing villages to the ground, killing cattle or burning crops. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Almost from the start, the Kremlin showed itself to treat all forms of resistance with the same harsh brutality once used by the European colonial powers against their most obdurate native subjects- Not caring whether they killed or terrorised villagers into leaving, the occupation forces unleashed a deliberate policy of 'rubblisation' aimed at emptying the border regions and turning them into a no-man’s land devoid of human habitation except for pro- government enclaves and garrisons. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Frnch doctors and foreign travellers repeatedly commented on the relative ease with which partisan groups, bolder and more experienced as the fighting continued, were able to travel through most rural areas.nch doctors and foreign travellers repeatedly commented on the relative ease with which partisan groups, bolder and more experienced as the fighting continued, were able to travel through most rural areas Afghanistan: The Soviet War
on assignment for TIME magazine, and I noticed no Soviet patrols whatsoever in the surrounding rolling plains of Shamali, even in the middle of the morning. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
With tanks dug in on two sides and a third flank closing off the rear, they machine-gunned those caught in between, killing or wounding over a hundred mujahideen and drivers. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Developing Strategy Despite such anti-insurgent measures, frontier guerrilla operations were not necessarily hindered. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Although many of the district’s inhabitants fled, this did not necessarily halt mujahed activities. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
While numerous mujahed groups persisted with traditional but gener- ally clumsy assaults, others were steadily improving their grasp of modern guerrilla warfare. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Travelling with the guerrillas in Nangrahar province in mid-1980, I found tribesmen panic-stricken by the appearance of gunships on the horizon. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
As the distant chop-chop heralded the machine’s approach, they would urge me to hurry as we trekked through badly rocket-scarred villages. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
what the British painfully learned during their Afghan campaigns in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Flying in pairs, Mi-8s or Mi-24s As with so much else, the Soviets have rediscovered a great deal of Although practised to a lesser degree during the invasion itself, the ‘leap-frog’ the length of the column, providing vehicles with a constant, albeit not necessarily unassailable, form of protection. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Red Army makes systematic use of helicopter cover to escort convoys through vulnerable mountainous areas. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In their efforts to break out, the mujahadeen had coordinated simultaneous attacks on the main garrison at Farah by five other guerrilla groups, comprising a total of 600 men- Thus harassed, the security forces suffered considerable losses, 200 dead and wounded according to the Norwegian, while the mujahideen lost six men, among them a principal local commander. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
If the drivers protested, they were beaten or dragged off to prison as mujahed suspects. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Only among the carpet and souvenir merchants, who rely on foreign customers for their livelihood, is there a sense of openness, although for many it is a matter of hiding their true feelings for the sake of busi- ness. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the initial invasion period, shopkeepers used to greet the Russians with glum faces and invective or demonstrative spitting on the ground. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
When British photographer Peter Jouvenal and I first arrived at his camp nearly five months after the invasion, he scrutinised us with flinty suspicion for several long minutes while our guide explained who we were. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Just before dusk, we arrived at ‘our’ guerrilla compound. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Accompanied by choruses of frogs, the men walked fast, jumping over the gurgling irrigation ditches and mudwalls without breaking stride. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
The Sovi- ets knew better than to leave the security of their base. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Abruptly flicking on its beadlamps, it outlined the cumbersome shapes The moon had set and only a few lights marked the perimeter of the With cries of ‘Allah o Akbar’ over a megaphone, the mujahideen, by 51 ~ ~ whom the mullahs have only limited influence, responded primarily 52 The Guerrilla War of half a dozen other tanks entrenched like squatting toads just outside the wire. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
It seemed doubtful that the Afghans had killed or wounded any Soviets. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Only a smattering of well-led partisan ‘fronts’ under- stood the concept of opposing an ideologically inspired adversary with a mighty military and political machine at its disposal. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Instead, they have turned to Iran for help and inspiration, or have relied on their own resources. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
on tribal structure, operat- ing out rd mainly Pushtun areas; the others are spread among the ‘J44pk, Hazara, Turkmen, Uzbek, and other ethnic groups. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some are visibly Islamic, thus appealing to the more traditionalist and religious elements in the population. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
All that the rest could rely on was a collector’s arsenal of weapons better suited •to a museum. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Guerrilla capability therefore crucially depended on the quality of local leadership. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some com manders rapidly turned their men into smoothly organised and combat-effective resistance formations, while others have developed little or have remained, on the whole, incompetent. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Many mujahed fronts have concentrated on ambushes, the mining of roads, assassinations, rocket attacks against government positions, the beleaguring of towns and general harassment. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Increasingly, mujahideen operating in small but well-trained groups are specialising in urban guerrilla warfare as the most effective way of bringing the war home to the occupation forces- Western visitors to Kabul in the summer of 1984 referred to the capital as a ‘city under siege’ with repeated firing during the day on the outskirts, while the sound of distant mortars or the sight of rockets streaking across the sky were regular features at night. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
During the spring 1984 Soviet offensives against the Panjshair and other areas, mujahideen blocked the Salang Highway for days on end at different points stretching from Kabul to the Soviet border, by destroying entire convoys and blowing up bridges. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Furthermore, resistance taxes levied on government salaries also help foot the cost of the fighting. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
French photographer and traveller Alain Guillo, who has toured parts of Afghanistan regularly since the invasion, reported that on at least two occasions in the late summer of 1982 the resistance evacuated villages in Balkh province at night after normally reliable intelligence reports warned them of an impending attack. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Dubbed more appropriatelY the ‘Jihad Trail,’ a significant portion of guerrilla supplies, ranging from guns and ammunitiOfl to medicines, are brought in by horse, camel and mule trains across the more than 300 traditional caravan routes and goat tracks that lace the mountainous frontier between the two countries. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
in theory, the weapons are passed on to the Pakistanis for distribu tion to the Afghans. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Even those weapons that eventUallY find their way to the resistance fronts are not necessarily free. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Despite communist claims that Pakistan is running ‘hundreds’ of mujahed military camps on its side of the border, this is far from the truth. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Some fronts have managed to procure walkie-talkies to monitor government troop movements or to coordin- ate military operations, but the lack of basic precautions (few seem to change their codes regularly, if they use deception systems at all) raises the risk of being detected by the communists. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Without access to modern communications, most fronts still rely on more traditional means of dispatching or receiving information. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
In the late spring of 1981, the mujahideen scored their first direct rocket hits on the Soviet embassy compound. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Selective sabotage and urban guerrilla attacks were beginning seriously to disrupt city life. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
By the end of the summer of 1982, guerrilla activities in urban areas had surged dramatically, bringing a distinct psychological advantage to the resistance. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Fake accidents were staged in the streets of Kabul; when the police arrived on the scene, hidden mujahideen raked them with bullets. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Guerrilla raids were also becoming more daring. Afghanistan: The Soviet War
Based in the Kabul suburb of Chewakee, he would operate units